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系統識別號 U0026-1407201716371700
論文名稱(中文) 腓特烈大帝的開明專制與國家利益
論文名稱(英文) Frederick the Great:his enlightened absolutism and national interests
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 歷史學系
系所名稱(英) Department of History
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 王世宏
研究生(英文) Shih-Hung Wang
學號 K36001017
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 165頁
口試委員 召集委員-楊彥彬
指導教授-王琪
口試委員-王文霞
中文關鍵字 腓特烈大帝  開明專制  啟蒙  普魯士  反馬基維利 
英文關鍵字 Frederick the Great  Enlightened Absolutism  Enlightenment  Prussia  anti-machievelli 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在普魯士發展並崛起的過程中,腓特烈大帝是當中極為關鍵的人物,一方面在其統治期間,藉由西利西利亞戰爭、七年戰爭使普魯士領地與人口皆擴張,並成為歐洲強權之一;二方面他也是開明專制君主的典範,在施政中融入啟蒙思想以求增進人民的福祉。
本文旨在討論是什麼原因使腓特烈這位成長於專制王家的統治者會願意接受並設法落實啟蒙思想?其次,受啟蒙觀念影響下的腓特烈對君主身為統治者之角色是否有別於一般專制君主;再次,就強敵環伺的普魯士而言,腓特烈藉由哪些方式達成其所認為之國家真正的利益?而其即位前對統治者職責的思考與理想要如何在符合國家利益之前提下融入於其施政中?而個人理想與國家利益相抵觸時,腓特烈又是如何抉擇?藉此以瞭解腓特烈大帝開明專制統治下的普魯士王國及當代與後世給予之評價,以說明腓特烈作為開明專制統治之典範及其對普魯士與後世之貢獻。
英文摘要 SUMMARY
This thesis attempts to discuss the reason why Frederick the Great who grew up in the autocratic royal house would be willing to accept and try to practice the enlightenment ideas in his mind? Is the role and duties of a ruler differ from the traditional autocratic monarchy under the influence of the Enlightenment thought? What is the real interests of Prussia and how did Frederick achieve that? Still, this thesis try to discuss that how Frederick to integrate his thought about the duties of the ruler into his rule. And when personal ideals and national interests is in conflict, how do Frederick make the choice?
This thesis plans to understand the conditions of Prussia under the rule of Frederick the Great and the evaluation of contemporary and later generations to Frederick as the model of enlightened absolutism ruler and its contribution to Prussia.

Keyword: Frederick the Great, Enlightened Absolutism, Enlightenment, Prussia, anti-machievelli

INTRODUCTION

In the process of the development and rise of Prussia, Frederick the Great is one of the most important figures. During his reign, Frederick the Great not only enlarged the territory and population of Prussia but also raise Prussia to the main state of Europe. On the other hand, Frederick the Great is also a model of enlightened absolutism. He realized his enlightenment ideals through domestic policy in order to promote the welfare of his people.
But in the process of the rise of Prussia, what are the main objects which Prussia needs and
how could the rulers from the Great Elector to Frederick the Great achieve that? Furthermore, as the model of enlightened absolutism ruler, Frederick view himself as ‘the first servant of state’, and he look how to promote the welfare of his people as an important purpose of rulers. Meanwhile, Frederick also put the national interests of Prussia in the first place. So this thesis wants to understand how Frederick the Great combined the national interests and enlightened ideals in his policies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This thesis mainly use the original works of Frederick the Great ,and those works were collected in “Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen“ (ten volumes) .These works contain most of the writings of Frederick the Great, and in that we can see the thoughts of Frederick the Great about politics, economics, military, finance, philosophy, even literature. Among these works, the political testament of 1752 is the most important resource provided the principles of the Frederick’s rule. Frederick’s other works finished after the Seven Years War also provided the concepts or the considerations about how Frederick the Great face the crises in 1770s and 1780s. Besides, this thesis also use many biographies of Frederick the Great in order to more understand the pass research.

