||Evaluation of finger tendon movement by using high frequency ultrasound vector Doppler imaging
||Department of BioMedical Engineering
High frequency ultrasound
Ultrafast ultrasound imaging
Vector Doppler imaging
The formation of adhesion between tendon and surrounding tissue in patient will influence tendon motion and further decrease effect of rehabilitation. The displacement of tendon is the most direct information about tendon moment. Therefore, the ability of measuring hand tendon movement by medical instruments would provide important information for clinicians and patients to evaluate the performance of rehabilitation.
Ultrasound imaging can provide dynamic and real-time images. In previous studies, there have been numerous studies applying ultrasound imaging to measure tendon motion.
However, because of the limitation of center frequency in traditional ultrasound, previous studies only measured the tendon longitudinal displacement and neglected the transverse rotation. However, the twisting structure and transverse rotation make force transmission more efficient. Moreover, the method measuring tendon displacement: tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking is not enough to measure the tendon transverse rotation accurately. Thus, the study proposes that applying high frequency ultrasound vector Doppler imaging to estimate the hand tendon motion in longitudinal and transverse view.
At first, we applied a phantom rotated in uniform circular motion to simulate tendon rotation and examine the accuracy of vector Doppler imaging. Because tendon and compared the results at different rotational speed. In human study, we measured flexor tendon longitudinal displacement and transverse rotation in normal subjects in different hand motion.
Moreover, we discussed the performance of the technique and meaning of physiology.
In longitudinal view, we analyzed the longitudinal displacement distribution in flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus tendons through the technique. In transverse view, we measured the direction and magnitude of tendon rotation in different joint motion. However, the hand structure is very complicated. Moreover, we observed hand tendon transverse rotation accompany deformation and translation. The phenomena make that measuring the tendon more difficult. However, the technique still demonstrates the feasibility and potential for measuring tendon transverse rotation.
摘要 ................ II
Contents ............... VI
List of Figures............. VIII
List of Tables .............. X
Chapter 1 Introduction ........... 1
1.1. The Structure and Importance of Tendons....... 1
1.2. Human Tendon Imaging Modalities ........ 2
1.3. Motivation and Objectives......... 4
Chapter 2 Theoretical Foundation.......... 6
2.1. Ultrasound ............. 6
2.1.1. Reflection, Refraction and Attenuation ....... 7
2.1.2. Doppler Effect ........... 9
2.1.3. Ultrasound Transducer......... 10
2.2. Ultrasound Imaging ........... 13
2.2.1. A-mode, B-mode and M-mode........ 13
2.2.2. Doppler Ultrasound ......... 15
2.3. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging ........ 17
2.3.1. Plane Wave Transmission ........ 17
2.3.2. Coherent Plane Wave Compounding....... 18
Chapter 3 Materials and Methods .......... 22
3.1. System Configuration .......... 22
3.2. Vector Doppler Imaging .......... 23
3.3. Phantom Validation.......... 25
3.4. Human Experiment.......... 26
Chapter 4 Results ............. 28
4.1. Phantom Validation.......... 28
4.2. Human Experiment in Longitudinal View....... 30
4.3. Human Experiment in Transverse View ...... 33
Chapter 5 Discussion............ 37
Chapter 6 Conclusion ........... 40
Chapter 7 Future Work ........... 41
References ............... 42
 D. Amini, "Occupational Therapy Interventions for Work-Related Injuries and Conditions of the Forearm, Wrist, and Hand: A Systematic Review," American Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 29-36, 2011.
 M. A. Hardy, "Principles of Metacarpal and Phalangeal Fracture Management: A Review of Rehabilitation Concepts," Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 781-799, 2004.
 V. Schöffl, A. Heid, and T. Küpper, "Tendon injuries of the hand," (in eng), World J Orthop, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 62-69, 2012.
 P. Kannus, "Structure of the tendon connective tissue," Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 312-320, 2000/12/01 2000.
 J. J. Budovec, G. S. Sudakoff, W. W. Dzwierzynski, H. S. Matloub, and J. R. Sanger, "Sonographic Differentiation of Digital Tendon Rupture From Adhesive Scarring After Primary Surgical Repair," The Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 524-529, 2006/04/01/ 2006.
 B. Neumayer et al., "Reducing acquisition time for MRI-based forensic age estimation," Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 2063, 2018/02/01 2018.
 W. Grassi, E. Filippucci, A. Farina, and C. Cervini, "Sonographic imaging of tendons," Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 969-976, 2000.
