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系統識別號 U0026-1507201600505200
論文名稱(中文) 室內裝修工程碳足跡評估系統之研究
論文名稱(英文) Interior Renovation Carbon Footprint Evaluation System
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 黃善群
研究生(英文) Shan-Chun Huang
電子信箱 charz300@hotmail.com
學號 N76034401
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 143頁
口試委員 指導教授-林憲德
口試委員-周鼎金
口試委員-曾亮
口試委員-林衍良
中文關鍵字 室內裝修工程  室內設計  生命週期  碳排放  碳足跡  減碳策略 
英文關鍵字 Interior Renovation  Life cycle assessment  CO₂ emissions 
學科別分類
中文摘要 未來十年全球社會包括台灣有少子化的高齡社會現象。在2025年,每五位成年人就有一位是高齡人士而這個比例到了2060年則會高達四成二。隨著台灣逐漸邁入少子化社會,建築物不需要多,但居住機能應隨使用者而有所改變。根據數據統計,在台灣近年來的新建工程比例大約是修繕更新工程的百分之三。換言之,有百分之九十七的室內裝修工程碳排放量是不被評估與管制的,而造成全球暖化最主要的溫室氣體就是二氧化碳(CO₂)。

除了綠建築標章的規範以外,如能建立一套有效的室內裝修工程碳足跡評估系統來評估在台灣的室內裝修工程,不僅能有效地紀錄與規範現有的室內裝修工程CO₂排放量,也能提供設計者與使用者減碳措施與辦法。

本研究以建築生命週期評估(Life Cycle Assessment, LCA)之宏觀觀念出發,探討建築產業中之室內裝修工程對於地球環境所造成之影響,補足建築生命週期環境負荷評估體系中尚未完整之環節,作為地球環境負荷評估體系之一環。室內裝修工程之生命週期基本上可分成四階段: 新裝修工程資材、工程施工、修繕更新階段資材以及拆除與廢棄物處理。室內裝修工程的架構又分成七項目: 地坪裝修工程資材、內隔間裝修工程資材、壁面加工及裝飾工程資材、天花板裝修工程資材、固定傢俱裝修工程、衛浴陽台設備資材以及廚房設備資材。室內裝修工程之生命週期總CO₂排放量會因應排放程度,將各個工程做分級並歸列成以下等級: 合格、銅、銀、黃金及鑽石。

總而言之,這個評估系統不僅能指出室內裝修工程碳排放對地球環境所造成的影響,同時也可提供設計者及使用者機會,透過減碳策略來有效控管釋放到空氣中的CO₂。本研究發現室內裝修之減碳熱點在於拆除與廢棄物處理,其比重涵蓋了百分之五十二,這是由於在室內裝潢經拆除後之廢棄物處理以及清運交通的能源消耗很多。碳排放占據第二高的是新裝修工程資材,其比重涵蓋了百分之四十。因此能從這兩方面著手設計及改善,便能最有效率地降低室內裝修工程的總碳排。
英文摘要 SUMMARY

According to statistics, the ratio of new buildings was approximately 3% compared to the existing buildings of 97% in Taiwan. Hence, an effective evaluation system supplementary to EEWH policy is necessary to evaluate all interior renovations performed in Taiwan in order to assess and provide solutions to reduce CO₂emissions produced through renovations.

Interior Renovation is divided into 4 stages of life cycle: New materials, Construction operations, Upgrading and Demolition. In the ‘New materials’ stage, there are 7 categories which are Flooring, Partition, Wall Enhancement, Ceiling and Fixed Furniture. With all 4 stages of life cycle accounted for, the total CO₂emission value will allow us to assess and grade renovation cases according to Pass, Copper, Silver, Gold and Platinum levels.

In conclusion, the evaluation system not only provides an indication of the interior renovation’s carbon emission impact on the environment but also provides opportunities for designers and users to mitigate the amount of CO₂released into the atmosphere.


INTRODUCTION

In the past three decades, the Taiwan architecture industry has been booming exponentially, leading to the removal of old houses and since been replaced by many new building constructions. This has led to over-supply of housing units where demand fall short. The need for interior renovation has begun to increase since the 2000s especially for buildings that have surpassed their first 10 years of life cycle.

According to statistics, the ratio of new buildings was approximately 3% compared to the existing buildings of 97% in Taiwan. Hence, an effective evaluation system supplementary to EEWH policy is necessary to evaluate all interior renovations performed in Taiwan in order to assess and provide solutions to reduce CO₂emissions produced through renovations.

Interior Renovation is divided into 4 stages of life cycle: New materials, Construction operations, Upgrading and Demolition. Of all 4 stages, ‘New materials’ stage comprise most of the CO₂emissions which include 7 categories namely: Flooring, Partition, Wall Enhancement, Ceiling, Fixed Furniture, Bathroom and Kitchen. With all 4 stages of life cycle accounted for, the total CO₂emission value will allow us to assess and grade renovation cases according to Pass, Copper, Silver, Gold and Platinum levels.

