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系統識別號 U0026-1502201616071300
論文名稱(中文) 問題發現的途徑以探討幼兒相關問題為例
論文名稱(英文) Approaches of Problem–findings Targeting 2 years-old Toddler as an Example
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 簡佳儀
研究生(英文) Chia-Yi Chien
學號 P36024019
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-周君瑞
口試委員-陸定邦
口試委員-楊佳翰
中文關鍵字 問題發現  使用者觀察  設計 
英文關鍵字 problem finding  user observation  design 
學科別分類
中文摘要 21世紀大環境的快速變化導致新議題不斷產生,舊有的生活模式已無法套用於現在或未來的社會中,設計師應學習觀察當今周遭變化,處理現階段的生活議題。另一方面,好的設計,在於理解需求,「敏銳的觀察力」與「對環境的感受度」是設計師須具備的重要能力。然而現今仍缺乏一個有效方法指引設計師從環境或現象本身觀察問題點。 本研究探討設計流程中之問題階段,試圖找出設計問題被發現的線索,以現有的社會及人類學等觀察方法觀察不熟悉之族群-2歲幼兒,蒐集大量初步問題點,並從觀察過程中記錄問題被發現的脈絡,建立初步觀察的參考依據;將問題點依屬性及重要性等進行多次分類及篩選,並分析問題類別與各觀察途徑之對應關係,歸納每一途徑的應用特點與方式,例如:某途徑能於短時間內找出大量問題點;或某途徑能發現重要但卻常被忽略的問題點。 而研究所得之觀察途徑將有助於找尋問題點,設計師能根據特定的觀察途徑,有效率地找出相對應的設計問題,而一個好的問題發現同時引導後續設計過程的展開,更為新產品開發帶來創新突破。
英文摘要 The consistently changing environment in the 21st century leads to a constant rise of new issues. Thus as designers, observing the transformation around us, we cannot apply the outdated pattern on the current issues or even the future ones for that matter. On the other hand, design is based on humanism, and a good design is to understand the demands of society. For a designer, it is essential to be a keen observer and to be sensitive to the environment. This research starts by observing an unfamiliar group, (a 2 years old child for example), in order to explore the relationship between the problems and finding process. Existing participatory observation models of Social Science and Anthropology are applied in order to uncover more daily problems and establish an initial approach to further research. Through analysis, this study attempts to map out the correlation between problem attributes and each approach/assessment, while integrating the application and features of those attributes. For example, by using approach A one can find out a great deal of problems in a short period of time, and by using approach B one can discover crucial, but easily neglected points. The results are summarized in lists and with figures. Therefore, provide designers with an easy foundation to address social/daily issues more effectively and also a guide to the design process.
論文目次 Table of Contents
摘要................................................................................................................................I
Summery.......................................................................................................................II
Acknowledgements.....................................................................................................III
Table of Contents.........................................................................................................IV
List of Tables...........................................................................................................VIII List of Figures.............................................................................................................IX


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................1
1-1 Research Background..............................................................................................1
1-2 Research Motivation................................................................................................2
1-3 Research Purpose.....................................................................................................3
1-4 Research Limitation and Scope...............................................................................4
1-5 Research Structure..................................................................................................5

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................6
2-1 Relation between Design and Problem-finding..............................................6
2-1.1 The Elements of Design Process...................................................................6
2-1.2 Problem Definition Leads the Direction of Problem-Solving......................6
2-1.3 The Comparison of Cognitive Design Strategy............................................7
2-1.4 Conclusion....................................................................................................8
2-2 Problem-Finding and Innovation.........................................................................9
2-2.1 The Discovery of Problems Enhance the Following Creativity…………...9
2-2.2 The Scope of Problem Definition and Innovation........................................9
2-2.3 The Real World Problems Lead the Innovative Solutions.........................9
2-2.4 Conclusion..................................................................................................10
2-3 Application of Observation Methodology..................................................10
2-3.1 The Definition of Participatory Observation..............................................10
2-3.2 Ethnography...............................................................................................10
2-3.3 Cultural Probe............................................................................................11
2-3.4 User Observation........................................................................................11
2-3.5 Fieldwork..............................................................................................12
2-3.6 Conclusion...........................................................................................12
2-4 Classification Methodology................................................................................14
2-4.1 Grounded Theory........................................................................................14
2-4.2 Card-sorting...............................................................................................15
2-4.3 KJ Method..................................................................................................15
2-4.4 Data Mining...............................................................................................15
2-4.5 Cluster Analysis.........................................................................................15
2-4.6 Conclusion..................................................................................................16
2-5 Methodology of Measuring the Importance..............................................16
2-5.1 Pahl & Beitz’ Utility Theory.......................................................................16
2-5.2 AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)............................................................17
2-5.3 Pugh’s evaluation matrix.........................................................................18
2-5.4 QFD............................................................................................................18
2-5.5 Flexible Strategies Vision Screening.......................................................19
2-5.6 Conclusion................................................................................................20
2-6 Other Kind of Observation Approaches........................................................22
2-6.1 Forensic Science........................................................................................22
2-6.2 The Relation between Designers and Users.. ..........................................22
2-6.3 Non-Design Problems...............................................................................23
2-6.4 Conclusion................................................................................................23

