進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-1508201200074400
論文名稱(中文) 二仁溪河水溶解鉛之分布及來源
論文名稱(英文) Distribution and sources of dissolved-Pb in the Erren river water
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 陳易正
研究生(英文) Yi-Cheng Chen
學號 l46991126
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 61頁
口試委員 指導教授-游鎮烽
口試委員-楊懷仁
口試委員-何恭算
中文關鍵字 鉛同位素  溶解相  二仁溪 
英文關鍵字 Pb isotopes  dissolved phase  Erren river 
學科別分類
中文摘要 重金屬鉛在人體累積過多會對神經系統以及認知能力造成不良的影響,透過樣本中的鉛濃度以及鉛同位素分析與各端源成分之鉛同位素成分比較,可以有效劃分各個端源成分對分析物的影響程度。自從含鉛汽油禁止使用,許多文獻透過鉛濃度以及鉛同位素比值顯示,中國煤的燃燒已逐漸取代含鉛汽油而成為影響東亞都市大氣懸浮微粒甚至太平洋表水鉛同位素組成之主要因素。
二仁溪為台灣西南部汙染嚴重河川之一,本研究於2010年7月中旬系統性採集二仁溪河水樣本,並於成功大學地科系館頂樓收集雨水樣本、於二仁溪河川中上游附近露頭採集岩石樣本,分別作為大氣懸浮微粒沉降以及圍岩風化來源端源成分之依據。本研究初步利用主量元素探討海鹽貢獻以及圍岩風化行為對二仁溪化學特性分布的影響,並分析鉛濃度以及鉛同位素搭配前人文獻,探討二仁溪溶解相鉛的來源。
研究結果顯示,二仁溪中上游溶解相鉛之同位素比值範圍分別為206Pb/207Pb: 1.145~1.175; 208Pb/207Pb: 2.420~2.475,落於圍岩風化(自然源)以及交通工具排放(人為源)兩端源成分之混合線上,另外雨水(可能為工廠排放、車輛排放以及大氣粉塵之混合結果) 之鉛同位素比值與河水最接近,亦扮演一重要角色。與東亞各大都市大氣氣溶膠以及太平洋表水鉛同位素成分作圖發現,表水溶解鉛之同位素比值分布範圍廣,顯示為多來源混合的結果,且此區域之鉛同位素比值相當一致,顯示各城市受到類似的重金屬鉛來源影響。
英文摘要 The heavy metal lead (Pb) harms the nervous system and cognitive ability if accumulated too much in human body. The degree of influence in study samples can be estimated effectively by the isotopic compositions and concentration of Pb if the end-member components were known. Since the phased out of leaded gasoline in major cities in China, replaced by coal combustion or other power sources, the distributions of Pb isotope compositions and Pb concentration in aerosols derived from eastern Asia countries, as well as surface water in western Pacific, have been impacted seriously.
The Erren River is one of the most polluted rivers in southwestern Taiwan. This study collected the surface water systematically in mid July, 2010, as well as rain waters on the roof of Department of Cheng Kung University and ambient rocks nearby the midstream and the upstream Erren River, as the end-member compositions of atmospheric depositions and ambient weathering rocks. This study discusses the contribution of sea salt and ambient rocks using major ions in river waters. Then the sources of dissolved phase Pb in the Erren river waters were examined by analyze Pb concentration and isotopes to combine with previous study.
The results show that the isotope ratio of Pb in dissolved phase in the midstream and upstream are in a range of 1.145~1.175 for 206Pb/207Pb; 2.420~2.475 for 208Pb/207Pb, respectively. These isotopic compositions are fall into a mixing line of two sources, weathering ambient rocks (natural source) and vehicle exhaust (anthropogenic source). In addition, rain waters have similar values as the river water and reflect mixing of plant emission, vehicle exhaust and atmospheric aerosol. Dissolved Pb in the Erren river waters showed wide range of isotopic compositions compared with aerosols collected from industrial countries in eastern Asia and surface water of western Pacific indicate that they may have experienced similar multiple sources mixing processes. Furthermore, theses consistent of Pb isotopic compositions indicate similar Pb sources in these regions.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 V
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Sources and influences of Pb 2
1.2 Applications of Pb isotopes 4
1.3 The purpose of this study 12
Chapter 2. Study area 13
2.1 Background of the Erren drainage basin 13
2.2 Sampling sites and geological settings of the study area 14
2.3 Climate in southwestern Taiwan 17
Chapter 3. Method 19
3.1 Sample pretreatment 19
3.2 Pb extraction 21
3.2.1 Recovery of the column 22
3.3 Instrumental analysis 23
3.3.1 Major cations 23
3.3.2 Major anions 24
3.3.3 Trace elements 24
3.3.4 Pb isotopes 26
3.4 The accuracy and precision 30
Chapter 4. Results and discussion 32
4.1 Water chemical compositions 33
4.2 Major ion 35
4.2.1 The composition and distribution of major elements 35
