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系統識別號 U0026-1406201221232700
論文名稱(中文) 水驅型舊氣層注儲二氧化碳之壓力變化及封存量估算之研究
論文名稱(英文) Estimation of CO2 Storage Capacity and Study of Pressure Behavior of CO2 Sequestration in a Produced Gas Reservoir with Water Drive
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資源工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Resources Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 曾繼忠
研究生(英文) Chi-Chung Tseng
學號 n48981014
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 132頁
口試委員 指導教授-林再興
共同指導教授-謝秉志
召集委員-呂明達
口試委員-林立夫
口試委員-吳榮章
口試委員-紀文榮
口試委員-楊耿明
口試委員-胡興台
口試委員-吳柏裕
中文關鍵字 二氧化碳封存  地質封存  舊氣層  水驅型氣層  物質平衡法  解析法  數值模擬  成分模式  IPR典型曲線 
英文關鍵字 CO2 Sequestration  Geological Sequestration  Produced Gas Reservoir  Water Drive Gas Reservoir  Material Balance Method  Analytical Solution  Numerical Simulation  Compositional Model  IPR Type Curves 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究主要目的是利用解析法研究水驅型及涸竭型舊氣層注儲二氧化碳之壓力變化行為以及估算其二氧化碳之封存量。解析法之方程式是根據天然氣及二氧化碳在地層的物質平衡模式而得,並由油氣層數值模擬法來驗證解析方程式或典型曲線之正確性。另外,解析法所得之P/z方程式可以解釋及預測二氧化碳注儲舊氣層之地層壓力變化行為,而且根據解析解方程式導出注產比值(IPR)典型曲線,可以快速簡便地推估已涸竭的舊氣層二氧化碳之封存量。
在無水驅或涸竭型之天然氣層裡,根據所推導的解析方程式,生產天然氣與注儲二氧化碳之地層壓力變化在P/z圖[P/z對(Gp-Ginj)做圖]中,都是在同一直線上,若注入二氧化碳使已生產的地層壓力恢復至初始壓力時,所注入的二氧化碳體積會大於產出之天然氣體積。在有水驅的天然氣層中,生產天然氣與注入二氧化碳的P/z圖都不是直線(為曲線),而且是不同的曲線,注入二氧化碳時之P/z圖是以較高角度向左上方開始折返彎曲並漸趨直線,若注入二氧化碳使已生產的地層壓力恢復至初始壓力時,所注入的二氧化碳體積會小於產出之天然氣體積。
本研究所推導出的IPR典型曲線包括各種不同水驅強度(以"R-Ratio"參數表示)及無水驅涸竭型氣層之注產曲線,其中水驅強度(R-Ratio)為含水層與儲氣層之半徑比。利用IPR典型曲線估算二氧化碳封存量時,所需之參數主要包括初始壓力、初始氣體偏差因子、水驅強度、天然氣原始埋藏量、以及天然氣累積產量。此外,本研究以臺灣中西部陸域實際之水驅型舊氣田進行案例分析,採用IPR典型曲線估算舊氣層二氧化碳之封存量,並與油氣層模擬法之結果進行比較,案例分析結果兩者所估算之二氧化碳封存量極為接近。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to develop analytical equations and type curves for estimating CO2 storage capacity from a produced (or abandoned) gas reservoir with and without water drive. The equations are derived from material balance gas reservoir producing gas followed by injecting CO2 into the reservoir. The resulting equations, including calculation of CO2 injection equation or IPR type curves and P/z equations, have been verified by using data from numerical and field case reservoir simulations. For a produced gas reservoir, the P/z equations can be used to investigate the reservoir pressure behavior of CO2 sequestration and it is more easily and quickly to estimate the CO2 storage capacity by the way of utilizing IPR type curves.
In a gas reservoir with no water drive (or depletion reservoir), both injection and production data in the P/z plots [P/z versus (Gp-Ginj)] from simulation results are on the same straight line. To increase the pressure from abandon to initial pressures, more volume of CO2 than gas produced should be injected. In water drive gas reservoir, injection and production data in the P/z plots are not on the same curve and deviate from the end of gas production. To increase the pressure from abandonment to initial pressures, the volume of CO2 injected is less than gas produced.
