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系統識別號 U0026-1406201114562400
論文名稱(中文) 乳化柴油及乳化重油之節能減碳技術研發
論文名稱(英文) Novel Technologies for Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction by Using both Emulsified-diesel and Emulsified-Heavy Fuel Oil
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 林聖倫
研究生(英文) Sheng-Lun Lin
學號 P5897102
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 207頁
口試委員 指導教授-李文智
口試委員-張祖恩
口試委員-朱信
口試委員-王鴻博
口試委員-陳康興
口試委員-陳瑞仁
口試委員-楊錫賢
中文關鍵字 乳化  柴油  重油  比耗油率  氮氧化物  粒狀物  多環芳香烴 
英文關鍵字 emulsion  diesel  heavy fuel oil  BSFC  NOx  PM  PAHs 
學科別分類
中文摘要 能源需求及溫室氣體皆顯著增加的時代,替代燃料的發展成為一個非常重要的問題。本研究利用含水丙酮及含水丁醇,透過乳化技術摻配成數種混和柴油;另一方面,利用含甲醇及異丙醇(IPA)之蒸餾塔底水透過乳化技術製作成穩定的乳化重油。並進一步測試評估乳化柴油及乳化重油分別於柴油引擎發電機及重油鍋爐燃燒後之能源表現及污染排放。
含水丙酮的研究方面,新的混合柴油中含有1~3 wt%的含水丙酮(WA)或脫水丙酮(AC)及95〜97 wt%普通柴油,並使用1 wt%異丙醇(P)和1 wt%的大豆油(S)或大豆的生物柴油(B)作為穩定劑。其中,混合燃料WA3P1S1具有良好的燃料的穩定性及約可降低1.4〜5.5%比耗油率(BSFC,mL kW-1h-1)。由於WA3P1擁有較高氧含量,可促使更完全的燃燒以提升燃燒效能,並解基於油品內含水的冷卻作用降低燃燒反應溫度,從而減少6.7~13.6%氮氧化物(NOx)、9.6~33.3% 粒狀汙染物(PM)、7.7~14.3% 總多環芳香烴(PAHs)及7.5~11.4%的總BaPeq排放。不僅如此,使用再生溶劑而製造的 WA3P1S1混合燃料預期可較一般柴油降低4.92%二氧化碳(CO2)排放。
在含水丁醇研究方面,本研究使用0、0.5及1.0 wt%三種水含量做為合油品基礎,以模擬經由ABE發酵製成及簡單蒸餾純化後所得之含水丁醇。研究中發現當1.0 wt% 水存在混和油品中時,至少需添加15 wt% 正丁醇以達到混和油品之穩定不分層狀態。同時,若使用0或0.5 wt%含水比例,僅需至少5 wt%正丁醇即可達到穩定混和油品的效果。使用正丁醇混和柴油時,其BSFC會隨正丁醇的添加而上升,此因正丁醇之熱值較柴油低所造成。當添加0.5 wt%水時,乳化油滴的微爆作用可以些微減緩BSFC的上升。NOx排放在5~15 wt%正丁醇添加時有上升趨勢,而在大於15 wt%正丁醇添加後開始下降。各含水比例中,PM、總多環芳香烴及總BaPeq排放均隨正丁醇之添加而降低,乃因較低的油品硫含量及較高的油品氧含量。另一方面,CO排放隨著正丁醇之添加量增高而上升。值得注意的是,在BT5W0.5 (495 mL kW-1h-1)及BT10W0.5 (497 mL kW-1h-1)使用中,BSFC並未較一般柴油(493 mL kW-1h-1)有顯著的上升。此外,上述BT5W0.5及BT10W0.5顯著的降低了NOx (22.5 and 16.5%)、PM (41.1 and 44.9%)、總多環芳香烴(6.67 and 7.92%)及總BaPeq(7.91 and 7.78%)的排放。若同時考量重型柴油引擎之能源表現及污染排放,0.5 wt%含水量及5 wt%或10 wt%正丁醇混和柴油將會是本含水丁醇研究內最適合的配方。
乳化重油研究方面,乳化重油水相含有1 vol%甲醇,4 vol%異丙醇(IPA)和95 vol%的水,用以模擬特定工業溶劑廢水(SCW)成分。乳化重油M1P4-10性質穩定無分層,並具有最小且最均勻之油包水滴(W/O型)。三個3.6噸/小時和一個10噸/小時之工業鍋爐於本實驗中分別使用M1P4-10及傳統重油測試30小時。使用M1P4-10時,微爆作用和水中溶劑火媒效應的影響,鍋爐效率提高了10~33%,降低油耗5~31%。該乳化重油並減少3.3〜7.1% SOx、41〜85% PM、89~93% CO、91~60% HC,及3.3~23% NOx排放。而抑制有毒空氣污染物排放方面,使用M1P4-10時總多環芳烴和總 BaPeq分別減少了37.7和61.8%。此外,低溫燃燒可解決 PM和NOx的取捨問題。
總而言之,特定比例之含溶劑水及含水溶劑乳化燃料,可以有效提高引擎及鍋爐之熱效率並減少污染物之排放,達到節能減碳效果。
英文摘要 The development of alternative fuels becomes a very important issue today since the significant increase of energy demand and greenhouse gas emission. The current study focuses on the use of water-containing acetone and hydrous butanol to form an alternative diesel emulsion; on the other hand, the methanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was used to form a stable heavy fuel oil emulsion.
In use of water-containing acetone, new blended fuels were formed by adding 1~3 wt% of water-containing acetone (WA) or dehydrated acetone (AC) into a regular diesel (95~97%), and using 1 wt% of isopropyl alcohol (P) and 1 wt% of neat soybean oil (S) or soybean bio-diesel (B) as stabilizers. The fuel blend WA3P1S1, which is composed of 3 wt% WA, 1 wt% P, and 1 wt% neat soybean oil, had a good fuel stability and the 1.4~5.5% reduction of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, mL kW-1h-1). The better engine performance of WA3P1S1 was due to its higher fuel-oxygen content, more complete combustion and lower reaction temperature based on the water cooling effect, which reduced emissions of 6.7~13.6% NOx, 9.6~33.3% PM, 7.7~14.3% total-PAHs, and 7.5~11.4% total-BaPeq. Nevertheless, by using recycled solvents for WA3P1S1, the CO2 emission was estimated to be reduced 4.92% from a regular diesel.
In hydrous butanol blends, three groups of n-butanol-diesel blends with 0, 0.5, and 1.0%wt water-content were investigated to simulate the hydrous butanol produced by acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation and a simple distillation treatment. The 15%wt n-butanol (BT) was the minimum additive ratio to stabilize 1.0%wt water content in diesel blend, while those blends that contained 0 or 0.5%wt water could remain as stable one-phase clear liquids by adding only 5%wt BT. Using BT-diesel blends increased BSFC because of the lower heating value of n-butanol, while the micro-explosions could reduce the BSFC by using 0.5%wt water-containing BT-diesel blends. NOx emissions increased with the increasing BT content at a low additive ratio (5~15%wt) and reduced when adding a higher amount of BT (>15%wt). PM, total-PAHs, and total-BaPeq emissions were all significantly reduced when the increasing BT additive ratio contained either 0, 0.5, or 1.0%wt water because of the lower sulfur and higher oxygen fuel contents. On the other hand, the CO emission level went up with the addition of BT. Notably, the BSFC of BT5W0.5 (495 mL kW-1h-1) and BT10W0.5 (497 mL kW-1h-1) did not substantially increase from that of D100 (493 mL kW-1h-1). In addition, BT5W0.5 and BT10W0.5 had significantly lower NOx (22.5 and 16.5%), PM (41.1 and 44.9%), total PAHs (6.67 and 7.92%), and total-BaPeq (7.91 and 7.78%), respectively, that regular diesel. In order to consider both energy performance and pollutant emissions, the 5 and 10%wt BT additive with 0.5% water content were the most suitable mixtures for practical used in HDDE.
