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系統識別號 U0026-1406201810320900
論文名稱(中文) 感受價值對推薦意願的影響以顧客滿意度為中介變數─以高雄開頂式雙層巴士乘客為例
論文名稱(英文) The Relationship Among Perceived Value on Recommendation Intention and Customers' Satisfaction─The Case of Double-Decked Bus Customers in Kaohsiung.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science(on the job class)
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 李宗熹
研究生(英文) CHUNG-HSI LEE
學號 R57031120
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭永祥
口試委員-魏健宏
口試委員-林佐鼎
中文關鍵字 感受價值  顧客滿意度  推薦意願  雙層巴士 
英文關鍵字 perceived value  customer satisfaction  willingness of recommendation,  double-decker bus 
學科別分類
中文摘要 藉由交通部與高雄市政府的推動,全台第一輛開頂式雙層巴士在高雄正式啟動,隨後,台北也跟進雙層巴士的觀光行程,以往最著名的是班車式的觀光列車,簡略來說,是於特定景點上下車的運行方式,而高雄的雙層巴士則是以新型態的專車導覽的方式運行,不僅可以增進城市認知度,也可以讓城市風光完整的讓乘客感受到,所以,本研究以感受價值、顧客滿意度對推薦意願的影響與探討顧客滿意度的中介效果在運輸導覽形態中的影響。
本研究發放500份問卷,共回收301份有效問卷。受訪者以性別而言,大約以女性居多,佔全部樣本數54.15%;年齡大多為51歲以上,佔所有樣本數的17.28%,大多數受訪者居住於南部地區,佔全部樣本數的71.10%,其次則是中部地區,佔全部樣本16.61%;在其教育程度類別來說,大多數為大學(專)為主,佔有效樣本57.14%,其次為高中(職),佔全部樣本20.93%;平均月所得來說,最高的則是20,001~30,000元為最多,佔全部樣本數的31.89%;職業類別方面,以服務業為最多,佔全部樣本數的49.50%。

研究結果顯示,感受價值對於顧客滿意度有正向顯著影響,其中,感受價值的「情感回應」影響效果最大,而感受價值對推薦意願也是呈現正向顯著影響,而「情感回應」依舊是影響效果最大的構面,由此可知,顧客滿意度與推薦意願大多取決於乘客是否可以感受到信賴與愉快的感受;再來,顧客滿意度在感受價值對推薦意願的中所佔的效果為完全中介效果,顯示感受價值需要透過顧客滿意度來對推薦意願發揮顯著影響效果。根據上述研究針對高雄開頂式雙層巴士的乘客為研究對象且實地觀察與分析,希望可以進一步的了解提升乘客滿意度與推薦意願的因素,並提供給相關業者了解,在未來應加強哪部分的顧客服務,才能鞏固舊有顧客,而吸引新的顧客前來合作,且掌握好關鍵因素提高雙層巴士的搭乘量,也能藉由此機會提升城市導覽的效用。
筆者經研究數據分析後建議。
(一) 路線設定必須以經由古文物或具文化價值之相關觀光景點為主,且應該是以具備國際知名度高的景點為優先考量。
(二) 路線的起點,應該要以捷運站等交通便利的地方為考量。
(三) 行車或者路線長度以不超過平均行駛時間40分鐘為最佳設定。
(四) 搭乘時間以下午兩點到晚上七點為最佳。
(五) 行銷策略必須以在地人為優先基底,外縣市客人為主,國外旅客為輔。
(六) 本研究證實顧客之感受價值顯著影響雙層巴士乘客的推薦意願,故包括服務人員的教育訓練、駕駛長的培訓、導覽內容的豐富性、車輛整潔等等相關於顧客滿意提升的有關因素,皆必須完善達成。
(七) 票面價格須穩定,可做持續性帶狀行銷策略。
(八) 假使車輛總數足夠,可考量配置於不同特色路線以產生路線產品差異化。

後續研究方向建議
(一) 本研究只針對高雄雙層巴士作為研究主體,其營運模式、城市吸引力、城市知名度、物價水平、旅費多寡皆與各地物同城市有異,故建議後續研究者可依照其不同參數深入探討。
(二) 本研究完成時段,剛好介於台南市府城客運雙層巴士準備營運發表的時間,建議後續研究者,可以依照不同城市特性、文化背景、城市吸引力等等不同特性做更深入研究。
(三) 高雄、台南、台北等三地之雙層巴士營運模式各有所異,有各有所長。台北為循環式,像公車一樣可站站停靠,乘客可以隨時上下車;高雄為專程式,只能像觀光公車一樣,起點即迄點;台南為混合式,將上述兩點作為整合,兩車為公車式,一車為觀光巴士式後研究者,也可以依照各城市屬性、路線長度、旅客特性、運具特性、經營模式、價格策略等等做更為深入之研究。
英文摘要 In Taiwan, double-decker buses with open tops were first formally introduced in Kaohsiung with the effort of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications and the Kaohsiung City Government. Subsequently, Taipei City Government launched the Taipei Sightseeing Hop-on Hop-off Double-Decker Bus. Conventionally, the most common type of sightseeing buses follow regular routes, allowing passengers to board and alight at tourist spots they want to visit. By contrast, the double-decker buses in Kaohsiung are operated according to a new approach: passengers staying on the bus with a tour guide introducing the city to them. This new approach not only enhances tourists’ perception of the city but also enables them to fully appreciate the city’s scenery. This study examined the effect of perceived value and customer satisfaction on willingness of recommendation and explored the mediating effect of customer satisfaction on the transportation-based tourism model.