4.2.2 Contribution of seasalt 39
4.2.3 Contribution of weathering 42
4.3 Trace metals 44
4.4 Pb isotopic compositions 46
4.4.1 Pb sources 46
4.4.2 Pb isotope of aerosols and surface waters 50
Chapter 5. Conclusion 52
References 55
Appendices 60

參考文獻 李欣珮 (2008) 氣候圍岩差異對台灣三個河源上游化學風化的影響。國立成功大學地球科學所碩士論文,共101頁。
何壯怡 (2008) 高屏近岸海域微量金屬之分佈與控制機制。國立中山大學海洋地質及化學研究所碩士論文,共130頁。
周建良 (2008) 台灣西南部二仁溪流域盆地的沉積物風化與河水化學。國立成功大學地球科學所碩士論文,共100頁。
郭天樂 (2011) 鋅同位素在台灣南部二仁溪中的來源與分布特性。國立成功大學地球科學所碩士論文,共75頁。
劉郁青 (2011) 硼同位素在台灣南部高屏溪及二仁溪流域之分布特性。國立成功大學地球科學所碩士論文,共81頁
鍾小良 (2002) 二仁溪河水地球化學和同位素初探。國立成功大學地球科學所碩士論文,共85頁。
鍾全雄 (2007) 高精密無機質譜儀在地球科學及海洋科學研究上的應用。中國化學會期刊,第65卷第二期,頁113~124。

Ault, W. U., Senechal, R.G., Erlebach, W.E. (1970). "Isotopic Composition as a Natural Tracer of Lead in the Environment." Environmental Science and Technology 4: 305–313.
Baeyens, W., Leermakers, M., Gieter, M. D., Nguyen, H. L., Parmentier, K., Panutrakul, S. and Elskens, M. (2005). "Overview of trace metal contamination in the Scheldt estuary and effect of regulatory measures." Hydrobiologia 540(1): 141-154.
Bird, G. (2011). "Provenancing anthropogenic Pb within the fluvial environment: developments and challenges in the use of Pb isotopes." Environ Int 37(4): 802-819.
Bollhöfer, A. and Rosman, K. J. R. (2001). "Isotopic source signatures for atmospheric lead: the Northern Hemisphere." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65(11): 1727-1740.
Bollhofer, A. and Rosman, K. J. R. (2001). "Isotopic source signatures for atmospheric lead The Northern Hemisphere."
Chen, J., Tan, M., Li, Y., Zhang, Y., Lu, W., Tong, Y. and Zhang, G. (2005). "A lead isotope record of shanghai atmospheric lead emissions in total suspended particles during the period of phasing out of leaded gasoline." Atmospheric Environment 39(7): 1245-1253.
Cheng, H. and Hu, Y. (2010). "Lead (Pb) isotopic fingerprinting and its applications in lead pollution studies in China: a review." Environ Pollut 158(5): 1134-1146.
Cumming, G. L. and Richards, J. R. (1975). "Ore lead isotope ratios in a continuously changing earth." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 28(2): 155-171.
Faure, G. (1977). Principles of isotope geology.
Flegal, A. R. and Smith, D. R. (1995). "Measurements of Environmental Lead Contamination and Human Exposure." Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 143: 1-45.
Gaillardet, J., Dupré, B., Louvat, P. and Allègre, C. J. (1999). "Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers." Chemical Geology 159(1–4): 3-30.
Gale, N. H. (1996). "A new method for extracting and purifying lead from difficult matrices for isotopic analysis." Analytica Chimica Acta 332: 15-21.
Gallon, C., Ranville, M. A., Conaway, C. H., Landing, W. M., Buck, C. S., Morton, P. L. and Flegal, A. R. (2011). "Asian Industrial Lead Inputs to the North Pacific Evidenced by Lead Concentrations and Isotopic Compositions in Surface Waters and Aerosols." Environmental Science & Technology 45(23): 9874-9882.
Godwin, H. A. (2001). "The biological chemistry of lead." Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 5(2): 223-227.
Graham, M. C., Vinogradoff, S. I., Chipchase, A. J., Dunn, S. M., Bacon, J. R. and Farmer, J. G. (2006). "Using size fractionation and Pb isotopes to study Pb transport in the waters of an organic-rich upland catchment." Environmental Science & Technology 40(4): 1250-1256.
Hirata, T. (1996). "Lead isotopic analyses of NIST Standard Reference Materials using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with a modified external correction method for mass discrimination effect." Analyst 121(10): 1407-1411.
Hsu, S., Chenliu, S., Jeng, W., Kchou, C., Hsu, R., Huang, Y. and Chen, Y. (2006). "Lead isotope ratios in ambient aerosols from Taipei, Taiwan: Identifying long-range transport of airborne Pb from the Yangtze Delta." Atmospheric Environment 40(28): 5393-5404.
