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系統識別號 U0026-1508201121445700
論文名稱(中文) 台灣家庭擁屋的影響因素--性別和地區差異
論文名稱(英文) Determinants of Housing Tenure Choice in Taiwan: Gender and Regional Differences
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 政治經濟研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Political Economy
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 李佳霖
研究生(英文) Chia-Lin Li
學號 u1697405
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 口試委員-陳明吉
口試委員-蒙志成
指導教授-謝文真
中文關鍵字 住宅租擁選擇  家庭收支調查  兩階段迴歸  工具變數  probit模型 
英文關鍵字 tenure choice  Survey on Family Income and Expenditure  two-stage regression  instrument variable  probit 
學科別分類
中文摘要 住宅是生命周期內重要的消費標的,也是家庭資產的重要組成。近年來台灣的房價經歷數次結構性轉變,擁屋的難度也節節升高。然而資料顯示,地區和戶長性別在住宅選擇上不盡相同。本研究從所得、財富和人口特性出發,探討影響家庭擁屋的因素,將樣本以性別分為男性戶長和女性戶長兩組,另外將區域分為:台北市、台北縣及基隆市、桃竹苗、中彰投雲嘉、南高(縣)屏、高雄市和宜花東等七組。實證資料來源為2006年行政院主計處的家庭收支調查(Survey on Family Income and Expenditure,SFIE)中,房屋為自有和租賃兩種家庭,並去除離島地區的樣本。實證分析以兩階段方法進行,第一階段先以OLS迴歸得到恆常所得和家庭財富的工具變數,修正可能的內生性問題;第二階段則以二元結果模型(binary outcome model)中的probit模型,測量工具變數和其他人口特性對擁屋機率的邊際效果。
  戶長性別實證結果顯示,男性戶長家庭的恆常所得、家庭財富、戶內人口數、配偶存在狀況、戶長任職公部門對擁屋機率有顯著的正向影響;女性戶長家庭除家庭財富和戶內人口數不顯著外,其餘變數和男性戶長相同。兩種性別居住於其他區域的擁屋機率皆顯著高於台北市,非都市地區也顯著高於都市地區。地區別實證結果中,影響擁屋機率較大的因素為:台北市的恆常所得和戶長任職公部門;台北縣、基隆市的恆常所得和配偶存在狀況;桃竹苗地區的恆常所得、配偶存在狀況和居住於非都市;中彰投雲嘉地區的家庭財富、戶長任職公部門、居住於非都市和居住於非城鎮地區;南高(縣)屏地區的恆常所得、家庭財富、配偶存在狀況和居住於非都市;高雄市的恆常所得、家庭財富和配偶存在狀況;宜花東地區的戶長任職部門和居住於非都市。最後,也呈現第一階段迴歸結果,以觀察財富累積和資產構成中性別和地區的不同。歸納實證結果,本文建議應注意女性戶長在所得和社會地位上的不平等;另外,擁屋難度反映了需求的多寡,區域發展應避免重北輕南,並致力平衡區域差異。
英文摘要 House price in Taiwan has experienced structural transformation and resulted in greater difficulty to own. However, in accordance with statistical data and literature, tenure choices exist differences between genders and among regions. The data of Survey on Family Income and Expenditure (SFIE) 2006 and two-stage regression are applied to investigate the probability of owning a house. The data is re-catagorized by genders and seven regions, including Taipei City; Taipei County and Keelung City; Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli; Taichung, Chanhua, Nantou, Yunlin and Chiayi; Tainan, Kaohsiung County and Pingtung; Kaohsiung City; Yilan, Hualian and Taitung. In the first stage, ordinary least square (OLS) regression is applied on permanent income and family wealth to avoid possible endogeneity. Then a probit model is used to estimate the marginal effects of two proxies and other demographic variables on the probability of owning a house.
The empirical results of genders show permanent income, family wealth, household size, spouse existence, public sector employee have positive effects on owning a house among male household heads. The estimates from the household headed by female are similar to that of male except statistical insignificance of family wealth and household size. Residing in regions other than Taipei City and suburban areas also have higher chance to own a house. The regional estimated results illustrate significant differences. Permanent income and public sector employee have bigger effect in Taipei City. Determinants of Taipei County and Keelung City are permanent income and spouse existence. Permanent income, spouse existence and suburban dwellers play bigger role in Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli area. In Taichung, Chanhua, Nantou, Yunlin and Chiayi, factors are family wealth, public sector employee, suburban dweller. In Tainan, Kaohsiung County and Pingtung, owning a house mainly affected by permanent income, family wealth, spouse existence and suburban dweller. Kaohsiung City is mainly affected by permanent income, family wealth and spouse existence. Public sector employee and suburban dweller are major factors of Yilan, Hualian and Taitung. The first-stage regression results are also presented.
Based on the empirical results, factors affect the probability of owning a house differ between genders and among regions. House price reflects cross-regional wage and residing circumstances. Meanwhile, female household heads are in worse situation of wage and other demographic characters. It is suggested that the government should make more effort to balance them.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 研究流程與架構 10
第二章 理論與文獻回顧 12
第一節 所得與儲蓄理論介紹 12
第二節 房價和住宅權屬影響家庭收支文獻 19
第三節 決定擁屋因素相關文獻 24
第四節 性別和地區間居住選擇差異 29
第三章 研究方法 35
第一節 理論模型介紹 35
第二節 實證模型與資料來源 40
第三節 資料處理與變數說明 50
第四節 實證分析方法 60
第四章 實證分析結果 67
第一節 敘述統計 67
第二節 戶長性別擁屋機率迴歸結果 77
第三節 地區別擁屋機率迴歸結果 85
第四節 第一階段工具變數迴歸結果 93
第五章 結論 102
第一節 研究發現與政策建議 102
第二節 研究貢獻和研究限制 106
參考文獻 108
附錄 Rivers & Vuong two-step IVprobit迴歸結果 114
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三、 網路資料
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3. 行政院主計處:〈國富統計〉,網址:http://www.stat.gov.tw/lp.asp?CtNode=657&CtUnit=392&BaseDSD=7&mp=4 (瀏覽日期:2011年5月4日)。
4. 內政部營建署:〈不動產價格e點通〉,網址:http://etp.cpami.gov.tw/Net/tradeinfo/trade-2.aspx (瀏覽日期:2010年5月20日。)
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