Conclusion
Although Frederick William I and Frederick II are quite different from the character and preferences, there are still many similarities in their ways of rule. The differences and similarities of Frederick and his father to a certain extent came from his education and growth process. The education from Rocoulle and Duhan and the military education from General Fenkenstein and Colonel Kalckstein made Frederick love French culture and literature, on the other hand, also made Frederick know about the operation of Prussia's military-centered system.
Frederick also affected by the works of the enlightenment thinkers. For instance, in the work of Wolf, he emphasis that the ruler should rule according to the rational principle, and need to establishment the welfare of his people under the principle of reason. The more important thing is because of the correspondence with Voltaire Frederick express his pursuit of a rational way of ruling the state in his "anti-Machievelli". In this article ,Frederick thinks that the rulers must have a noble character, like honesty, justice. However, because of the experiences in the administrative and military services, Frederick realized that he must consider from a higher perspective to insight into various events in order to obtain the real interests of Prussia. From this point of view, Frederick's rule is different from the traditional despotism monarch. Frederick the Great thought that the ruler must be the head of the family of the state, the father of the people, the last refuge of the unfortunate, the father of the orphan, the husband of the widow, and the help of all the poor people. As the ruler of government, he must be the first commander of the army, the first minister of the internal affairs, more importantly, his actions must be in line with his responsibilities, and fulfill his duties with prudent and correct attitude.
Indeed, under the initiative of Frederick, the territory and population of Prussia both expended. Frederick, with his astonishing energies, made use of and developed everything he had inherited, and raised Prussia into the first-rank power of Europe . This might be the most important contribution of Frederick the Great in Prussia's history.
論文目次 目 錄

目錄 i
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 文獻回顧與章節安排 4

第二章 腓特烈之成長與受教 11
第一節 成長時期嚴格的王儲教育以及企圖離家出走之舉 12
(一) 腓特特.威廉一世對王儲教育之安排 12
(二) 腓特烈與父親的不和及企圖離家之因 19
第二節 王儲的再教育與《反馬基維利》對統治者之觀點 28
(一) 腓特烈在行政機關及軍事單位的實習與歷練 28
(二) 萊茵斯堡時期的生活 35
(三) 《反馬基維利》所反映之統治者形象 39

第三章 腓特烈二世所繼承的普魯士王國 51
第一節 三十年戰爭前之布蘭登堡選侯國 51
(一) 布蘭登堡選侯國的建立 52
(二) 三十年戰爭前霍恩索倫家族的經營 53
(三) 三十年戰爭前後的危機 57
第二節 普魯士王國崛起基礎之奠定 59
(一) 選侯腓特烈.威廉的勵精圖治 59
(二) 國王稱號的取得與普魯士的文化發展 68
(三) 腓特烈.威廉一世對國家的改造 70

第四章 普魯士國家利益的具體實現 75
第一節 普鲁士邁入歐洲強權之列 75
(一) 取得強權地位的西利西亞戰爭 76
(二) 鞏固強權地位的七年戰爭 83
(三) 瓜分波蘭─取得渴望的西普魯士 89
第二節 維持神聖羅馬帝國內普奧兩國之均勢 95
(一) 巴伐利亞爵位繼承戰爭 95
(二) 君主同盟的成立 99
第三節 厚植國力的內部建設 102
(一) 行政組織的再調整 102
(二) 重商主義政策的推行 110
(三) 對新領地的管理 117
(四) 積極接受移民進行荒地開墾 125

第五章 國家利益與治國理想間的調和 130
第一節 以國家利益至上的外交方針 131
第二節 藉開明之內政改革實踐治國理想 139

第六章 結論 148

參考文獻 154

附錄一:腓特烈二世大事年表 160
附錄二:地圖:布蘭登堡─普魯士領地擴張(1417-1740) 163
附錄三:地圖:腓特烈大帝在位期間普魯士王國領地 164
附錄四:普魯士王國霍恩索倫家族之世系表 165
參考文獻 一、原始史料
1.Friedrich II, Denkwürdigkeiten zur Geschichte des Hauses Brandenburg, in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. I, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.1-163.
2. Friedrich II, Der politische Zustand Brandenburgs einst und jetzt, in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. I, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.164-225.
3. Friedrich II, Betrachtungen über den gegenwärtigen politischen Zustand Europas (1738), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. I, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.165-243.
4. Friedrich II, Geschichte meiner Zeit (1775), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. II, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.10-270.
5. Friedrich II, Geschichte des Siebenjährigen Krieges, Kap.1-9 , in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. III, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.1-238.
6. Friedrich II, Denkwürdigkeiten vom Hubertusburger Frieden bis zum Ende der Polnischen Teilung, in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. V, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.2-82
7. Friedrich II, Der Bayrische Erbfolgekrieg, in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. V, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.99-133.
8. Friedrich II, Über die Politik (November 1784), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. V, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.153-155.
9. Friedrich II, Zur Geschichte des Deutschen Fürstenbundes, in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. V, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.156-160.
10. Friedrich II, Entwurf zur "Darlegung der Gründe, aus denen der König in Schlesien eingerückt ist" (Dezember 1740), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. V, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.168-169.
11. Friedrich II, Das militärische Testament von 1768, in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. VI, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.222- 261.
12. Friedrich II, Der Antimachiavell, in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. VII, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.1-114.
13. Friedrich II, Das politische Testament von 1752, in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. VII, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.115- 193.
14. Friedrich II, Schreiben des Kronprinzen Friedrich an den Kammerjunker von Natzmer (Februar 1731), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. VII, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.197-199.
15. Friedrich II, Abriß der preußischen Regierung und der Grundsätze, auf denen sie beruht, nebst einigen politischen Betrachtungen (1776), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. VII, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.210-216.
16. Fridrich II, Betrachtungen über den politischen Zustand Europas (9. Mai 1782), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. VII, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.217-221.
17. Friedrich II, Betrachtungen über die preußische Finanzverwaltung (20. Oktober 1784), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. VII, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.222-224.
18. Friedrich II, Regierungsformen und Herrscherpflichten (1777), in Gustav Berthold Volz (ed.), Die Werke Friedrichs des Großen Bd. VII, Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1913, pp.225-237.
19. Hein, Max. (ed.) Briefe Friedrich des Großen. Berlin: Hobbing, 1914.
20. Rödenbeck, Karl Heinrich Siegfried. (ed.) Tagebuch oder Geschichtskalender aus Friedrichs des Großen Regentenleben 1740-1786. Berlin: Plahn, 1840.
21. Taureck, Bernhard. (ed.) Friedrich der Große und die Philosophie: Texte und Dokumente. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1986.
22. 馬基維利著,何欣譯《君王論》,臺北:台灣中華書局股份有限公司,1993。

