||Effect of Shoulder Injury and Fatigue in Biomechanics of Upper Limb During Fastball Pitching in Taiwanese Baseball Pitchers
||Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
棒球的投擲動作多採過肩運動，而長時間的訓練以及慣用臂的重複使用往往提高受傷的風險。本研究希望了解投手在單一部位疲勞後投球的機制，並提出有效方案以改善慣用臂使用情況。本研究目的為探討單一部位疲勞流程對投手投擲直球的影響，比較有無肩部傷害史的實驗參與者之間的運動學參數差異和透過動力學數值計算評估受傷風險較高的力量閾值為何。完成肩部疲勞流程後，所有實驗參與者的控球表現與球速均未達顯著差異。同時，上舉期的肩關節最大外旋角度 (P = 0.015)以及加速期時的肩關節最大外展角度則也有顯著差異 (P = 0.004)，疲勞狀態下的肩關節最大內旋角速度也下降 (P = 0.008)。有肩部傷史的投手投擲直球在加速期有著較小的肩關節外展角度以及較慢的內收角速度，肌肉活化程度主要以旋轉肌群的棘下肌的肌肉徵召下降較為顯著 (P = 0.003)，而手肘內翻力矩 (P = 0.060) 也些微影響投擲直球過程。在肩部疲勞狀態下，所有的投手仍能兼顧投擲直球的球速與準確度。投球動作的表現與肌肉活化程度因為肩部疲勞而產生變化，在疲勞狀態下，投手需要以較小的揮臂軌跡與強化旋轉肌群來保護肩部前側肌肉與肩關節盂唇。增加熱身項目及時間和限制比賽及練習中的用球數是避免上肢使用過度而受傷。歷經投球之後完整伸展活動與增加旋轉肌群強度是延長投球生涯的關鍵。
As overhead movement plays a major role in baseball pitching, highly repetitive motion or long-term training or overuse under fatigue is highly related to a risk of dominant shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pitching after fatigue had occurred, identify the effect of fatigue protocol on the local joint and then conducted a comparison in kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG) data between injury and control groups to determine whether there was the significant difference after the fatigue protocol. The results showed no significant difference in ball speed and accuracy of pitching between the fatigue tests. However, there were significant differences in the maximum shoulder external rotation angle in the cocking phase (P = 0.015), the maximum internal rotation angular velocity in the acceleration phase (P = 0.008), and the smaller shoulder abduction angle in the acceleration phase (P = 0.004) after the fatigue protocol. Infraspinatus of the muscle activity had a significant difference in the EMG result after the fatigue test (P = 0.003). In spite of the fact that there was no significant difference in the kinetic results (P = 0.060), elbow varus torque still affected baseball fastball pitching. To guarantee the maximum performance without sacrificing ball speed and accuracy, pitchers would depend on smaller swinging trajectory and the enhancement of rotator cuff to protect their shoulder anterior muscle and the shoulder joint lip. Increasing the warm-up project and time and limiting the number of balls pitched in the game, and practice were an important way to avoid injury. Complete stretching activities and enhancement of the strength of the rotating muscles after pitching were the key to prolonging the pitching career.
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. BACKGROUND 2
2.1. Musculoskeletal shoulder pathology in baseball pitcher 2
2.2. Study of pitching mechanics and electromyography on upper extremity during baseball pitching 5
2.3. Proximal segme sociated with upper extremity motion 9
2.4. Motivation 12
3. PURPOSE AND SPECIFIC AIMS 13
3.1. Purpose 13
3.2. Specific aims 13
3.3. Significance for the Study 14
4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD 16
4.1. Operational definition 16
4.2. Participants 16
4.3. Instrument and environment 17
4.4. Procedures 19
4.5. Data analysis 23
4.5.1 Kinematic analysis 23
4.5.2 Kinetic analysis 25
4.5.3 Surface electromyography analysis 25
4.6. Statistical analysis 28
5. RESULTS 30
5.1. The shoulder pain scale 30
5.2. MRI reports 31
5.3. The shoulder internal rotation power test comparison 32
5.4. Ball speed and accuracy 33
5.5. Kinematic 35
5.6. Kinetic 42
5.7. EMG 46
6. DISCUSSION 53
6.1. The pain scales comparison with the participants 53
6.2. Association between ball speed and accuracy and fatigued state 53
6.3. Between group comparisons of baseball fastball pitching 54
6.4. Between group comparisons of baseball pitching force 55
6.5. Comparisons of muscle activity in non-fatigued and fatigued states 56
6.6. Comparison of pitching in non-fatigued and fatigued states 58
6.7. Comparison of pitching mechanical between injury and control groups 59
6.8. Limitations 60
7. CONCLUSION 61
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