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系統識別號 U0026-1502201910273300
論文名稱(中文) 應用多變數分析探討台灣水庫中藻類毒素及臭味物質與環境因子相關性之研究
論文名稱(英文) Multivariate Analysis of the Relationships among Cyanobacterial Toxins and Odorants and Environmental Parameters in Reservoirs
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 107
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 池佳育
研究生(英文) Jia-Yu Chih
學號 p56034115
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 84頁
口試委員 指導教授-林財富
口試委員-黃良銘
口試委員-葉宣顯
口試委員-王根樹
中文關鍵字 藻毒  藻臭  主成分分析  水庫 
英文關鍵字 Cyanotoxins  T&O compounds  Principal components analysis  Reservoirs  odorants 
學科別分類
中文摘要 因科技進步以及生活品質的提升,飲用水中新興污染物的定量及監測成為受關注的議題;由於氣候變遷與全球暖化,在世界各地水庫常見藍綠菌藻華事件的發生,藍綠菌產生之有害代謝物也成為飲用水水質的隱憂。藍綠菌藻華之有害二次代謝物包含影響飲用水安全的藍綠菌毒素(Cyanotoxins)以及影響氣味與口感的物質(Taste-and-odor compounds, T&O compounds),台灣水庫中監測到的藍綠菌毒素有微囊藻(Microcystins)與柱孢藻(Cylindrospermopsins),T&O物質則包含霉味物質2-Mithylosoborneol(2-MIB)、土味物質Geosmin以及木頭味物質-cyclocitral等臭味物質等,國際間已有許多研究探討環境因子與藍綠菌有害二次代謝物的關係,然而當考量的環境變數,環境變數間之交互作用複雜,越不易探討其相關性。
本研究以主成分分析,分析民國102年至107年間於全台水庫採集之藻類及藻類代謝物之數據、與環保署及氣象站提供之環境數據,探討環境變數與藍綠菌毒素及臭味物質間之相關性,並提供建議之風險評估指標。結果顯示藍綠菌之生長與代謝物濃度不受氮、風速與降雨情況之影響,磷為影響藍綠菌生長的限制因子,而藻毒濃度增加的主要原因為藍綠菌之生長,而非藍綠菌產毒能力之改變。藍綠菌產毒基因與毒素有高度相關性,而葉綠素-a與總藻數間有高度相關、與藍綠菌基因及藍綠菌毒素間的相關性較低,在風險評估時若以葉綠素-a評估藻毒之風險,恐失去其代表性;相對地,由分子生物技術測量水體中藍綠菌產毒基因為一項快速且具參考性之指標。總量與細胞外的T&O物質相關性高,相互取代進行主成分分析之結果差異小,推斷目前台灣水庫之環境對藍綠菌細胞釋出代謝物質沒有顯著差異,2-MIB濃度與產2-MIB基因高度相關,可以基因作為其風險評估之指標;而Geosmin之生成與氮、磷及濁度無相關性;β-cyclocitral之來源部分為微囊藻,受水體中磷含量影響大,非微囊藻之來源則受濁度影響。以相關係數矩陣進行水質及溫度變數之時間序列分析,結果顯示氣象、及水溫與藍綠菌及其代謝物之相關性受時間效應之影響。
英文摘要 As cyanobacteria blooms often occur in many drinking water reservoirs globally, their harmful secondary metabolites has been received more concern. The concerned cyanobacterial metabolites include cyanotoxins and taste-and-odor (T&O) compounds, since they may pose health risk or influence human perception of consumers. The most concerned cyanotoxins include microcystins and cylindrospermopsins, and the T&O compounds include the earthy odorant compound, geosmin, the musty odorant compound, 2-methylisoborneol(2-MIB), and tobacco-like odorant compound, -cyclocitral, which were found in many reservoirs in Taiwan. To understand more about the link between the growth of cyanobacteria and the presence of the above mentioned harmful secondary metabolites, and water quality and environmental conditions, this study is aimed to analyze their relationships through statistical analysis. The data of cyanobacterial and metabolites were collected from the sampling activities for Taiwan’s reservoirs conducted in 2012 to 018, and the environmental data were obtained from the Environmental Protection on Administration and Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan. Then, the data were analyzed using principal components analysis, sensitivity analysis, and time-series correlation matrix. The results show that the main reason to increase the concentration of microcystins and cylindrospermopsins were the abundance of the main producers, Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis, respectively, with phosphorus being the limited nutrient for Microcystis growth and microcystins, and -cyclocitral production. For other producers, they were affected by turbidity. Functional genes responsible for the production of the metabolites were highly correlated with the corresponding metabolites, which may be as indexes for risk assessment. Light intensity, pH value, and conductivity did not show good correlations with the studied metabolites, but they had impact on the final results of PCA. The results of the time-series analysis with correlation matrix showed that the relationships within cyanobacterial variables and meteorological variables were impacted by time series. Hence, to analyze the relationships within the metabolites and light intensity, temperature, rainfall, or wind speed should take the average value of the data from former time period.
論文目次 摘要 I
致謝 VIII
圖目錄 XI
表目錄 XIII
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 藍綠菌代謝物質 3
2-1-1藍綠菌毒素 3
2-1-2藍綠菌臭味物質 7
2-2 環境因子對藍綠菌及其代謝物之影響 12
2-2-1 氣象因子: 溫度、光照、降雨及風速 12
2-2-2 水質因子: 酸鹼值、鹽度與營養源 15
2-3多變數分析 18
2-3-1數據轉換與數據標準化 18
2-3-2多變數分析之種類與選用 19
2-4 應用多變數分析探討環境變數與水質之關係 21
第三章 資料蒐集與研究方法 23
3-1 研究架構 23
3-2 資料收集與研究區域 24
3-3 資料分析 26
3-3-1探索性資料分析與驗證性資料分析 26
3-3-2主成分分析 29
3-3-3敏感度分析 32
第四章 結果與討論 33
4-1 數據型態與數據轉換 33
4-1-1藍綠菌數量、藍綠菌代謝物質及水質分析項目 33
4-1-2 環境數據 37
4-2 相關係數分析 39
4-2-1 藍綠菌與其代謝物質之相關係數 39
4-2-2 藍綠菌與其代謝物質與環境變數之相關係數 42
4-3 主成分分析 46
4-3-1 主成分分析與主成分選用 46
4-3-2 主成分之解釋與相關係數圓圖 51
4-4 敏感度分析 57
4-4-1 敏感度分析—特徵值 58
4-4-2 敏感度分析—主成分負荷量 61
4-5 時間序列分析 66
第五章 結論與建議 68
參考文獻 70
附錄 82
附件一 藍綠菌及其代謝物與一個月前水質數據之相關係數矩陣圖 82
附錄二 藍綠菌及其代謝物相關與兩個月前水值數據之相關係數矩陣圖 83
附錄三 藍綠菌及其代謝物與三個月前水值數據之相關係數矩陣圖 84
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