進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-1406201916304500
論文名稱(中文) 氣候變遷下黑潮於臺灣東北的入侵變動
論文名稱(英文) Variability of the Kuroshio Intrusion off northeast Taiwan under Climate Change
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 海洋科技與事務研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 蔡昀展
研究生(英文) Yun-Chan Tsai
學號 NA6064014
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 55頁
口試委員 指導教授-張懿
口試委員-莊士賢
口試委員-曾若玄
中文關鍵字 黑潮  海表溫鋒面  氣候變遷  經驗模態分解 
英文關鍵字 Kuroshio  sea surface temperature front  climate change  empirical mode decomposition 
學科別分類
中文摘要 西太平洋邊緣海的重要海流黑潮有時會侵入呂宋海峽和臺灣東北大陸棚,然後進入南海(SCS)和東海(ECS),這也影響沿海水動力環境和傳輸熱量,因此,了解黑潮在氣候變遷下的變動模式是必要的。
本研究利用衛星流場、風應力和海洋表面溫度資料來探討黑潮的兩個入侵熱點之間季節變動的關係,並且建立路徑分析模型說明變數間的因果關係,結果顯示臺灣東北的入侵強度與流場、風應力甚至與PDO及ONI指標有關,同時也說明兩個入侵熱點的季節變動一致性,在冬季時容易蜿蜒入侵呂宋海峽及臺灣東北,導致黑潮入侵增強,然而夏季時,黑潮路徑相對筆直,使黑潮入侵減弱。
將海表溫鋒面定義為黑潮入侵指標,再利用經驗模態分解法解釋氣候變遷下黑潮入侵呂宋海峽和臺灣東北部的長期趨勢(1985-2017)。結果顯示長期以來呂宋海峽的黑潮入侵持續減少,而臺灣東北部的入侵1990年代後逐漸增強。根據海流數據顯示,菲律賓東側的黑潮逐年增強,因此黑潮主流快速向北流動,導致入侵呂宋海峽的海流減少;然而,黑潮持續向北流至臺灣東部後主流流速卻減弱,也因此強化了臺灣東北部陸棚的入侵現象。
英文摘要 The water and material exchange between oceans and ocean currents are crucial because it can modulate the water mass and ecosystem in marginal sea. Therefore, understanding the pattern of the Kuroshio variation under climate change is necessary for understanding its possible effects on biophysical processes in the marginal seas of the West Pacific Ocean.
This study employed satellite geostrophic current, wind stress, and sea surface temperature (SST) oceanic front data to examine the seasonal variation in the two hotspots of Kuroshio intrusion. A path analysis model was established to explain the causation between paired parameters. The results show Kuroshio intrusion in northeastern Taiwan relates to current, wind stress, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Oceanic Niño Index (ONI). The Kuroshio current meanders toward the Luzon Strait and northeastern Taiwan during winter, when PDO and wind stress exhibited a positive relationship with Kuroshio intrusion, whereas ONI had a negative effect on the intrusion.
The SST fronts, which has been used as a Kuroshio intrusion index during 1985–2017, was examined through an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) approach to examine the long-term Kuroshio variation under climate change. The results revealed that the Kuroshio intrusion in the Luzon Strait has been continuously decreased from 1990s and increased in northeastern Taiwan in the last decade. According to current speed, when the northward Kuroshio current in the east Philippines was faster, the westward intrusion into the Luzon Strait decreased. Moreover, the Kuroshio current flowed farther toward the east Taiwan, and the low current velocity enhanced the Kuroshio intrusion in northeastern Taiwan.