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH STRUCTURE AND PROCESS.................24
3-1 Research Structure...........................................................................................24
3-2 Research Methods and Steps............................................................................24
3-2.1 Collect a Great Amount of Problems, Record the Discovery Context…..24
3-2.2 Define the Problems, Propose the Problem-finding Approaches..............25
3-2.3 Classify and Select the Problems................................................................25
3-2.4 Discuss Correspondence between Problems and Approaches………….26
3-3 Verification...........................................................................................................27
3-3.1 Field Verification (1)...................................................................................27
3-3.2 Field Verification (2)...................................................................................28

CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH CONTENTS......................................................29
4-1 Observation.......................................................................................................29
4-1.1 Problem Collection..................................................................................29
4-1.2 Establish the Context of Problem-finding................................................30
4-2 Order the Preliminary Information...................................................................33
4-2.1 Problem Merging and Deletion...............................................................33
4-2.2 Development of Problem-finding Approaches.......................................34
4-3 Problem Classification and Selection...............................................................38
4-3.1 Problem Classification..............................................................................38
4-3.2 Measuring the Significance of the Problems............................................43
4-4 Correlation between Problems and Problem-finding Approaches.................45
4-4.1 Comparison in terms of Overall Problems................................................45
4-4.2 Comparison in terms of the Categories of Activity....................................45
4-4.3 Comparison in terms of the Categories of Location..................................46
4-4.4 Comparison in terms of the Problem Significance...................................49

CHAPTER 5 VERIFICATION.......................................................................52
5-1 Field Verification (1)............................................................................................53
5-1.1 Introduction and Procedure of Verification(1)..........................................53
5-1.2 Result Analysis...........................................................................................54
5-1.3 Overall Comparison...................................................................................55
5-1 Field Verification (2)............................................................................................57
5-1.1 Introduction and Procedure of Verification(2)...........................................57
5-1.2 Result Analysis...........................................................................................58

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS........................59
6-1 Conclusions..........................................................................................................59
Approach A..........................................................................................................60
Approach B..........................................................................................................60
Approach C..........................................................................................................60
Approach D..........................................................................................................60
Approach E..........................................................................................................61
Approach F..........................................................................................................61
Approach G..........................................................................................................61
6-2 Suggestions...........................................................................................................62

References...................................................................................................................63
Appendix I....................................................................................................................66
Appendix II..................................................................................................................70
Appendix III................................................................................................................74
Appendix IV.................................................................................................................79
Appendix V...................................................................................................................84
Appendix VI.................................................................................................................85
Appendix VII...............................................................................................................86


List of Tables

2.1 Four strategy in creativity in terms of quality, creativity, number and iterations........................................................................................................................8
2.2The comparison of the observation methodology..................................................13
2.3 Pugh’s Evaluation Matrix (Pugh, 1991) ...............................................................18
2.4 Integration Screening Method (King & Sivaloganathan, 1999)....................21
4.1 Quantity of problems collected in each scenario..................................................30
4.2 Problems and the contexts of problem-finding..........................................32
4.3 List of problem-finding approaches........................................................36
4.4 The Criteria of measuring the problem significance...........................44
4.5 The frequency of application in each problem-finding approach......................45
4.6 The frequency of the problem-finding approached in each activity......................46
4.7 The frequency of problem-finding approaches in different location...............47
4.8 The frequency of problem-finding approaches used in category in terms of behavior, product and environment..........................48
4.9 The correlation between the problem-finding approaches and the problem Significance................................................................................................50
5.1 The quantity of the problem with/without the application of problem finding approaches...................................................................................................................54
5.2 The frequency of the application of each problem finding approach...56
5.3 The frequency of the application of each problem finding approach
(in the house).........................................................................................................56
5.4 The frequency of the application of each problem finding approach (for active phenomenon).........................................................................................................58


List of Figures

2.1 The Derived expertise model of product design (Kruger,1999)...............................7
2.2 Setting parameters value........................................................................................17
2.3 Decomposition of the Problem into a Hierarchy (Satty, 1990)..............................17
2.4 QFD “House of Quality” matrix...........................................................................19
2.5 Flexible design strategy of vision screening process table....................................20
2.6 The level of users’ need (Frascara, 2002)..............................................................23
3.1 Research Structure.................................................................................................27
4.1 The examples of the process during observation...................................................29
4.2 Process of merging the identical problems......................................................33
4.3 Sequence of developing the problem-finding approaches......................................34
4.4 Problem→Context of problem-finding→Coding...................................................35
4.5 Problem and the context of discovery.............................................................36
4.6 Examples of classification process...............................................................39
4.7 Example of classified by the attribute of activity..................................40
4.8 Structure of classifying the attribute by location..................................................41
4.9 Categories in terms of activity, behavior, product and environment.................41
4.10 Figure 4.10 Example of classified by sequence.....................................42
4.11 Example of classified by sequence and causality................................43
5.1 The process of problem observation (first verification)..................................53
5.2 The process of problem observation (second verification).............57
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