 C. Martinoli, S. Bianchi, M. H. Dahmane, F. Pugliese, M. Bianchi-Zamorani, and M. Valle, "Ultrasound of tendons and nerves," European Radiology, journal article vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 44-55, January 01 2002.
 S. Bianchi, C. Martinoli, R. de Gautard, and C. Gaignot, "Ultrasound of the digital flexor system: Normal and pathological findings()," (in eng), J Ultrasound, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 85-92, 2007.
 W. D. Middleton, S. A. Teefey, and M. I. Boyer, "Hand and wrist sonography," (in eng), Ultrasound quarterly, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 21-36, Mar 2001.
 Y. Yoshii, H. R. Villarraga, J. Henderson, C. Zhao, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, "Speckle tracking ultrasound for assessment of the relative motion of flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue in the human carpal tunnel," Ultrasound Med Biol, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1973-81, Dec 2009.
 J.-W. H. Korstanje, T. R. Schreuders, J. van der Sijde, S. E. R. Hovius, J. G. Bosch, and R. W. Selles, "Ultrasonographic Assessment of Long Finger Tendon Excursion in Zone V During Passive and Active Tendon Gliding Exercises," The Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 559-565, 2010/04/01/ 2010.
 M. H. van Doesburg, Y. Yoshii, J. Henderson, H. R. Villarraga, S. L. Moran, and P. C. Amadio, "Speckle-tracking sonographic assessment of longitudinal motion of the flexor tendon and subsynovial tissue in carpal tunnel syndrome," (in eng), Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1091-8, Jul 2012.
 K. J. Stegman, S. Djurickovic, and N. Dechev, "In Vivo Estimation of Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Tendon Displacement with Speckle Tracking on 2-D Ultrasound Images Using Laplacian, Gaussian and Rayleigh Techniques," Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 568-582, 2014/03/01/ 2014.
 T. Y. Lai, H. I. Chen, C. C. Shih, L. C. Kuo, H. Y. Hsu, and C. C. Huang, "Application of a novel Kalman filter based block matching method to ultrasound images for hand tendon displacement estimation," Medical Physics, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 148-158, Jan 2016.
 T. Y. Lai, H. I. Chen, C. C. Shih, L. C. Kuo, H. Y. Hsu, and C. C. Huang, "A Novel Adhesion Index for Verifying the Extent of Adhesion for the Extensor Digitorum Communis in Patients with Metacarpal Fractures," Sci Rep, vol. 6, p. 31102, Aug 5 2016.
 M. Edama et al., "The twisted structure of the human Achilles tendon," Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. e497-e503, 2015/10/01 2015.
 L. Lantieri, H. Hennebert, D. Le Viet, and H. Guérin-Surville, "A study of the orientation of the fibers of the flexor carpi radialis tendon: Anatomy and clinical applications," Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 85-89, 1993/06/01 1993.
 M. N. Dean, E. Azizi, and A. P. Summers, "Uniform strain in broad muscles: active and passive effects of the twisted tendon of the spotted ratfish Hydrolagus colliei," Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 210, no. 19, pp. 3395-3406, 2007.
 S. J. Obst, J.-B. Renault, R. Newsham-West, and R. S. Barrett, "Three-dimensional deformation and transverse rotation of the human free Achilles tendon in vivo during isometric plantarflexion contraction," Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 376-384, 2014/02/15 2013.
 C. Shih, C. Huang, Q. Zhou, and K. K. Shung, "High-Resolution Acoustic-Radiation-Force-Impulse Imaging for Assessing Corneal Sclerosis," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1316-1324, 2013.
 C.-C. Huang et al., "Evaluation of Lens Hardness in Cataract Surgery using High-Frequency Ultrasonic Parameters in Vitro," Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1609-1616, 2007/10/01/ 2007.
 A. Mandava, P. R. Ravuri, and R. Konathan, "High-resolution ultrasound imaging of cutaneous lesions," (in eng), Indian J Radiol Imaging, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 269-277, Jul-Sep 2013.
 C.-C. Shih, T.-Y. Lai, and C.-C. Huang, "Evaluating the intensity of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging: Preliminary in vitro results," Ultrasonics, vol. 70, pp. 64-74, 2016/08/01/ 2016.
 C. Chang, P. Chen, H. Huang, and C. Huang, "In Vivo Visualization of Vasculature in Adult Zebrafish by Using High-Frequency Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 1742-1751, 2019.