論文目次 Abstract i
摘 要 ii
誌謝 iii
Contents v
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivation and Objective 2
1.3 Study Regions 3
Chapter 2 Literature Review 5
2.1 Variation in the Kuroshio Path 5
2.2 Intrusion of the Kuroshio Current in the SCS and ECS 6
2.3 Long-term Variation in Kuroshio Path 7
Chapter 3 Materials and methods 9
3.1 Data 9
3.1.1 SST 9
3.1.2 Geostrophic Current 9
3.1.3 Wind Stress 10
3.1.4 Chlorophyll-A 10
3.1.5 PDO and ONI 10
3.2 Sea Surface Temperature Front Detection 12
3.3 Path Analysis 12
3.4 EMD Method 14
Chapter 4 Results 18
4.1 Monthly and Seasonal Variation in Kuroshio Current 18
4.2 Causations between Kuroshio and Climate Factors 29
4.3 Long-term Trend Analyses Model Test 32
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusions 40
References 48

參考文獻 1. Alwin, D. F., & Hauser, R. M. (1975). The decomposition of effects in path analysis. American sociological review, 37-47.
2. Belkin, I. M., & Cornillon, P. (2003). SST fronts of the Pacific coastal and marginal seas. Pacific Oceanography, 1(2), 90-113.
3. Belkin, I. M., Cornillon, P. C., & Sherman, K. (2009). Fronts in large marine ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography, 81(1-4), 223-236.
4. Belkin, I. M., & O'Reilly, J. E. (2009). An algorithm for oceanic front detection in chlorophyll and SST satellite imagery. Journal of Marine Systems, 78(3), 319-326.
5. Caruso, M. J., Gawarkiewicz, G. G., & Beardsley, R. C. (2006). Interannual variability of the Kuroshio intrusion in the South China Sea. Journal of Oceanography, 62(4), 559-575.
6. Centurioni, L. R., Niiler, P. P., & Lee, D. K. (2004). Observations of inflow of Philippine Sea surface water into the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34(1), 113-121.
7. Chang, Y., Lee, M. A., Shimada, T., Sakaida, F., Kawamura, H., Chan, J. W., & Lu, H. J. (2008). Wintertime high‐resolution features of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll‐a fields associated with oceanic fronts in the southern East China Sea. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 29(21), 6249-6261.
8. Chang, Y., Shieh, W. J., Lee, M. A., Chan, J. W., Lan, K. W., & Weng, J. S. (2010). Fine-scale sea surface temperature fronts in wintertime in the northern South China Sea. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 31(17-18), 4807-4818.
9. Chern, C. S. (1989). On the water masses at northern offshore area of Taiwan. Acta Oceanographica Taiwanica, 22, 14-32.
10. Chern, C. S., & Wang, J. (1998). A numerical study of the summertime flow around the Luzon Strait. Journal of Oceanography, 54(1), 53-64.
11. Chuang, W. S., & Liang, W. D. (1994). Seasonal variability of intrusion of the Kuroshio water across the continental shelf northeast of Taiwan. Journal of Oceanography, 50(5), 531-542.
12. Deering, R., & Kaiser, J. F. (2005, March). The use of a masking signal to improve empirical mode decomposition. In Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2005. Proceedings.(ICASSP'05). IEEE International Conference on (Vol. 4, pp. iv-485). IEEE.
13. Donnelly, D. (2006, October). The fast Fourier and Hilbert-Huang transforms: a comparison. In The Proceedings of the Multiconference on" Computational Engineering in Systems Applications" (Vol. 1, pp. 84-88). IEEE.
14. England, M. H., McGregor, S., Spence, P., Meehl, G. A., Timmermann, A., Cai, W., ... & Santoso, A. (2014). Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nature Climate Change, 4(3), 222.
15. Ezer, T., Heyman, W. D., Houser, C., & Kjerfve, B. (2011). Modeling and observations of high-frequency flow variability and internal waves at a Caribbean reef spawning aggregation site. Ocean Dynamics, 61(5), 581-598.
16. Ezer, T. (2013). Sea level rise, spatially uneven and temporally unsteady: Why the US East Coast, the global tide gauge record, and the global altimeter data show different trends. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(20), 5439-5444.
17. Friedland, K. D., & Hare, J. A. (2007). Long-term trends and regime shifts in sea surface temperature on the continental shelf of the northeast United States. Continental Shelf Research, 27(18), 2313-2328.
18. Hickox, R., Belkin, I., Cornillon, P., & Shan, Z. (2000). Climatology and seasonal variability of ocean fronts in the East China, Yellow and Bohai Seas from satellite SST data. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(18), 2945-2948.
