||Factors Related to Workplace Violence against Nurses in Indonesian Emergency Departments
||Department of Nursing
||Anggri Noorana Zahra
Objective: The objective of this study is to examine violent incidents experienced by nurses and the associated factors of violence against nurses in Indonesian emergency departments.
Methods: A structured questionnaire from the World Health Organization (WHO) on workplace violence in the health sector was modified and translated into Bahasa. A total of 169 nurses working in emergency departments in six (6) hospitals in Jakarta and Bekasi Indonesia were participated in the study. The gathered data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression.
Result: Ten percent of emergency nurses reported experiencing physical violence and mainly perpetrated by patients, whereas more than a half of emergency nurses (54.6 %) reported experiencing non-physical violence with patient’s relative as the main perpetrators. More than of nurses (55.6%) did not have encouragement to report workplace violence and very few (10.1%) of nurses had received any information or training about workplace violence. No predictors were found to be associated with physical violence, whereas the predictor for non-physical violence is type of hospitals.
Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted the seriousness of violence in Indonesian emergency departments. Support from the management, encouragement to report violence and availability of workplace violence training are expected to mitigate and manage violence against nurses in emergency departments.
Table of Contents v
List of Tables ix
Chapter I. Introduction
Research Purpose 4
Definition of Terms 5
Overview of Methodology 6
Research design 6
Chapter II. Literature Review
Definition of Workplace Violence 8
Workplace Violence in Health Care Settings 9
Workplace violence in general health care settings 9
Workplace violence in emergency departments 9
Workplace Violence in against Nurses 10
Workplace violence against nurses in general 10
Workplace violence against nurses in emergency departments 10
Workplace violence against nurses in Indonesia 11
The Impact of Workplace Violence 12
Impact to nurses 12
Impact to nurses’ personal lives 12
Impact to nurses’ professional lives 13
Impact to patients 14
Factors Related to Workplace Violence 14
Nurses’ personal characteristics 15
Marital status 16
Level of anxiety 16
Level of education 17
Nurses’ professional characteristics 18
Violence training 18
Year of experiences 18
Previous violence experience 18
Employment sector 19
Shift work 19
Presence of violence preventive measures 19
Chapter III. Method
Research Design and Sampling 21
Modified version 24
Ethical Considerations 25
Data Collection Procedures 26
Chapter IV. Research Results
Personal and Workplace Characteristics 28
Magnitude and Characteristic of Workplace Violence 31
Frequency of violent incidents 31
Emergency nurses’ responses to violent incidents 33
Problems or complaints after violent incidents 34
Actions after the violent incidents 35
Safety measures in the workplace 37
Factors and Predictor for Workplace Violence 40
Related factors for workplace violence 40
Predictors to workplace violence 44
Qualitative Survey 44
Chapter V. Discussion
Limitation of the Study 52
Future Study Recommendation 52
Appendix 1: Informed Consent 59
Appendix 2: Questionnaire 62
Appendix 3: Content Validity Index 75
Appendix 4: Questionnaire Permission 77
Appendix 5: Ethical Clearance 79
Appendix 6: Hospital Permission 80
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