||Analytical and Numerical Studies of CO2 Storage Capacity in Nearly Depleted Gas Condensate Reservoirs
||Department of Resources Engineering
material balance equation
PVT property analysis
本研究所推導二氧化碳注儲分析曲線應用於台灣Y凝結油氣層進行歷史調諧及二氧化碳注儲模擬研究，p/z作圖法分析得初始氣體埋藏量為45,540 MMSCF，其氣體採收率為0.72，模擬過程中注入48,870 MMSCF（2.58百萬噸）二氧化碳，其p/z比值（PZR）為1.275（地層壓力回復至4,850 psi）；而原始油氣當量（DTE）為1.088，生產油氣當量（DPE）為1.028，代入典型曲線方程式可得預測之注產氣比為1.443。
The purpose of this study is to develop general analytical equations and type curves for estimating the CO2 storage capacity of natural gas reservoirs. Numerical simulations for different types of natural gas reservoirs were done to study the CO2 storage capacity and to validate the developed analytical solutions. A simulation case study is implemented to calculate the CO2 storage capacity in a target storage site, and the simulated result of CO2 storage capacity is compared by that from the derived p/zmixCO2 plot.
This study successfully derives general analytical equations and type curves. This general solution is capable of analytically calculating CO2 storage capacity of dry-gas, wet-gas, and gas-condensate reservoirs. Furthermore, this method is useful for site screening of CO2 storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.
In the gas-production stage, the z-factor of natural gas (z) decreased with the decreasing formation pressure. However, in the CO2-injection stage, the z-factor of mixed gases (zmixCO2) increased when the formation pressure was recovering. Generally, the value of the zmixCO2 was smaller than that of the z-factor of natural gas under a specific formation pressure. If the initial formation pressure (pi) is considered, the value of the pi/zmixCO2 when CO2 injection finished will be higher than that of the pi/zi of the gas-condensate reservoir. More CO2 can be stored in a gas-condensate reservoir than the amount of natural gas produced.
Numerical simulations for different types of gas reservoirs were used to study their CO2 storage capacity. Additionally, the comparisons of CO2 storage capacity estimates showed that the outcomes of analytical solutions and numerical simulation were similar. The accuracy of the derived general equation was validated.
For the case study, the target site was the Y gas-condensate reservoir located in the Y gas field in northwestern Taiwan. The original gas in place (OGIP) of the Y gas-condensate reservoir was about 45,540 million standard cubic feet (MMSCF) which was estimated from the p/z plot based on the measured productions, formation pressures, and corresponding z-factors. The Y gas-condensate reservoir is a nearly depleted reservoir with a very weak water drive.
Geological and numerical models of the Y gas-condensate reservoir were constructed in this study. Before the simulated CO2 injection started, the numerical model was well tuned using history matching. The simulations of CO2 injection showed that the total CO2 injected was 48,870 MMSCF (2.58 million tons) when the formation pressure was recovered to the initial pressure of 4,850 psi.
The injection/production ratio (IPR) calculated by the derived equation was 1.44 based on the estimates of the ratio of initial p/z and injected p/zmixCO2 (PZR), dimensionless total equivalent gas ratio (DTE), and dimensionless produced equivalent gas ratio (PEG) of 1.275, 1.088, and 1.028, respectively. The value of IPR from analytical method was identical to that derived using the numerical method.
List of Tables VII
List of Figures VIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Greenhouse effect and climate change 1
1.2 CO2 geosequestration 6
1.3 CO2 storage in depleted gas-condensate reservoirs 9
1.4 Motivation 13
1.5 Purposes 14
1.6 Organization 14
Chapter 2 Literature Review 16
2.1 Material balance equations in natural gas reservoirs 16
2.2 PVT properties calculation of gas-condensate reservoirs 22
2.3 CO2 storage and injection in depleted natural gas reservoir 25
2.4 Summary of literature review 34
Chapter 3 Theoretical background 35
3.1 Analytical solutions of p/z plot method 35
3.1.1 General solution of p/z plot of natural gas reservoir 35
3.1.2 Injecting general equations of p/zmix plot 38
3.1.3 Dimensionless injection type curve equations 40
3.1.4 Cumulative water influx 41
3.2 Numerical method of simulations 42
3.2.1 Equation of state (EOS) of Fluid 42
3.2.2 Numerical simulation 45
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 48
4.1 Validation of p/z analytical equations during depletion 48
4.1.1 Validation of the p/z plot method in dry gas model 51
4.1.2 Validation of the p/z2p plot method in a gas-condensate model 54
4.1.3 Sensitivity analysis of the p/z2p plot method in the gas-condensate model 56
4.2 Validation of p/z analytical equations during CO2 injection 60
4.2.1 Validation of CO2 injection type curve for dry-gas reservoirs 60
4.2.2 Validation of CO2 injection type curve on gas-condensate reservoirs 64
Chapter 5 Case study 73
5.1 Geological, engineering, and fluid experimental data 73
5.2 EOS tuning using regression analysis 80
5.3 Numerical model construction and history matching 85
5.4 CO2 injection and type curve estimation 95
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Suggestions 100
6.1 Conclusions 100
6.2 Suggestions 102
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