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系統識別號 U0026-1508201018501800
論文名稱(中文) 探討Nd:YAG雷射極小光斑在去除雀斑的應用
論文名稱(英文) Investigate the effect of Nd:YAG laser small spot on freckle removal
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 醫學工程研究所碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Institute of Biomedical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 李炅璘
研究生(英文) Jiong-Lin Li
學號 p8697409
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 50頁
口試委員 指導教授-鍾高基
口試委員-王國照
口試委員-蔡明世
口試委員-陳若佟
口試委員-曾盛豪
中文關鍵字 蒙地卡羅模擬  影像辨識 
英文關鍵字 Monte Carlo Simulation  Image recognize 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著光電技術的進步與發展,雷射技術逐漸的在各方面被廣泛使用包括醫療美容,尤其是雷射除斑。在目前的雷射去除斑點,當治療小面積類型的斑點時,雷射光斑過大會傷害到斑點以外的正常組織,此外雷射的能量過高會導致術後的紅腫與疤痕等等的副作用,因此發展極小光斑及低能量將成為趨勢。本研究目的為探討Nd:YAG雷射極小光斑去除雀斑的可行性。特定目標:1) 蒙地卡羅模擬不同光斑與能量穿透皮膚組織後的能量分佈;2) 雷射光斑大小穿透豬皮組織後的能量衰減;3) 天竺鼠動物實驗,Nd:YAG雷射小光斑去除斑點的變化。

實驗主要分為:(1) 蒙地卡羅模擬單一光子在皮膚組織內的傳遞,基於此方法模擬一束雷射在組織中的能量分佈,並探討不同光斑大小穿透皮膚組織後的能量分佈。(2) 不同雷射光斑大小穿透豬皮組織後的能量衰減實驗,Group 1雷射光斑直徑為0.5 mm;Group 2雷射光斑直徑為1.0 mm;Group 3雷射光斑直徑為1.5 mm;Group 4雷射光斑直徑為2.0 mm;Group 5雷射光斑直徑為2.5 mm,並以相同的單一能量脈衝20 mJ施打於固定厚度1 mm豬皮樣本上六個位置,紀錄穿透豬皮組織樣本後雷射能量資料,使用One Factor Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance進行分析比較雷射能量,選取α=0.05。(3) Nd:YAG雷射小光斑除斑實驗,Group 1雷射光斑直徑1 mm能量密度1 J/cm2;Group 2雷射光斑直徑2 mm,能量密度1 J/cm2;Group 3雷射光斑直徑1 mm,能量密度2 J/cm2;Group 4以雷射光斑直徑2 mm能量密度2 J/cm2,施打於黑色斑點上,擷取施打雷射前後黑色斑點影像,利用灰階值分佈與影像辨識的方式作處理。

蒙地卡羅模擬結果顯示,在相同的能量條件下,不同雷射光斑大小在相同的皮膚組織深度其雷射能量衰減比例相同,因此當能量足夠情況時,小光斑與大光斑的能量同樣可以達到標的物。雷射光斑大小穿透豬皮組織後能量衰減實驗結果顯示,穿透後能量資料不具有統計上的顯著性差異,並且由實驗結果資料可以看出,各種光斑大小在穿透後能量的差距相當小。Nd:YAG雷射小光斑除斑實驗結果顯示,未施打雷射與施打雷射後的影像灰階值分佈以及影像辨識的結果皆有明顯的變化,其中越大能量密度與光斑其變化也更加明顯,藉由影像辨識處理的結果顯示出,小光斑與低能量在除斑上是可行的。

未來繼續探討其缺失並發展改良,包括以下幾點:1) 對於模擬所設定的皮膚組織參數,可以利用光學雙積分球的實驗來獲得最準確的參數,如此一來模擬結果可以更加接近實際情況。
英文摘要 Laser technique shows wide application in many directions with the development of photoelectric theory. Especially the laser technique used in medical beauty for spot removal. When the laser technique is used in small spot removal, normal tissue around the small spot will be damaged. Because the laser spot size is too large and the laser pulse energy is too high. Therefore, the development of small spot size and low pulse energy for medical beauty laser will reduce the occurrence of swells and scars. There are three parts to test and verify the feasibility of freckle removal by a Nd:YAG laser with small spot size and low pulse energy in this study. First, simulation the energy distribution in skin tissue with different spot sizes and energy by the theory of Monte Carlo. Second, recording the attenuation of energy after penetrating the pig tissue with different spot sizes. Third, observation and recording the coats change from Guinea Pig after using laser.