In HFO emulsion, the water phase of emulsified heavy oil contained 1vol% methanol, 4vol% isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and 95vol% water, representing the actual industrial solvent-containing wastewater (SCW). The emulsion M1P4-10 with 10vol% SCW showed no separation, and contained the smallest and most homogeneous water in oil (W/O) droplets after stability tests. Four boilers, including three 3.6 and one 10 ton h-1 steam capacities were employed to be operated for 30 hours with a regular heavy fuel oil and M1P4-10. The micro-explosion and tinder effects of solvent contents improved boiler efficiency by 10~33% and reduced fuel consumption by 5~31% by using M1P4-10. The emulsion reduced SOx by 3.3~7.1%, PM by 41~85%, CO by 89~93%, HC by 91~60%, and NOx by 3.3~23%. With regard to inhibiting toxic air pollutants, the emission levels of total PAHs and total BaPeq were reduced by 37.7 and 61.8%, respectively by using M1P4-10. The PM and NOx trade-off problem could be solved by the lower temperature combustion.
Consequently, the water-containing solvents and solvent-containing water emulsified fuel could effectively enhance the thermal efficiency of engine and boilers and also reduce the pollutant emissions in specific emulsifying ratios.
論文目次 中文摘要…. I
ABSTRACT III
Acknowledgement /誌謝 VI
Contents/總目錄 VII
List of Tables/表目錄 XI
List of Figures/圖目錄 XIV
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1. Background and research idea 1
1.2. Prospects 4
Chapter 2 Literature review 5
2.1. Environmental overview 5
2.2. Regulated standards 6
2.2.1 United States (US) 7
2.2.2 European Union (EU) 21
2.2.3 Comparison among Taiwan, US, and EU standards for HDDE generator 23
2.3. Alternative liquid fuel 25
2.3.1 Biofuel development 25
2.3.2 Biodiesel 27
2.3.3 Bio-ethanol 33
2.3.4 Butanol, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) 39
2.4. Emulsification technology 45
2.5. Diesel engine 48
2.5.1 Introduction of diesel engine 48
2.5.2 Advantages of diesel engine 51
2.5.3 Pollution drawbacks of diesel engine 51
2.6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) 52
2.6.1 General description of PAHs 52
2.6.2 Physical and chemical properties of PAHs 53
2.6.3 Sources of PAHs in environment 57
Chapter 3 Material and Methods 60
3.1 HDDE test for APS and hydrous BT blends 60
3.1.1 Fuel blending of APS-diesel blends 60
3.1.2 Fuel blending of hydrous BT-diesel blends 62
3.1.3 Fuel stability tests for diesel blends 62
3.1.4 Diesel engine generator test 64
3.2 Boiler test for WWEHFO 70
3.2.1 WWEHFO preparation and stability tests 70
3.2.2 Boiler tests 72
3.3 PAH sampling and analysis 75
3.3.1 Particulate and gaseous PAH sampling 75
3.3.2 PAH sample pretreatments and GC/MS analysis 78
3.4 Quality assurance and control of PAH analysis 83
3.4.1 Blank test 83
3.4.2 Recovery of analytical method 84
3.4.3 Reproducibility test 85
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions 98
4.1 HDDE test for APS blends 98
4.1.1 Fuel stability for APS blends 98
4.1.2 Engine performance by using APS blends 102
4.1.3 NOx emissions by using APS blends 105
4.1.4 PM emissions by using APS blends 109
4.1.5 PAH emissions by using APS blends 112
4.1.6 CO emissions by using APS blends 115
4.1.7 Emission factors by using APS blends 118
4.1.8 CO2 reduction by using APS blends 121
4.2 HDDEG test for WBT-Diesel blends 127
4.2.1 Fuel stability of WBT-Diesel blends 127
4.2.2 Energy performance by using WBT-Diesel blends 129
4.2.3 NOx emissions by using WBT-Diesel blends 131
4.2.4 PM and CO emissions by using WBT-Diesel blends 134
4.2.5 PAH emissions by using WBT-Diesel blends 137
4.3 Boiler test for Waste Water Emulsified HFO 140
4.3.1 Fuel stability of WWEHFO 140
4.3.2 Viscosities and energy performances of WWEHFO 146
4.3.3 SO2 and PM emissions by using WWEHFO 154
4.3.4 CO, HC, and NOx emissions by using WWEHFO 157
4.3.5 PAH emissions by using WWEHFO 160
Chapter 5 Conclusion 162
Chapter 6 Suggestions 167
References… 168
Appendix A. Nomenclatures 187
Appendix B. Calibration Line of PAH Compounds 190
Appendix C. Emission standards of electricity providing devices 196
Resume (自述) 203
Education 203
Research Interests 203
Research experience/Training 203
Publications 204
Professional Affiliations 207
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