The injection-production-ratio (IPR) type curves are generated for the cases of no water (or depletion) and water drive reservoirs. Water influx from the aquifer is expressed by using the parameter of "R-Ratio", aquifer to reservoir radius ratio. In the estimation of CO2 storage capacity using the derived equations or type curves, the parameters required are initial pressure, initial gas z-factor, R-Ratio, initial gas in place and cumulative production at the time of gas (hydrocarbon or CO2) to be injected. In addition, the ability of estimating CO2 storage capacity is demonstrated by the case study of water drive gas reservoir, which is in the west-central Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulator and using IPR type curves are very consistent.
論文目次 中文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
Abstract -------------------------------------------------------------------------------III
誌謝 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V
目錄 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------VII
表目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------XI
圖目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------XIII
符號說明 ------------------------------------------------------------------------XVII
第壹章 前言 --------------------------------------------------------------------------1
一、研究背景 -------------------------------------------------------------------1
二、研究目的 --------------------------------------------------------------------6
三、研究方法 --------------------------------------------------------------------6
第貳章 文獻回顧 -------------------------------------------------------------------9
一、天然氣層物質平衡法------------------------------------------------------9
二、天然氣及二氧化碳注產物質平衡法-------------------------------------11
三、油氣層模擬法----------------------------------------------------------------12
第參章 理論基礎 --------------------------------------------------------------17
一、傳統儲氣層生產之物質平衡理論----------------------------------------17
(一)天然氣層生產之物質平衡方程式----------------------------------18
(二)純二氧化碳氣層之物質平衡方程式-------------------------------22
二、二氧化碳注儲天然氣層之物質平衡理論------------------------------24
(一)體積混合模式----------------------------------------------------------24
(二)體積膨脹模式----------------------------------------------------------27
(三)注儲點體積混合模式-------------------------------------------------29
三、二氧化碳封存量物質平衡模式之比較與選擇-------------------------31
(一)P/z物質平衡解析解關係式-----------------------------------------31
(二)二氧化碳封存量解析解關係式-------------------------------------33
(三)模式選擇----------------------------------------------------------------35
四、累計水侵量-------------------------------------------------------------------35
五、二氧化碳封存質量計算----------------------------------------------------38
六、IPR方程式(典型曲線)與有效封存係數--------------------------------39
七、無水驅氣層最大二氧化碳封存量----------------------------------------41
第肆章 結果-----------------------------------------------------------------------43
一、解析方程式之驗證----------------------------------------------------------43
(一)天然氣層注儲二氧化碳模式----------------------------------------45
(二)天然氣層注儲天然氣模式-------------------------------------------48
二、注產典型曲線繪製----------------------------------------------------------51
第伍章 討論 ---------------------------------------------------------------59
一、二氧化碳封存量估算-----------------------------------------------59
(一)水驅氣層----------------------------------------------------------------59
(二)無水驅氣層-------------------------------------------------------------61
二、注儲地層壓力變化研究----------------------------------------------------67
(一)水驅氣層----------------------------------------------------------------67
(二)無水驅氣層-------------------------------------------------------------70
(三)二氧化碳注儲洩漏監測----------------------------------------------72
第陸章 案例分析----------------------------------------------------------------75
一、基本資料----------------------------------------------------------------------75
二、模擬模式之建立-------------------------------------------------------------80
(一)鐵砧山整體氣田模擬模式之建立----------------------------------80
(二)鐵砧山氣田東南地塊TT-1A層模擬模式之建立----------------80
(三)模擬模式之PVT狀態方程式---------------------------------------87
(四)電腦模式初始化-------------------------------------------------------93
三、氣井歷史調諧---------------------------------------------------------95
(一)氣井生產資料歷史調諧----------------------------------------------95
(二)氣井壓力資料歷史調諧----------------------------------------------95
四、剩餘可採天然氣生產預測-----------------------------------------------100
五、數值模擬法二氧化碳封存量評估--------------------------------------102
六、IPR注產曲線二氧化碳封存量評估------------------------------------110
七、二氧化碳注儲之地層壓力變化行為探討-----------------------------113
第柒章 結論與建議 --------------------------------------------------------------119
一、結論 -----------------------------------------------------------------119
二、建議 ------------------------------------------------------------------121
參考文獻 -----------------------------------------------------------------------123
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