In conclusion, the evaluation system not only provides an indication of the interior renovation’s carbon emission impact on the environment but also provides opportunities for designers and users to mitigate the amount of CO₂released into the atmosphere.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

The methods used in this research are as follows:
1. Literature Review
To understand various existing carbon footprint assessment tools and international standards that have been defined, the researcher conducted a thorough literature review to identify and consolidate the various frameworks, definitions and contents of these studies. The researcher also reviewed “Building Carbon Footprint Evaluation Method” to understand the basic theorem and structure behind it to find the most suitable process for establishing an interior renovation carbon footprint evaluation system.

2. Establishing a Carbon Footprint Evaluation Framework
In the process of constructing the interior renovation carbon footprint evaluation method, a few priorities were undertaken to ensure the effectiveness and competency of the framework. Firstly, a specialized carbon footprint database for interior renovation materials was established. Secondly, 4 categories of buildings arranged from ‘least usage’ to ‘highest usage’ were identified to aid in the carbon emissions calculation of ‘Upgrading’ stage when renewal renovations are performed. Thirdly, a self-comparison system of ‘baseline project’ and ‘design project’ benchmarks is established to facilitate the calculations of carbon reduction effects of any interior renovation project. Lastly, the main framework of interior renovation life cycle stages including various requirements and specifications are combined into a formula to quantized carbon emission.

3. Case Analysis
Based on an actual case, calculations can be performed to see the breakdown of carbon emissions in every life cycle stage. In the respective stages namely: New materials, Construcion operations, Upgrading and Demolition, carbon emission can be further dissected into various sectors and categories allowing one to clearly understand which area is responsible for the most carbon emission. Researchers can also use these data to further refine and build more accurate evaluation methods and formulas.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of this research are as follows:
1. The interior renovation carbon footprint evaluation system is an efficient tool to help users, designers and researchers to understand the trends and breakdown of life cycle carbon emissions.

2. ‘New materials’ commands the highest amount of carbon emissions as compared to others, comprising up to 40% of the total interior renovation life cycle carbon footprint. The second highest level of carbon emission comes from ‘Demolition’ where a lot of energy is used to demolish the renovations and transporting them to recycling and waste yards. The third source comes from ‘Upgrading’ which in this case, a lot of materials used have yet to surpass their life expectancy hence most of them did not require replacement at the time of upgrading. Last but not least, ‘Construction’ produces the least amount of carbon emission due to limited equipment and tools used in the renovation process.

3. In essence, it is evident that the type of material used in renovating a interior space plays an important role in reduction of carbon footprint. Therefore, the best method to reduce carbon emissions is to choose low carbon and high life expectancy materials. When paving the floor or building a wall partition, it is advisable to fixate the objects and materials firmly to the structure of the building but not in excess as it would require more energy and machineries in the ‘Demolition’ stage to remove these interior renovations.


CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this research have developed a carbon footprint evaluation system for interior renovations, which could aid users, designers and researchers to understand the trends and breakdown of life cycle carbon emissions. With the establishment of a specialized carbon footprint database for interior renovation materials and the categorisation of buildings with respect to level of usage, this quantitative system allows one to identify carbon emission hotspots in various areas of an interior renovation project.

With the ability to analyse carbon emission distribution, the system provides alternative materials and methods for carbon-reduction strategies so that various carbon reduction targets can be achieved. Finally, the total amount of carbon emission calculated will allow us to assess and grade renovation cases according to Pass, Copper, Silver, Gold and Platinum levels.
論文目次 摘要 I
英文延伸摘要 II
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 IX
第1章、 緒論 1
1-1. 研究動機與目的 1
1-2. 研究範圍與內容 2
1-3. 研究流程 3
第2章、 文獻回顧 4
2-1. 建築碳足跡評估方法 4
2-2. 建築碳足跡四大評估原則 4
2-3. 台灣相關碳排放解析之論文 6
第3章、 室內裝修資材碳排資料庫 7
3-1. 國內外原物料碳排資料簡介 7
3-2. 進口建材的海外運輸碳排 7
3-3. 碳排資料盤查概要 10
3-4. 碳排資料盤查實例之一: 木材類碳排概要 16
3-5. 碳排資料盤查實例之一: 木材類碳排資料 17
第4章、 室內裝修生命週期總碳足跡 77
4-1. 室內裝修生命週期四階段 77
4-2. 新裝修工程資材碳足跡 78
4-3. 工程施工碳足跡 93
4-4. 修繕更新階段資材碳足跡 95
4-5. 拆除與廢棄物處理碳足跡 106
第5章、 室內裝修案例試算 108
5-1. 美術館類別: 藏愛室內設計基本資料 108
5-2. 藏愛建築圖說 109
5-3. 美術館類別室內裝修案例計算與公式說明 109
5-4. 新裝修工程資材碳足跡計算與檢討 110
5-5. 工程施工碳足跡計算與檢討 129
5-6. 修繕更新階段資材碳足跡計算與檢討 131
5-7. 拆除與廢棄物處理碳足跡計算與檢討 135
5-8. 案例計算總結 135
第6章、 結論與建議 138
6-1. 結論 138
6-2. 建議 140
參考文獻 141
附錄 142
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