19. Hsin, Y. C., Qu, T., & Wu, C. R. (2010). Intra-seasonal variation of the Kuroshio southeast of Taiwan and its possible forcing mechanism. Ocean dynamics, 60(5), 1293-1306.
20. Hsin, Y. C., Chiang, T. L., & Wu, C. R. (2011). Fluctuations of the thermal fronts off northeastern Taiwan. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 116(C10).
21. Huang, N. E., Shen, Z., Long, S. R., Wu, M. C., Shih, H. H., Zheng, Q., ... & Liu, H. H. (1998, March). The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis. In Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: mathematical, physical and engineering sciences (Vol. 454, No. 1971, pp. 903-995). The Royal Society.
22. Huang, N. E., & Wu, Z. (2008). A review on Hilbert‐Huang transform: Method and its applications to geophysical studies. Reviews of geophysics, 46(2).
23. Hwang, C., & Kao, R. (2002). TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived space–time variations of the Kuroshio Current: applications of a gravimetric geoid and wavelet analysis. Geophysical Journal International, 151(3), 835-847.
24. Hwang, C., Wu, C. R., & Kao, R. (2004). TOPEX/Poseidon observations of mesoscale eddies over the Subtropical Countercurrent: Kinematic characteristics of an anticyclonic eddy and a cyclonic eddy. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 109(C8).
25. Liang, W. D., Tang, T. Y., Yang, Y. J., Ko, M. T., & Chuang, W. S. (2003). Upper-ocean currents around Taiwan. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 50(6-7), 1085-1105.
26. Liang, W. D., Yang, Y. J., Tang, T. Y., & Chuang, W. S. (2008). Kuroshio in the Luzon Strait. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 113(C8).
27. Liu, X., Dong, C., Chen, D., & Su, J. (2014). The pattern and variability of winter Kuroshio intrusion northeast of Taiwan. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119(8), 5380-5394.
28. Liu, T., Xu, J., He, Y., Lü, H., Yao, Y., & Cai, S. (2016). Numerical simulation of the Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea by a passive tracer. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 35(9), 1-12.
29. Loehlin, J. C. (1998). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
30. Mantua, N. J., Hare, S. R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M., & Francis, R. C. (1997). A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bulletin of the american Meteorological Society, 78(6), 1069-1080.
31. Matsuno, T., Lee, J. S., & Yanao, S. (2009). The Kuroshio exchange with the South and East China Seas. Ocean Science, 5(3), 303-312.
32. Nan, F., Xue, H., Chai, F., Shi, L., Shi, M., & Guo, P. (2011). Identification of different types of Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea. Ocean Dynamics, 61(9), 1291-1304.
33. Nan, F., Xue, H., & Yu, F. (2015). Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea: A review. Progress in Oceanography, 137, 314-333.
34. Nitani, H. (1972). Beginning of the Kuroshio. Kuroshio, Physical Aspect of the Japan Current.
35. Qiu, B., & Lukas, R. (1996). Seasonal and interannual variability of the North Equatorial Current, the Mindanao Current, and the Kuroshio along the Pacific western boundary. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 101(C5), 12315-12330.
36. Rilling, G., Flandrin, P., & Goncalves, P. (2003, June). On empirical mode decomposition and its algorithms. In IEEE-EURASIP workshop on nonlinear signal and image processing (Vol. 3, pp. 8-11). NSIP-03, Grado (I).
37. Rilling, G., Flandrin, P., Gonçalves, P., & Lilly, J. M. (2007). Bivariate empirical mode decomposition. IEEE signal processing letters, 14(12), 936-939.
38. Rudnick, D. L., Jan, S., Centurioni, L., Lee, C. M., Lien, R. C., Wang, J., ... & Chern, C. S. (2011). Seasonal and mesoscale variability of the Kuroshio near its origin. Oceanography, 24(4), 52-63.
39. Schöne, B. R., Castro, A. D. F., Fiebig, J., Houk, S. D., Oschmann, W., & Kröncke, I. (2004). Sea surface water temperatures over the period 1884–1983 reconstructed from oxygen isotope ratios of a bivalve mollusk shell (Arctica islandica, southern North Sea). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 212(3-4), 215-232.
