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系統識別號 U0026-1408201515474200
論文名稱(中文) 即時走時序列地震定位法及台灣小區域地震預警陣列應用
論文名稱(英文) The rapid travel-time sequence method for earthquake locating and application of the local earthquake early warning arrays in Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 蔡承勇
研究生(英文) Cheng-Yung Tsai
學號 l46021028
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 163頁
口試委員 指導教授-樂鍇‧祿璞崚岸
口試委員-饒瑞鈞
口試委員-蕭乃祺
中文關鍵字 地震預警  地震減災  地震預警陣列  即時地震定位 
英文關鍵字 Earthquake early warning 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣地震活動頻繁,再加上地狹人稠的地理特性,面對未來可能發生的災害性地震,如何有效降低地震災害是一件刻不容緩的工作。然而在現今地震災害防救科技中,仍無有效的地震預測技術,反觀地震預警系統已發展到實際應用的階段,為目前地震減災最有效的方法之一。地震規模及震源位置為地震災害評估最主要的兩個參數,因此如何快速決定此兩參數也成為地震預警中最重要的課題。由於Palert為低價位之加速度型感測器且安裝於建築物牆壁上,不同於一般傳統地震儀安裝於自由表面,因此有較低之訊噪比且建築物效應必須去除,因此本研究在台南及宜蘭各選五個測站建立小區域地震預警陣列進行測試實驗,利用波形訊號疊加法提升訊噪比,並去除建築物效應,得到適用於台灣地震預警陣列的Pd規模預估公式,且有著良好的標準差,公式如下: 。
在地震定位方面,為了預警目的,假設速度構造不具有側向不均勻性,因此僅以一維速度模型計算地震波走時,使地震定位有較大的誤差,因此本研究將台灣地區切成密集的三維網格點,每一格點皆為假設震源,利用台灣地區三維速度構造模型及虛擬曲折波線追跡法計算每點假設震源之中央氣象局地震速報觀測網(RTD)測站走時排序並存成資料庫。當真實地震發生,搜尋震源時僅以其觀測之前十名測站排序比對資料庫,找到測站排序差最小之格點,即為計算震源,計算過程快速又簡單。模擬過去發生之48個島內及沿海規模大於4之地震,本研究計算震央及深度相較於中央氣象局地震目錄及地震速報系統之定位結果,震央平均差值為5.6公里,而深度平均差值為6.1公里。
英文摘要 How to determine the magnitude and the hypocenter in few seconds after an earthquake occurring are two of the most important issues in seismic hazard mitigation. Based on the on-site process, we installed two local early warning arrays in Ilan and Tainan City of the newly established Palert EEW network and adopted the waveform stacking method to enhance the coherent part of early arrivals. The MPd method is used to estimate the earthquake magnitude. By modifying the present Pd attenuation relationships, we show that the accuracy (S.D.V. = 0.28) of magnitude estimation for the on-site EEW mode can be siginificantly improved since the sensors of the nearly built Palert network aer installed inside the building.
The earthquake location for EEW purpose is always a tough problem due to the complicated process and long reporting time. Therefore, we developed a new method to determine the hypocenter in a simple-calculating process. Different events will have different ranking list of the triggered stations due to the geographical distribution if the point source is assumed. We divided Taiwan region into many grids. Each grid is the preset hypocenter and has its own station ranking list as the pre-calculate database computed by the velocity model and 3-D ray tracing method. When an earthquake occurs, we use the real station ranking list to compare the database, and find the least difference grid as the hypocenter. Our results show comparable or better performing than the current operating rapid reporting and EEW systems in Taiwan.
論文目次 論文說明 I
摘要 II
Extended Abstract III
致謝 VIII
目錄 X
圖目錄 XIV
表目錄 XVII
第一章、緒論
1.1 前言 1
1.2 地震預警歷史沿革及各國發展 5
1.3 台灣地震預警發展回顧 14
1.4台灣Palert地震預警系統 18
1.4.1 系統發展沿革 18
1.4.2 設備介紹 18
1.4.3 系統運作流程 19
1.5 研究動機及目的 25
第二章、地震預警原理
2.1 地震預警基本概念 27
2.2 地震預警模式 30
2.3 地震預警之規模預估 32
2.4 地震預警之震源位置推估 36
第三章、研究方法
3.1 第一部分-小區域地震預警陣列 41
3.1.1 地震事件選取 41
3.1.2 P波到時判定(P -phase Picking) 42
3.1.3 波形交互相關(Cross-correlation) 42
3.1.4 波形疊加法 42
3.1.5 規模預估 43
3.2 第二部分-即時走時序列地震定位法 53
3.2.1 台灣即時強地動地震速報觀測網( RTD)簡介 53
3.2.2 測站走時資料庫建立 54
3.2.3 格點搜尋法 56
第四章、 研究成果
4.1 第一部分-小區域地震預警陣列 62
4.1.1 規模預估結果 62
4.2 第二部分-即時走時序列地震定位法 64
4.2.1 資料庫自身模擬測試(Self-simulation test) 64
4.2.2 地震定位結果 64
第五章、 討論
5.1第一部分-小區域預警陣列結果討論 71
5.1.1 建築物放大效應 71
5.1.2 波形疊加法對於波形品質改善討論 72
5.2 第二部分-即時走時序列地震定位法結果討論 76
5.2.1 自身模擬結果分析 76
5.2.2 定位結果分析 76
5.2.3 地震定位時效討論 77
第六章、結論 82
參考文獻 83
附錄一Palert 地預警系統測站分布 95
附錄二 各地震事件之陣列五測站波形及疊加波形 111
附錄三 各地震事件之陣列式波形處理參數表 128
附錄四 中央氣象局地震速報系統(RTD)測站列表 132
附錄五 各地震事件定位結果 136
附錄六 陣列式波形處理SAC指令集 138
附錄七 建立測站走時排序資料庫程式碼(FORTRAN 95) 140
附錄八 震源格點搜尋程式碼(FORTRAN 95) 162
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