 S. L. Viviano, L. K. Chandler, and J. D. Keith, "Ultrahigh Frequency Ultrasound Imaging of the Hand: A New Diagnostic Tool for Hand Surgery," HAND, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 720-725, 2018/11/01 2017.
 A. Swillens, P. Segers, H. Torp, and L. Lovstakken, "Two-dimensional blood velocity estimation with ultrasound: speckle tracking versus crossed-beam vector doppler based on flow simulations in a carotid bifurcation model," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 327-339, 2010.
 B. Dunmire, K. W. Beach, K. H. Labs, M. Plett, and D. E. Strandness, "Cross-beam vector Doppler ultrasound for angle-independent velocity measurements," Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1213-1235, 2000/10/01/ 2000.
 A. Eranki et al., "Measurement of tendon velocities using vector Tissue Doppler Imaging: A feasibility study," in 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 2010, pp. 5310-5313.
 B. Y. Yiu, S. S. Lai, and A. C. Yu, "Vector projectile imaging: time-resolved dynamic visualization of complex flow patterns," Ultrasound Med Biol, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 2295-309, Sep 2014.
 J. A. Ketterling et al., "High-speed, high-frequency ultrasound, in utero vector-flow imaging of mouse embryos," Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 16658, 2017/11/30 2017.
 B. Y. S. Yiu and A. C. H. Yu, "Spiral Flow Phantom for Ultrasound Flow Imaging Experimentation," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 1840-1848, Dec 2017.
 A. Carovac, F. Smajlovic, and D. Junuzovic, "Application of ultrasound in medicine," (in eng), Acta Inform Med, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 168-171, 2011.
 K. K. Shung, Diagnostic Ultrasound: Imaging and Blood Flow Measurements. Taylor & Francis, 2006.
 C. R. Merritt, "Doppler US: the basics," RadioGraphics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 109-119, 1991.
 D. S. Babcock, H. Patriquin, M. LaFortune, and M. Dauzat, "Power doppler sonography: basic principles and clinical applications in children," (in eng), Pediatric radiology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 109-15, 1996.
 J. Bercoff, "Ultrafast ultrasound imaging," Ultrasound imaging-Medical applications, pp. 3-24, 2011.
 B. Delannoy, R. Torguet, C. Bruneel, and E. Bridoux, "Ultrafast Electronical Image Reconstruction Device," in Echocardiology, C. T. Lancée, Ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1979, pp. 447-450.
 B. Delannoy, R. Torguet, C. Bruneel, E. Bridoux, J. M. Rouvaen, and H. Lasota, "Acoustical image reconstruction in parallel‐processing analog electronic systems," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 3153-3159, 1979/05/01 1979.
 D. P. Shattuck, M. D. Weinshenker, S. W. Smith, and O. T. von Ramm, "Explososcan: a parallel processing technique for high speed ultrasound imaging with linear phased arrays," (in eng), The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 1273-82, Apr 1984.
 J. Y. Lu and J. F. Greenleaf, "Pulse-echo imaging using a nondiffracting beam transducer," (in eng), Ultrasound Med Biol, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 265-81, 1991.
 G. R. Lockwood, J. R. Talman, and S. S. Brunke, "Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging using sparse synthetic aperture beamforming," (in eng), IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 980-8, 1998.
 M. Tanter, J. Bercoff, L. Sandrin, and M. Fink, "Ultrafast compound imaging for 2-D motion vector estimation: application to transient elastography," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1363-1374, 2002.
 J. Bercoff et al., "In vivo breast tumor detection using transient elastography," (in eng), Ultrasound Med Biol, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1387-96, Oct 2003.
 G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, J. Bercoff, N. Benech, and M. Fink, "Coherent plane-wave compounding for very high frame rate ultrasonography and transient elastography," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 489-506, 2009.
 C. Kasai, K. Namekawa, A. Koyano, and R. Omoto, "Real-Time Two-Dimensional Blood Flow Imaging Using an Autocorrelation Technique," IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 458-464, 1985.
 D. H. Evans, "Colour flow and motion imaging," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, vol. 224, no. 2, pp. 241-253, 2010.
 T.-H. Yang et al., "Assessing Finger Joint Biomechanics by Applying Equal Force to Flexor Tendons In Vitro Using a Novel Simultaneous Approach," PLOS ONE, vol. 11, no. 8, p. e0160301, 2016.
 P.-L. Kuo, D. L. Lee, D. L. Jindrich, and J. T. Dennerlein, "Finger joint coordination during tapping," Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 39, no. 16, pp. 2934-2942, 2006/01/01/ 2006.