In this study, 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 301 valid questionnaires were returned. Among the respondents, over half of them were women (54.15%), and the age group with the most respondents was 51 years old or above (17.28%). Most of the respondents lived in southern Taiwan (71.10%), followed by central Taiwan (16.61%). The majority of respondents were university or college students (57.14%), followed by senior high school (vocational high school) students (20.93%). Additionally, the highest proportion of respondents earned an average of 20,001–30,000 NTD per month (31.89%), and 49.50% of the respondents worked in the service industry, which accounted for the highest proportion of respondent occupations. The results suggested that perceived value exhibited a significant positive effect on customer satisfaction. Among all the aspects of perceived value, emotional response exhibited the strongest effect. Perceived value also exhibited a significant positive effect on willingness of recommendation, wherein the effect of emotional response was also the strongest. These results indicated that customer satisfaction and willingness of recommendation were mostly determined by whether bus passengers felt trust and pleasure during their tourism experience s. Moreover, customer satisfaction completely mediated the relationship between perceived value and willingness of recommendation, indicating that the effect of perceived value on willingness of recommendation only occurred under circumstances of customer satisfaction. Using field observation and analysis of the passengers of open-top double-decker buses in Kaohsiung, this study further explored the factors that increased customer satisfaction and willingness of recommendation. The results may serve as a reference for relevant businesses to understand the aspect of customer service that should be improved to retain old customers and attract new ones. Relevant business may also use these results to determine key factors for increasing the number of double-decker bus passengers and enhancing their guided city tour experiences.

On the basis of the data analysis results, the following recommendations were proposed:
(1) Bus routes should mainly make stops at tourist attractions with cultural value or ancient artifacts, and attractions with international reputations should be prioritized.
(2) Tour route departure points should be places with high transportation convenience, such as metro stations.
(3) The optimal average travel duration or route length is approximately 40 min.
(4) The optimal time period for riding a double-decker sightseeing bus is from 2:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m.
(5) Marketing strategies should be targeted, in descending order of priority, to local people, visitors from other parts of Taiwan, and foreign visitors.
(6) This study verified that double-decker-bus passengers’ perceived value significantly influenced their willingness of recommendation. Thus, factors related to customer satisfaction, including educational training for service personnel, training for drivers, richness of tour content, and cleanness of the buses, should be satisfactory.
(7) Bus fares should be stable, and continuous marketing promotion along the bus route should be implemented.
(8) If the total number of buses is sufficient, the relevant authority may consider designing various routes with distinct features to achieve product differentiation.
Recommendations for future research directions were also proposed as follows:
(1) This study only focused on the double-decker buses in Kaohsiung. However, because cities vary in reputation, living costs, and travel costs, subsequent investigations on the influence of these variables should be performed.
(2) During the completion of this study, the Tainan Sightseeing Bus was preparing to launch operations. Future researchers may compare the distinct characteristics, cultural backgrounds, and attractiveness of different Taiwanese cities to reveal their influence on sightseeing bus operations.
(3) The business models for the double-decker sightseeing buses in Kaohsiung, Tainan, and Taipei exhibit distinct characteristics. The buses in Taipei follow a circle route; they operate similarly to normal buses in that they stop at every bus stop, and passengers can board and alight from the buses when they wish. By contrast, the routes for the buses in Kaohsiung involve fixed departure and destination points with no stop in between. In Tainan, both of these route models have been adopted. Two bus routes follow the Taipei bus route model, and one bus route follows the model used in Kaohsiung. Subsequent studies may explore variables including city attributes, route length, tourist characteristics, vehicle features, business models, and pricing strategies.
論文目次 目錄
摘 要 i
Abstract iv
致 謝 vii
目 錄 viii
表目錄 x
圖目錄 xii
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 2
第三節 研究目的 3
第四節 研究流程 4
第貳章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 開頂雙層巴士 5
第二節 感受價值 7
第三節 顧客滿意度 18
第四節 推薦意願 22
第参章 研究方法 24
第一節 研究架構 24
第二節 研究假設 25
第三節 研究變數之操作型定義與衡量 28
第四節 問卷前測 34
第五節 資料分析方法 37
第六節 研究設計 39
第肆章 研究結果與分析 42
第一節 樣本結構分析 42
第二節 信度與效度檢定 47
第三節 敘述性統計分析 55
第四節 研究變數之相關分析 58
第五節 研究變數與人口統計變數之差異分析 59
第六節 迴歸分析 66
第伍章 結論與建議 74
第一節 研究結論 74
第二節 研究意涵 79
第三節 研究限制 82
第四節 後續研究之建議 83
參考文獻 85
附件:問卷 92
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