二、專書
1. Asprey, Robert B. Frederick the Great: the Magnificent Enigma. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1986.
2. Behrens, C. B. A. Society,Government and the Enlightenment: The experiences of eighteenth-century France and Prussia. New York : Harper & Row, Publisher, 1985.
3. Bruun, Geoffrey. The Enlightened Despots. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1957.
4. Broszat, Martin. 200 Jahre deutsche Polenpolitik. Frankfurt/M: Ehrenwirth, 1972.
5. Berkeley, Sabina. and H. M. Scott ed./ tran. Frederick the Great. London and New York: Longman, 2000.
6. Duffy, Christopher. Frederick the Great: A Military Life. New York : Routledge, 1988.
7. Droysen, Hans. Tageskalender des Kronprinzen Friedrich vom 26. Februar 1732 bis 31. Mai 1740. Munich and Leipzig: Publisher of Duncker & Humblot, 1913.
8. Dorwart, Reinhold August. The Adminstrative Reforms of Frederick William I of Prussia. Westport: Conn., Greenwood Press, 1971.
9. Elon, Amos. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany 1743-1933. New York: Metropolitan Books: Holt H, 2002.
10. Gooch, G. P. Friedrich der Große: Herrscher-Schriftsteller-Mensch. München: W. Heyne, 1986.
11. Hauser, Oswald (ed.) Friedrich der Große in seiner Zeit. Koln: Bohlau, 1987.
12. Hubatsch, Walther., translated by Partrick Doran. Frederick the Great of Prussia: Absolutism and Adminstration. London: Thames and Hudson, 1975.
13. Kugler, Franz. Geschichte Friedrichs des Großen. Leipzig: Avenarius u. Mendelssohn, 1856.
14. Koch, H. W. A History of Prussia. New York: Dorest, 1978.
15. Lavisse, Ernest. The Youth of Frederick the Great. Chicago: S. C. Griggs and Company, 1892.
16. Löwenstein, Hubertus Prinz zu. Deutsche Geschichte. Berlin: Herbig, 1962.
17. Macartney, C.A. (ed.) The Habsburg and Hohenzollern Dynasties in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row, 1970.
18. Manuel, Frank E. The Age of Reason. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1951.
19. Mamatary, Victor S. Rise of the Habsburg Empire 1526─1815. Huntinton: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1918.
20. Ritter, Gerhard. translated by Peter Paret. Frederick the Great: A Historical Profiles. Los Angels: University of California Press, 1970.
21. Reddaway, W.F. Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia. New York: Haskell House Publishers Ltd., 1969.
22. Showalter, Dennis. The Wars of Frederick the Great. New York: Longman, 1996.
23. Snyder, Louis L. (ed.) Frederick the Great. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.
24. Shennan, Margaret. The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia. New York: Routedge, 1995.
25. Steinberg, S. H. The ‘Thirty Years War’ and the conflict for European Hegemony 1600-1660. London: Edward Arnold, 1981.
26. Schieder, Theodor. Friedrich der Große: Ein Königtum der Widersprüche. Frankfurt am Main: Propyläen, 1983.
27. Treitschke, Heinrich von. translated by Eden & Cedar Paul. Origins of Prussianism. New York: Howard Fertig,1969.
28. Urban, William. The Teutonic Knights: A Military History. London: Greenhill Books, 2003.
29. Vierhaus, Rodolf. translated by Jonathan B. Knudsen. Deutschland im Zeitalter des Absoluismus. Cambridge: Cambridge Univesity Press, 1988.
30. 郭恆鈺,《德意志帝國史話》,臺北:三民書局,1992。
31. 丁建弘、李霞,《普鲁士的精神與文化》,臺北:淑馨出版社,1996。
32. 張旺山導讀、選讀,《政治科學的君王─馬基維利作品選讀》,臺北:誠品,1999。
33. 謝南(J. H. Shennan)著,鄭明萱譯,《十八世紀的歐洲情勢》,臺北市:麥田,2000。