Inoue, M. and Tanimizu, M. (2008). "Anthropogenic lead inputs to the western Pacific during the 20th century." Science of the Total Environment 406(1-2): 123-130.
Jiann, K.-T., Wen, L.-S. and Santschi, P. H. (2005). "Trace metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) partitioning, affinities and removal in the Danshuei River estuary, a macro-tidal, temporally anoxic estuary in Taiwan." Marine Chemistry 96(3-4): 293-313.
Mann, A. W. and Deutscher, R. L. (1980). "Solution geochemistry of lead and zinc in water containing carbonate, sulphate and chloride ions." Chemical Geology 29(1–4): 293-311.
Monna, F., Benothman, D. and Luck, J. M. (1995). "PB ISOTOPES AND PB, ZN AND CD CONCENTRATIONS IN THE RIVERS FEEDING A COASTAL POND (THAU, SOUTHERN FRANCE) - CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN(S) AND FLUX(ES) OF METALS." Science of the Total Environment 166(1-3): 19-34.
Mukai, H., Furuta, N., Fujii, T., Ambe, Y., Sakamoto, K. and Hashimoto, Y. (1993). "Characterization of sources of lead in the urban air of Asia using ratios of stable lead isotopes." Environmental Science & Technology 27(7): 1347-1356.
Mukai, H., Tanaka, A., Fujii, T., Zeng, Y., Hong, Y., Tang, J., Guo, S., Xue, H., Sun, Z., Zhou, J., Xue, D., Zhao, J., Zhai, G., Gu, J. and Zhai, P. (2001). "Regional Characteristics of Sulfur and Lead Isotope Ratios in the Atmosphere at Several Chinese Urban Sites." Environmental Science & Technology 35(6): 1064-1071.
Nakano, T., Morohashi, S., Yasuda, H., Sakai, M., Aizawa, S., Shichi, K., Morisawa, T., Takahashi, M., Sanada, M. and Matsuura, Y. (2006). "Determination of seasonal and regional variation in the provenance of dissolved cations in rain in Japan based on Sr and Pb isotopes." Atmospheric Environment 40(38): 7409-7420.
Needleman, H. (2004). "Lead poisoning." Annu Rev Med 55: 209-222.
Rehkämperab, M. and Halliday, A. N. (1998). "Accuracy and long-term reproducibility of lead isotopic measurements by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using an external method for correction of mass discrimination." International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 181(1–3): 123-133.
Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A., Rivera-Duarte, I. and Russell Flegal, A. (1996). "Distribution of colloidal trace metals in the San Francisco Bay estuary." Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 60(24): 4933-4944.
Taylor, S. R. and McLennan, S. M. (1995). "The geochemical evolution of the continental crust." Rev. Geophys. 33(2): 241-265.
Turner, A. (1996). "Trace-metal partitioning in estuaries: importance of salinity and particle concentration." Marine Chemistry 54(1–2): 27-39.
Waeles, M., Tanguy, V., Lespes, G. and Riso, R. D. (2008). "Behaviour of colloidal trace metals (Cu, Pb and Cd) in estuarine waters: An approach using frontal ultrafiltration (UF) and stripping chronopotentiometric methods (SCP)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 80(4): 538-544.
Wang, W., Liu, X., Zhao, L., Guo, D., Tian, X. and Adams, F. (2006). "Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio." Sci Total Environ 364(1-3): 175-187.
Wang, B.-S. (2011). "Seasonal to Centennial-Scale Climatic and Environmental Variability Recorded in Corals from Taiwan and Hong Kong." Earth Sciences of National Cheng Kung University doctoral thesis.
Wen, L.-S., Warnken, K. W. and Santschi, P. H. (2008). "The role of organic carbon, iron, and aluminium oxyhydroxides as trace metal carriers: Comparison between the Trinity River and the Trinity River Estuary (Galveston Bay, Texas)." Marine Chemistry 112(1–2): 20-37.
White, W. M., Albarède, F. and Télouk, P. (2000). "High-precision analysis of Pb isotope ratios by multi-collector ICP-MS." Chemical Geology 167(3–4): 257-270.
Zheng, J., Tan, M., Shibata, Y., Tanaka, A., Li, Y., Zhang, G., Zhang, Y. and Shan, Z. (2004). "Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline." Atmospheric Environment 38(8): 1191-1200.
Zhou, J. L., Liu, Y. P. and Abrahams, P. W. (2003). "Trace metal behaviour in the Conwy estuary, North Wales." Chemosphere 51(5): 429-440.
Zhu, L., Tang, J., Lee, B., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, F. (2010). "Lead concentrations and isotopes in aerosols from Xiamen, China." Mar Pollut Bull 60(11): 1946-1955.


論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-08-29起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-08-29起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw