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系統識別號 U0026-1502201110160400
論文名稱(中文) 使用不同控制單元對重型柴油引擎排放毒性污染物之減量效率
論文名稱(英文) Reduction Efficiencies of Toxic Pollutants by Using Different Control Devices in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 葉彥甫
研究生(英文) Yen-Fu Yeh
學號 p56981126
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-李文智
口試委員-林達昌
口試委員-陳瑞仁
口試委員-張簡國平
口試委員-陳康興
中文關鍵字 重型柴油引擎  PAHs  PCDD/Fs  PCBs  PBDEs 
英文關鍵字 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine  PAHs  PCDD/Fs  PCBs  PBDEs 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究主要目標為探討重型柴油引擎在動力計測試下尾氣排放毒性污染物之特性,並且評估不同控制技術對毒性污染物排放的減量效率。本研究主要使用定容積稀釋系統,測量重型柴油引擎排放毒性污染物,包含PAHs、PCDD/Fs、PCBs、PBDEs。實驗參數以市售超級柴油(B1)為基準,進行加裝氧化觸媒(B1+DOC)及濾煙器(B1+DPF) 與使用低硫柴油(S10,含硫量<10ppmv)及生質柴油(B10)等不同控制技術之測試。研究成果如下。
暫態測試結果顯示B1、B1+DOC、B1(S10)、B1+DPF與B10之Total PAHs排放係數分別為672、44.7、87.1、40.7及101 μg/bhp-h。Total PCDD/Fs I-TEQ排放係數分別為24.0、7.04、13.4、7.71及73.2 pg I-TEQ/bhp-h。Total PCBs TEQ排放係數分別為2.68、1.12、2.47、0.103及1.59 pg TEQ/bhp-h。B1、B1+DOC、B1(S10)之Total PBDEs排放係數分別為351、146及55.0 ng/bhp-h。
在氣固相分佈上,結果顯示,除了B1+DPF與B10之PCDD/Fs排放廢氣組成以固相為主,介於65.2~97.3%,其餘測試條件與毒性污染物之排放廢氣組成皆以氣相污染物為主,其中氣相PAHs佔 81.7~98.4%,氣相PCDD/Fs佔53.4~61.4%,氣相PCBs佔61.1~81.9%,氣相PBDEs佔50.0~83.7%。
以B1為基準,在使用DOC後,對柴油引擎排放廢氣中4種毒性污染物之減量率,分別為PAHs之93.5%, PCBs之72.5%, PBDEs之59.6%,PCDD/Fs之46.6%。而在使用DPF後,對柴油引擎排放廢氣中3種毒性污染物之減量率,分別為PAHs之93.9%, PCBs之73.4%,PCDD/Fs之19.1%。使用低含硫柴油後,柴油引擎排放廢氣中4種毒性污染物之減量率分別為PBDEs之84.5%, PAHs之87.2%, PCB之33.8%, PCDD/Fs之11.3%。而使用高含量之生質柴油後,柴油引擎排放廢氣中3種毒性污染物之減量率分別為PAHs之85.0%, PCB之69.7%, PCDD/Fs之-1680%。
本研究結果顯示使用氧化觸媒、濾煙器及B1(S10)皆為削減毒性污染物之有效控制技術。而使用B10油品對戴奧辛有生成的效果,但是對於其他污染物皆為有效控制技術。
英文摘要 The characteristic of toxic pollutants from the heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) on a dynamometer was investigated and evaluated the reduction rate of toxic pollutants with different control devices. The constant-volume sampler (CVS) was used to measure the toxic pollutants including PAHs, PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs which were emitted from HDDE exhaust. Testing was used on retailed diesel (B1) to establish a baseline measurement and subjected to four additional test cycles; two were fueled with lower sulfur fuel (<10 ppm) (S10), and high-biodiesel fuel (B10), the other two were installed with the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) (B1+DOC) and the diesel particle filter (DPF) (B1+DPF).
The PAH emission factors of B1, B1+DOC, S10, B1+DPF and B10 were 672, 44.7, 87.1, 40.7 and 101μg/bhp-h, respectively. The PCDD/F I-TEQ emission factors of B1, B1+DOC, S10, B1+DPF and B10 were 24.0, 7.04, 13.4, 7.71 and 73.2 pg I-TEQ/bhp-h, respectively. The PCB TEQ emission factors of B1, B1+DOC, S10, B1+DPF and B10 were 2.68, 1.12, 2.47, 0.103 and 1.59 pg TEQ/bhp-h, respectively. The PBDE emission factors of B1, B1+DOC and S10 were 351, 146 and 55.0 ng/bhp-h, respectively. In particle/gas partition, PCDD/Fs in B1+DPF and B10 both primarily consist in particle phase and the range of them is between 65.2~97.3%. However, the particle/gas partition in the other test conditions and toxic pollutants that were mainly existing in gas phase; the total PAHs in gas phase were about 81.7~98.4%, PCDD/Fs in gas phase were 53.4~61.4%, PCBs in gas phase were 61.1~81.9%, and PBDEs in gas phase were 50.0~83.7%.
After using DOC, the reduction rate of these gas-phase PAHs was 93.5%; for those of PCBs, the reduction rate were 72.5%, 59.6% for PBDEs, and 46.6% for PCDD/Fs. The reduction rate of PAHs was 93.9%, 73.4% for PCBs, and 19.1% for PCDD/Fs when DPF was added. After using low sulfur oil, the reduction rate of PAH was 85.4%, 87.2% for PCBs, 33.8% for PBDEs and 11.3% for PCDD/Fs. The reduction rates of PAHs were 85.0%, 69.7% for PCBs, and -1680% for PCDD/Fs when the B10 was used.
In this study, DOC, DPF and low sulfur oil were effective control devices for toxic pollutants. On the other hand, B10 diesel enhanced the formation of PCDD/Fs, but it can still control the other toxic pollutants well.
論文目次 摘 要 III
Abstract V
誌 謝 VII
Contents VIII
List of Tables X
List of Figures XII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literatures review 3
2.1 Diesel engine 3
2.2 Emission of pollutants from diesel engine 4
2.2.1 Traditional pollutants 4
2.2.2 Toxic pollutants 4
2.2.2.1 PAHs 5
2.2.2.2 PCDD/Fs and PCBs 7
2.2.2.3 PBDEs 10
2.3 Control technologies method for pollutant emissions 12
2.3.1 Oxidation catalyst 12
2.3.2 Diesel particulate filter 13
2.3.3 Biodiesel 13
Chapter 3 Experimental section 15
3.1 Framework of this study 15
3.2 Sampling facility 17
3.2.1 Dynamometer 17
3.2.2 Sampling collection 17
3.2.3 Aftertreatments and oil properties 20
3.3 Analysis methods 21
3.3.1 PAHs 21
3.3.2 PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs 22
3.3.2 QA/QC 24
Chapter 4 Results and discussions 29
4.1 Pollutant concentrations 29
4.2 Particle/Gas partition 42
4.3 Congener profiles 48
4.4 Emission factors 53
4.5 Particle-Bound composition 69
4.6 Reduction rate 75
Chapter 5 Conclusions 85
References 87

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