The experiment was divided into: the Monte Carlo simulation of single photon transmission in skin tissue, simulation laser energy distribution in tissue to the same way, and investigate laser energy distribution in skin tissue for different spot size. The experiment of energy attenuation for different laser spot size to penetrate pig tissue, group 1 with 0.5 mm laser spot size; group 2 with 1.0 mm laser spot size; group 3 with 1.5 mm laser spot size; group 4 with 2.0 mm laser spot size; group 5 with 2.5 mm laser spot size, and emission laser to 1 mm thickness pig skin tissue sample on 6 position with 20 mJ single pulse energy, record laser energy for through pig skin tissue sample, One Factor Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance was used to analyze laser energy with α=0.05. The experiment of Nd:YAG small spot size laser spot removal, group 1 with 1 mm laser spot size and 1J/cm2 fluences; group 2 with 2 mm laser spot size and 1J/cm2 fluences; group 3 with 1 mm laser spot size and 2J/cm2 fluences; group 4 with 2 mm laser spot size and 2J/cm2 fluences, emission laser to spot, spot image acquisition for before and after emission laser, gray level distribution and image recognize was used to spot image.

The results of Monte Carlo simulation, the same laser energy, same laser energy attenuation rate in same tissue depth for different laser spot size, in addition, laser energy for large and small laser spot size also to pass target with enough energy. The results of energy attenuation for different laser spot size to penetrate pig tissue, no significantly difference, and a little variety of laser energy for different laser spot size. The results of Nd:YAG small spot size laser spot removal, significantly difference of gray level distribution and image recognize for before and after emission laser, more significantly difference to more laser fluences and big spot size, the results of image recognize, the effective use of spot removal for small laser spot size and low energy.

Future research is recommended to include the following: 1) Double Integrating Sphere system will use to measure the optical tissue parameters, in addition, the results of Monte Carlo simulation more accuracy.
論文目次 中文摘要....................................................I
Abstract.................................................III
誌謝.......................................................V
目錄......................................................VI
表目錄..................................................VIII
圖目錄....................................................IX

第一章 緒論.................................................1
1.1雷射醫療美容簡介..........................................2
1.1.1 雷射發展歷史......................................2
1.1.2 雷射在美容上的應用.................................4
1.2 雷射除斑的生理機制.......................................5
1.2.1 皮膚組織生理結構及特性.............................5
1.2.2 光在皮膚組織的物理及光學特性........................7
1.2.2.1 光子在組織內傳遞之物理特性....................8
1.2.2.2 選擇性光熱分解.............................11
1.2.3 雷射除斑的應用...................................13
1.3 蒙地卡羅之光子穿透組織模擬...............................14
1.4 雷射應用在斑的去除與其他技術的比較........................18
1.5 研究動機與目的.........................................21

第二章 材料與方法...........................................22
2.1蒙地卡羅模擬不同光斑與能量穿透皮膚組織後的能量分佈..22
2.1.1 光學組織參數、雷射能量與光斑大小....................23
2.1.2 模擬單一光子在皮膚組織內的傳遞.....................23
2.1.3 模擬不同光斑與能量穿透皮膚組織後的能量分佈...........24
2.2雷射實驗平台............................................26
2.3雷射光斑大小穿透豬皮組織後的能量衰減.......................28
2.3.1 動物模型.........................................29
2.3.2 實驗設計與實驗流程................................30
2.3.3 統計分析.........................................30
2.4 Nd:YAG雷射小光斑除斑實驗...............................30
2.4.1 動物模型.........................................31
2.4.2 實驗設計與實驗流程................................31
2.4.3 影像處理分析.....................................32

第三章 結果與討論...........................................33
3.1模擬不同光斑與能量穿透皮膚組織後的能量分佈結果..............33
3.1.1模擬單一光子在皮膚組織內的傳遞結果...................33
3.1.2模擬不同光斑與能量穿透皮膚組織後的能量分佈結果........35
3.2雷射實驗平台校正.........................................39
3.3雷射光斑大小穿透固定厚度豬皮組織後的能量衰減結果.............40
3.4天竺鼠除斑動物實驗結果...................................42

第四章 結論與未來展望.......................................46
4.1結論...................................................46
4.2未來展望................................................46

參考文獻...................................................47
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[9] Wai-Fung Cheong,Scott A.Prahl, Ashley J. Welch,“A Review of the Optical Properties of Biological Tissues” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 26. NO. 12, DECEMBER 1990

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[11] Lihong Wang* a, Steven L. Jacquesa, Liqiong Zhengb,“CML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-la.yered. tissues”, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 47 (1995) 131-146

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[15] 台灣皮膚雷射美容中心 http://www.taiwanlaser.com

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[18] Zhongben Chen , Minran Tang , Zhiguang Wang,“The Effects of Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation in the Wavelength of 1064nm and
532nm on Guinea Pigs’ Skin Tissue”, 2005 IEEE
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