||The Effect of Sponsorship on Brand Identification Building and Consumer Behaviors
||Department of Business Administration
Condition of Sponsorship
Establishing emotional bond between customers and the brand and the satisfaction of customers’ psychological needs are regarded as key factors in contributing to brand equity. Hence, it is important to understand how to shape brand identification which is regarded as having the ability to arouse emotional response (i.e., commitment) from consumers (Ahearne, Bhattacharya, & Gruen, 2005; Bergami & Bagozzi, 2000). Accordingly, there are two purposes of this research. First, this research tries to explore how to build brand identification in consumers’ minds. Second, this study examines the effect of brand identification on purchase intention and brand loyalty. Two studies were conducted to investigate the research issues. Study I is explores the antecedents of brand identification and whether sponsorship condition would affect the effect of sponsorship on building brand identification. There are two brands involving in study I (i.e., Timberland and Forameu, which is a fictional brand). Study II examines the effect of brand identification with Nike as an example. The research findings can be concluded as the followings. First, brand identification can be improved through brand attractiveness, and self-congruity, brand distinctiveness, and brand prestige can help to enhance brand attractiveness. Second, for a brand with some familiarity, the effect of single sponsorship on building brand prestige is higher than multiple sponsorships. Third, there is a positive effect of brand identification on perceived value, purchase intention, and brand loyalty. Fourth, in developing brand loyalty, the impact of brand identification is higher than perceived value. Fifth, there is a partial mediating effect of perceived value from brand identification to purchase intention and brand loyalty.
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
Research Background and Motivation 1
Research Objectives 2
Research Procedures 5
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 6
Study I 6
Social identity theory 6
Brand identification 7
The relationship between brand attractiveness and brand identification 8
The relationship among self-congruity, brand distinctiveness, brand prestige and brand attractiveness 9
Sponsorship and brand image transfer 11
The effect of the type of sponsorship on self-congruity, brand distinctiveness and brand prestige 12
Conceptual Model 15
Study II 17
The relationship among purchase intention, brand loyalty and brand identification 17
The relationship between brand identification and perceived value 19
The relationship among perceived value, purchase intention and brand loyalty 20
The relationship between variety seeking tendency and brand loyalty 22
Conceptual Model 23
CHAPTER Ⅲ STUDY I-- The Building of Brand Identification 25
Research Product Sponsored Event, and Brand Selection 25
Operational Definition of Research Variables 26
Independent Variable 27
Dependent Variable 28
Pretest I 34
Pretest II 40
Formal Data Collection 46
Results and Discussions 48
Data Handing 48
Data Coding 49
Validity and Reliability 52
Overall Model Fit 62
Variable Indexes 63
Hypothesis Testing 63
Other Findings 74
CHAPTER IV STUDY II--Examining the Effect of Brand Identification 77
Research Product and Brand Selection 77
Operational Definition of Research Variables 78
Independent Variable 78
Mediating Variable 79
Dependent Variable 79
Moderating Variable 81
Formal Data Collection 90
Results and Discussions 94
Data Handling 94
Data Coding 95
Validity and Reliability 98
Overall Model Fit 104
Variable Indexes 104
Hypothesis Testing 105
Other Findings 111
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 115
Empirically tested model 120
Academic Contribution 121
Managerial Implications 122
Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research 124
Appendix A: Pretest for Formal Questionnaire for Study I 135
Appendix B: Pretest for Examining the Fit of the Sponsored Event 140
Appendix C: Pretest for Formal Questionnaire for Study II 145
Appendix D: Hard Copy Version of Formal Questionnaire for Study I 149
Appendix E: Online Formal Questionnaire for Study I 155
Appendix F: Hard Copy Version of Formal Questionnaire for Study II 165
Appendix G: Online Formal Questionnaire for Study II 169
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