三、專文與期刊
1. Abbott, J. S. C.“ FREDERICK THE GREAT I.- The Parentage of Frederick.”, Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Vol.40, 1869, pp.1-21.
2. Abbott, J. S. C.“ FREDERICK THE GREAT II.- The Double Marriage.”, Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Vol.40, 1869, pp.161-181.
3. Bakshian, Aram. “Father and Son: Frederick William and Frederick the Great in Prussia”, in History Today Vol.26-5, 1976, pp.293-301.
4. Blanning T. C. W. “Frederick the Great and Enlightened Absolutism” , in H. M. Scott (ed.), Enlightened Absolutism: Reform and Reformers in Later Eighteenth Century Europe, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.
5. Gooch, G. P. “Frederick the Great I.-The Making of Prussia”, in Contemporary Review Vol.166, 1944, pp.219-228.
6. Gooch, G. P. “Frederick the Great II.- The Later Phase”, in Contemporary Review Vol.166, 1944, pp.286-295.
7. Gooch, G. P. “Frederick the Great III.-The Crown Prince”, in Contemporary Review Vol.166, 1944, pp.346-355.
8. Gooch, G. P. “Frederick the Great IV.-The Philosopher in Sans Souci”, in Contemporary Review Vol.167, 1945, pp.26-33.
9. Gooch, G. P. “Frederick the Great V.-Autumn Shadows”, in Contemporary Review Vol.167, 1945, pp.93-100.
10. Hubatsch, Walther. “Die Übernahme Westpreußens und des Netzedistrikts durch Preußen im Jahre 1772”, in Friedhelm Berthold Kaiser, Bernhard Stasiewski (ed.), Die erste polnische Teilung 1772, Köln: Böhlau, 1974.
11. Kaplan, Herbert H.“Prince Henry and the Balance of Power”, in Thomas M. Barker (ed.), Frederick the Great and The Making of Prussia, New York: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1976.
12. Koser, Reinhold. “Carpe Diem, or Prussia’s Self-interest”, in Thomas M. Barker (ed.), Frederick the Great and The Making of Prussia, New York: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company,1976.
13. Scott, H. M.“Introduction: The Problem of Enlightened Absolutism”, in H. M. Scott (ed.), Enlightened Absolutism: Reform and Reformers in Later Eighteenth Century Europe, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.
14. Scott, H. M.“Prussia from Rossbach to Jena”, in German History Vol.12 No.3, 1994, pp.279-285.
15. Scott, H. M.“Aping the Great Powers: Frederick the Great and the Defence of Prussia's International Position, 1763-86”, in German History Vol.12 No.3, 1994, pp.286-307.
16. Stern-Taeubler, Selma.“The Jews in the Economic Policy of Frederick the Great.”, in Jewish Social Studies Vol.11, 1949, pp.129-152.
17. 謝方菊,《腓特烈大帝對音樂文化的貢獻》(高雄:國立中山大學音樂學系碩士論文,2005年)
18. 曾珮娟,《日耳曼啟蒙運動的特質》(臺北:國立政治大學歷史學系碩士論文,2006年)

四、網路資料
1.https://www.google.com.tw/?gws_rd=ssl#q=Peter+H.+Wilson,+Frederick+the+Great+and+Imperial+Politics+1740-1756,最後瀏覽日期:2016.4.18。
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Nantes,最後瀏覽日期:2017.7.10。
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatrum_Europaeum,最後瀏覽日期:2017.7.10。
4. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldene_Bulle,最後瀏覽日期:2017.7.10。
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henriade,最後瀏覽日期:2017.7.10。
6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_France,最後瀏覽日期:2017.7.10。
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesare_Borgia,最後瀏覽日期:2016.4.18。
6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_de_la_Tour_d'Auvergne,_Vicomte_de_Turenne,最後瀏覽日期:2016.4.19。
7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dubislav_Gneomar_von_Natzmer,最後瀏覽日期:2016.4.19。
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