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系統識別號 U0026-1508201212261300
論文名稱(中文) 從媽媽購物行為來探討母愛的神經機轉 - 一個fMRI的研究
論文名稱(英文) The neural substrates of maternal love in shopping: Mother's willingness to pay for her child vs. for herself - an fMRI study
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系認知科學碩士班
系所名稱(英) MS in Cognitive Science
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 葉丁瑞
研究生(英文) Ding-Ruey Yeh
學號 U76994039
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 口試委員-翁明宏
口試委員-林君昱
指導教授-龔俊嘉
中文關鍵字 功能性磁振造影  購物  母愛 
英文關鍵字 fMRI  shopping  maternal love 
學科別分類
中文摘要 大多數的媽媽會對於他們的小孩給予較多地關注和花費較金錢在小孩身上,這反映出母愛的力量,這是常見的一個現象。但這樣的行為涉及所涉及的神經機制是什麼?第一篇fMRI母愛研究是由Lorberbaum等人(1999)所進行。他們探討在老鼠研究所發現的母愛迴路(thalamus - cingulate),是否也會在人類大腦中發現。他們使用小孩哭聲當做刺激,當聽到小孩哭聲相較於白噪音時,只發現 cingulate有較大的活化,但視丘(thalamus)沒有活化。2002年Lorberbaum等人再次進行實驗,受試者的個數增加(4->10),且媽媽皆為剛生完小孩( < 2month)。此次他們發現了當媽媽聽到小孩的哭聲時,母愛的神經迴路相較於白噪音有較大的活化。在視覺刺激上,Bartels與Zeki(2004)進行了第一次的研究,讓受試者觀看自己小孩與他人小孩的照片,發現當觀看自己小孩的照片時,導水管周圍皮質(periaqueductal gray, PAG)相較於觀看他人小孩的照片有較高的活化,這一點,Noriuchi等人在2008年使用無聲影片也獲得驗證。在媽媽購物的研究上,Liu等人2000年發現,媽媽相較自己而言會花較多的錢在避免小孩罹患疾病。但從過去的文獻,似乎還沒有人以媽媽購物行為來探討母愛的神經機制。
本研究共招募22位媽媽受試者(其中20位只有一個小孩),年齡範圍介於25-40歲,平均年齡31.6歲,標準差3.7歲。媽媽受試者皆養育一位1-5歲的小孩。在購物作業,共有200張圖片(小孩物品100張、媽媽物品100張)
受試者只有八秒決定是否購買。實驗設計為緩慢的事件相關設計(slow event-related design)。fMRI資料會進行General Linear Model和voxelwise correlation
研究結果發現,購物行為上,受試者相較於自己物品會購買較多的小孩物品,不論是數量還是金錢。在fMRI的資料上,第一、當受試者看到小孩物品時,大腦中母愛迴路與PAG相較於看到媽媽物品會有較高的活化。在相關分析上,在受試者看到小孩物品和媽媽物品時,insula的Δβ與母愛指數(d’)有顯著正相關。第二、當受試者購買物品的時候,insula相較於不購買有較高的活化。在相關分析結果,發現到購買vs.不購買的Δβ與母愛指數(d’)有顯著負相關。
本研究有三點發現,第一、行為上,媽媽相較於自己而言會花較多的錢和買較多的物品給小孩;第二、使用媽媽購物行為,發現當媽媽購買小孩物品時相較於自己物品大腦中的母愛迴路會有較大的活化;第三、在媽媽購買時相較於不購買,insula會有較高的活化。驗證了Knutson等人2007年的研究發現。
英文摘要 It is well known that most mothers pay more attention and spend more money on their children than on themselves, reflecting the power of maternal love. But what are the brain mechanisms involved? Lorberbaum et al.(1999)do the first maternal love experiment using fMRI. Building on the thalamo-cingulate theory of maternal behavior in animals, they predicted that other baby cries would activate thalamus and cingulate in mothers. With cry versus the white noise, only cingulate activated , but thalamus did not activated. In 2002, Lorberbaum et al. used a larger sample(4 -> 10), and the participants are the first-time mother with infants 1-2months old. With cry versus the white noise, the thalamus and cingulate activated. In the baby visual stimuli research, Bartels & Zeki(2004) had subjects see the picture or video of own child vs. other child; and identified the periaqueductal gray (PAG), among other brain regions, as one of the important areas of maternal attachment (also see Noriuchi, Kikuchi, & Senoo, 2008). In mother’s shopping, although Liu et al. (2000)’s behavioral study found the mother’s willingness-to-pay for her child is higher than that for herself, to our knowledge no neuroimaging study has addressed the maternal love in shopping behavior yet.