40. Shaw, P. T. (1991). The seasonal variation of the intrusion of the Philippine Sea water into the South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 96(C1), 821-827.
41. Su, J. L., & Pan, Y. Q. (1987). On the shelf circulation north of Taiwan. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 6(SUPP. I), 1-20.
42. Tang, T. Y., Hsueh, Y., Yang, Y. J., & Ma, J. C. (1999). Continental slope flow northeast of Taiwan. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29(6), 1353-1362.
43. Tang, T. Y., Tai, J. H., & Yang, Y. J. (2000). The flow pattern north of Taiwan and the migration of the Kuroshio. Continental Shelf Research, 20(4-5), 349-371.
44. Udelhoven, T. (2010). TimeStats: A software tool for the retrieval of temporal patterns from global satellite archives. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 4(2), 310-317.
45. Wang, J., & Oey, L. Y. (2016). Seasonal exchanges of the Kuroshio and shelf waters and their impacts on the shelf currents of the East China Sea. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46(5), 1615-1632.
46. Wang, Y. L., & Wu, C. R. (2018). Discordant multi-decadal trend in the intensity of the Kuroshio along its path during 1993–2013. Scientific reports, 8(1), 14633.
47. Wu, C. R., Lu, H. F., & Chao, S. Y. (2008). A numerical study on the formation of upwelling off northeast Taiwan. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 113(C8).
48. Wu, C. R. (2013). Interannual modulation of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the low-latitude western North Pacific. Progress in Oceanography, 110, 49-58.
49. Wu, C. R., Hsin, Y. C., Chiang, T. L., Lin, Y. F., & Tsui, I. (2014). Seasonal and interannual changes of the Kuroshio intrusion onto the East China Sea Shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119(8), 5039-5051.
50. Wu, C. R., Wang, Y. L., Lin, Y. F., Chiang, T. L., & Wu, C. C. (2016). Weakening of the Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea under the global warming hiatus. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 9(11), 5064-5070.
51. Wu, C. R., Wang, Y. L., Lin, Y. F., & Chao, S. Y. (2017). Intrusion of the Kuroshio into the South and East China Seas. Scientific reports, 7(1), 7895.
52. Wu, C. R., Lin, Y. F., & Qiu, B. (2019). Impact of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on the Pacific North Equatorial Current bifurcation. Scientific reports, 9(1), 2162.
53. Wyrtki, K. (1961). Scientific Results of Marine Investigations of the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand 1959-1961 Physical Oceanography of the Southeast Asian Waters. NAGA report, 2, 195.
54. Yang, G., Wang, F., Li, Y., & Lin, P. (2013). Mesoscale eddies in the northwestern subtropical Pacific Ocean: Statistical characteristics and three‐dimensional structures. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118(4), 1906-1925.
55. Yuan, D., Han, W., & Hu, D. (2006). Surface Kuroshio path in the Luzon Strait area derived from satellite remote sensing data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 111(C11).
56. Yuan, Y., Liao, G. H., Guan, W., Wang, H., Lou, R., & Chen, H. (2008). The circulation in the upper and middle layers of the Luzon Strait during spring 2002. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 113(C6).
57. Yuan, Y., Tseng, Y. H., Yang, C., Liao, G., Chow, C. H., Liu, Z., ... & Chen, H. (2014). Variation in the Kuroshio intrusion: Modeling and interpretation of observations collected around the Luzon Strait from July 2009 to March 2011. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119(6), 3447-3463.
58. Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M., & Battisti, D. S. (1997). ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900–93. Journal of climate, 10(5), 1004-1020.
59. Zhang, D., Lee, T. N., Johns, W. E., Liu, C. T., & Zantopp, R. (2001). The Kuroshio east of Taiwan: Modes of variability and relationship to interior ocean mesoscale eddies. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31(4), 1054-1074.
60. Zhai, F., & Hu, D. (2013). Revisit the interannual variability of the North Equatorial Current transport with ECMWF ORA‐S3. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118(3), 1349-1366.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-09-01起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-09-01起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw