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系統識別號 U0026-1511201123443300
論文名稱(中文) 即時全球導航衛星系統軟體無線電接收器之設計與實現及其於干擾與電離層閃焰情況下之應用
論文名稱(英文) Design and Implementation of Real-Time GNSS Software Receiver and its Applications in the Presence of Interference and Ionospheric Scintillation
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 陳育暄
研究生(英文) Yu-Hsuan Chen
學號 n2893106
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 140頁
口試委員 指導教授-莊智清
召集委員-張帆人
口試委員-Per Enge
口試委員-李祖聖
口試委員-王文俊
口試委員-林俊良
口試委員-蔡聖鴻
口試委員-鄭銘揚
口試委員-卓大靖
中文關鍵字 全球導航衛星系統  全球導航衛星系統接收器  軟體無線電  軟體接收器  粒子濾波器演算法  電離層閃焰  雙頻接收器  波束合成  控制接收增益陣列天線  空時適應性處理 
英文關鍵字 GNSS  GNSS receiver  software radio  software receiver  particle filter  ionospheric scintillation  dual-frequency receiver  beamforming  CRPA  STAP 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著全球導航衛星系統的發展,衛星的數量隨之增加,其訊號也跟著變的多元與複雜。另外,全球導航衛星系統之訊號是相對微弱的,容易受到惡意或無意的干擾影響使之無法正常接收。再者,劇烈的太陽活動使得電離層極不穩定,導致訊號的振幅急遽的變化,此現象稱之為電離層閃焰。由於以上之原因,現今具有強健性的全球衛星系統接收器是難以設計的。軟體無線電是一種設計無線電系統的方法,其主要的目的在簡化硬體的元件,之後將其餘的運算用軟體來實現。因此,軟體無線電系統具有彈性與多元化的優點。在此篇論文中,將設計與實現全球導航衛星系統之軟體接收器,並將其應用在對二元偏置載頻訊號之電碼鑑別器設計、抗電離層閃爍效應、雙頻段、抗干擾。其挑戰在於如何達到即時性以及各應用的性能。對於電碼鑑別器設計,本文提出一種基於多相關器架構與最佳化編程之適應性法則,其作用在於降低錯誤鎖定在旁峰的機率,與達到最佳化的追蹤誤差以及多路徑效應的性能。此鑑別器將由DSP/FPGA的平台實現,並接收真實的Galileo訊號來驗證。對於電離層閃焰,本文提出一種基於粒子濾波器演算法的估測器來估測訊號振幅變動,此方法在劇烈的電離層閃爍環境下,提供強鍵的追蹤性能,此法則使用已知的電離層閃爍模型以及MATLAB程式來做模擬驗證。對於雙頻,本文實現首次使用民用L5訊號來定位的軟體接收器,並使用L1/L5雙頻組合去除虛擬距離中的電離層延遲,此雙頻接收器接收GPS/WAAS訊號作後處理驗證。對於干擾,本文實現了兩個接收器以控制天線接收增益來做波束合成,並撰寫平行運算程式,使之可達到即時性能。實驗結果顯示此接收器能夠抗強度高的干擾訊號以及多個干擾源。
英文摘要 The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has undergone continuous evolution as witnessed by the planned deployment of additional constellations and broadcasting of new signals for enhanced performance. Nevertheless, GNSS signals remain relatively weak and vulnerable to deliberate and/or unintentional interferences. In addition, severe sun activity will perturb the ionosphere and cause the scintillation effect which leads to rapid changes in amplitude and phase of GNSS signals. Thus, the design of a robust GNSS receiver against interferences and scintillation is essential. The software radio which is noted by its flexibility and diversity is an approach to design a radio system by reducing the hardware components and exploiting the computational power of processor. In this dissertation, techniques in code discriminator design for binary offset carrier (BOC) signals, detection scheme in accounting for data intermittency, and multithread implementation to meet real-time requirements are developed. The techniques are implemented in GNSS software-based receivers using DSP/FPGA-based and PC-based platforms. The software receivers are then applied to account for scintillation mitigation, dual-band signal reception, and interference rejection. For code discriminator design, an adaptive scheme based on multi-correlator architecture and optimization programming is proposed. Benefits of such code discriminator include reducing the chance of false lock on side peaks and obtaining optimal performance of tracking error and multipath. This code discriminator is implemented by a DSP/FPGA-based software receiver and examined by receiving real Galileo signal. For scintillation, a particle filter based approach used to estimate the rapid change of signal amplitude is proposed. This approach leads to robust tracking on GNSS signal under sever scintillation situation. For dual-band signal reception, the first receiver that is capable of positioning using L5 signal is implemented. The dual-frequency L1/L5 combination is made to eliminate the ionosphere delay. The dual-band software receiver is examined by receiving GPS/WAAS signal and running in the post-processing mode. For interference rejection, two kinds of real-time software receiver implementations for controlled reception pattern antenna array processing (CRPA) are made to validate the beamforming algorithm. Experimental results show that the receiver is capable of rejecting multiple interferences with high interference-to-signal ratio (I/S).
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract iii
Acknowledgement v
Contents vi
List of Figures ix
List of Tables xii
List of Abbreviation xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Global Navigation Satellite System and Signals 1
1.2 Software Radio 3
1.3 Architecture of GNSS Software Receiver and Literature Survey 4
1.4 Motivation 5
1.5 Contributions 6
1.6 Organization 7
Chapter 2 Design and Implementation of an Adaptive Code Discriminator in a DSP/FPGA-Based Galileo Receiver 9
2.1 Code Tracking Design 10
2.2 Design Results 19
2.2.1 Discriminator Design I 20
2.2.2 Discriminator Design II 23
2.3 Adaptive Switching Logic 27
2.4 Implementation and Test 28
2.5 Test Results 30
2.6 Summary 32
Chapter 3 PC-Based Real-time Software Receiver 33
3.1 Software Architecture 34
3.1.1 Software Correlator 36
3.1.2 Tracking Procedure 39
3.2 Data Intermittency Issue 43
3.3 Solving the Data Intermittency 44
3.4 Experimental Results 46
3.5 Summary 50
Chapter 4 Robust GNSS Signal Tracking against Scintillation Effects by a Particle Filter Based Software Receiver Approach 51
4.1 Scintillation Effect 52
4.2 Introduction of Particle Filter 53
4.3 Using Particle Filter for Carrier Tracking in a Software Receiver 55
4.4 Simulation of Signal Generator and Receiver with Scintillation 58
4.5 Summary 62
Chapter 5 Dual-Frequency (L1/L5) GPS/WAAS Software Receiver 63
5.1 Signal Specification and Status of GPS/WAAS L5 Signal 64
5.2 Strategy of Positioning Using L5 Signal 66
5.3 Description of Signal Collection Hardware 67
5.4 Software Architecture 68
5.5 Assistance Mechanism between L1 and L5 71
5.6 Solving the Time Offset between GPS Time and WAAS Time 72
5.7 Solving the Time Offset between L1 and L5 74
5.8 Positioning Result of Dual Frequency Software Receiver 75
5.9 Summary 76
Chapter 6 Software Receiver for GPS Controlled Reception Pattern Antenna Array Processing 79
6.1 Introduction 80
6.2 Beamforming Algorithm Used in the Software Receiver 82
6.3 Obtaining the Steering Vector without a Prior Calibration 86
6.4 Implementation I 88
6.4.1 Hardware Architecture 88
6.4.2 Software Architecture 90
6.4.2.1 Weight and Sum Code Example 92
6.5 Implementation II 93
6.5.1 Hardware Architecture 94
6.5.2 Software Architecture 96
6.5.2.1 Automatic Gain Control 98
6.5.2.2 Software Correlator 98
6.5.2.3 Acquisition/Tracking and Positioning 102
6.5.2.4 ICP Initialization and Calculation of Differential ICP 103
6.5.2.5 Adaptive MVDR Beamforming 104
6.5.2.6 Weight and Sum 107
6.5.2.7 Bias Calibration 107
6.5.2.8 Calculation of Angle-Frequency Response 108
6.5.2.9 Multi-Threaded Programming for Real-time Validation 109
6.6 Calibration of Antenna Array by Carrier Phase Precise Positioning 110
6.7 Analysis of Thread Activities and Timing Performance 112
6.7.1 Implementation I 112
6.7.2 Implementation II 114
6.8 Experimental Results 116
6.8.1 Implementation I 116
6.8.1.1 Experiment I – Enhancing C/No 117
6.8.1.2 Experiment II – Rejecting Interference 119
6.8.2 Implementation II 121
6.8.2.1 Scenario I – Single High I/S Interference 122
6.8.2.2 Scenario II – Multiple Interferences 125
6.9 Summary 127
Chapter 7 Conclusions 129
References 131
Publication List 138
Vita 140
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