Subjects Twenty-two mothers(mean age : 31.6 years; SD: 3.7; range: 25 – 40 yrs), whose single child was 1 – 5 years old. All mother subjects have normal mental or psychiatric history, and gave written informed consent before the experiment. Subjects were recruited by online advertisement, and were paid for their participation.

Stimuli There are two item categories in the present experiment: mother items include cosmetics and adult clothes, whereas children items include toys and children clothes. Items were primarily selected from the local online shopping websites, with the list price (by NT$) used in the current study. Sum of the money for children and for mother items were equated so the ratio of money purchased could be used later in the analysis. We used slow event-related design for the fMRI experiment. We adopt two analysis strategies for the study: General Linear Model and voxelwise correlation.

Behavioral results Subjects averagely bought 54.4 ±17.7 children items and 32.2 ±18.2 mother items. The percentage of products purchased for each category differed significantly (p < .001). In addition, the total price of children-buying items was significantly higher than those of mother-buyings. (p < .001).

fMRI results First, with children item versus mothers item ,thalamus, cingulate, and PAG activated. In the correlation analysis, the insula highly positive correlated with children item vs. mothers item (p < .05). Second, with buying versus not buying, the insula deactivated. In the correlation analysis, , the insula highly negative correlated with buying vs. not-buying (p < .05).

Discussion
We started with three predictions on (a) behaviorally more buying toward children items than mother items; (b) in terms of brain activation, we expected the neural substrates of maternal love to be involved in both the “children- vs. mother-items” contrast and the maternal buying behavior; and (c) insular negatively involved with “buying vs. not-buying” contrast, and inversely correlated with maternal buying behavior.
論文目次 第一章 諸論1
1.1愛的關係:從愛情到母愛1
1.2 催產素與母愛行為的關聯2
1.3 母愛與功能性磁振造影3
1.4 母愛與金錢上的花費 7
1.5購物行為與功能性磁振造影 7
1.6研究假設10
第二章 研究方法與設計11
2.1受試者11
2.2購物作業12
2.3嘗試程序13
2.4 fMRI實驗儀器及參數14
2.5 fMRI影像數據前處理16
2.6 fMRI影像數據分析17
第三章 研究結果19
3.1 購物行為19
3.2 fMRI實驗結果20
3.2.1小孩物品vs. 媽媽物品20
3.2.2 購買vs.不購買23
3.2.3 購買小孩物品vs.購買媽媽物品26
第四章 討論30
4.1 結果討論30
4.1.1 母愛與購物行為32
4.1.2母愛、購物行為與fMRI32
4.1.2.1“看見小孩物品“相較於“看見媽媽物品”33
4.1.2.2“購買“相較於“不購買”33
4.1.2.3 “購買小孩物品“相較於“購買媽媽物品”33
4.1.2.4結果總論34
4.2 綜合討論35
第五章 研究限制與未來展望38
5.1 fMRI的設計38
5.2實驗設計40
5.3小孩商品41
5.4父愛41
5.5 依附關係與小孩照顧者41
5.6 購物金的限制42
參考文獻.43
附錄一:網路招募廣告46
附錄二:施測流程48
附錄三:基本資料問卷49
附錄四:功能性磁振造影-受測安全性問卷50
附錄五:刺激圖片55
附錄六:分析步驟65

參考文獻 中文文獻:
邱靖惠。給錢生不生?解析台灣育兒家庭經濟支持政策。【在兒童福利聯
盟文教基金會期刊】。取
http://www.children.org.tw/upload/File/researcher/3vision2-1-2.pdf。

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