||How Trust on Convenience Store Moderates the Relationship between Service Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention– A Case Study on 7-eleven
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
最近幾年，台灣的便利商店可以說是迅速的展店，尤其以北部都市地區最為明顯，幾乎是每個路口都可以看到便利商店二十四小時永不熄燈的招牌。便利商店已然在不知不覺中成為我們生活中不可或缺的一環，除了購買生活中所需的食品、日用品等，我們更可以在便利商店中完成各項帳單的繳款、包裹收送、購票取票、影印傳真等等。縱然提供了多樣化的服務品項並致力於提昇服務品質，且都市人口稠密，但密度過高的便利商店仍然面臨了來自各家品牌對手的激烈競爭。因此便利商店藉著通路上的佔有優勢紛紛推出了各自的自有品牌來降低進貨成本，且強化品牌價值。故如何提昇服務品質，增加客戶滿意度，取得客戶對於品牌的信賴以期增加市場購買率，值得研究。本文主要的研究對象為 7-eleven, 採用 Cronin et al. (2000) 的研究模式，並加入自有品牌信任程度為干擾因素來探討服務代價、服務品質、服務價值、滿意度與再購意願之間的關聯性研究。
共回收211份有效問卷, 本研究進行了敘述性計量分析、信度分析、因素分析、效度分析、結構方程模型分析的比較。研究結果顯示滿意度為建立客戶再購意願的主要因素, 而對自有品牌的信任程度對於其兩者間的關係產生了干擾作用。但是在服務價值與再購意願之間, 對於自有品牌的信任程度並沒有產生干擾作用。實務管理探討以及研究建議亦同時於本研究中呈現。
In the past few years, the opening of convenience stores in Taiwan proliferates rapidly, as such the competition of convenience store become quite tough. The operations of convenience stores become more and more versatile, and gradually play a key role in our daily life. To maximize the profits, convenience store not only provides a wide selection of national brands but also launches owns private label. Many studies have been done to understand the purchasing decision process while customers experience different level service value, service quality or satisfaction. The Comprehensive Model has made a great effort on explaining some of this process, and more recent studies also found that private label branding is especially important is retail industry to affect customer perceptions and drive store choice and loyalty. This study investigates “trust on private label” as a moderator in the relationship between service value, satisfaction and behavioral intention, aiming to provide a better understanding on the association between branding and retail store image, by paying special attention to role of private label brand and its possible influence of consumers’ purchase intention.
Through online survey, a total of 211 validated questionnaires were collected. A quantitative methodology is employed, descriptive analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis and moderating effects analyses were conducted in this study. The results showed that satisfaction is the antecedent of consumers’ behavioral intention, also trust on private label fully moderates the relationship among them. However, trust on private label does not act as a moderator for service value and behavioral intention. Managerial implications and future research suggestions of this study are also presented.
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation. 1
1.2 Research Objectives and Expected Contributions. 3
1.3 Research Procedures. 4
1.4 Research Structure. 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Definition of Research Constructs. 7
2.1.1 Sacrifice. 7
2.1.2 Service Quality. 7
2.1.3 Service Value. 10
2.1.4 Satisfaction. 11
2.1.5 Behavioral Intention. 12
2.1.6 Trust on Private Label. 13
2.2 Hypotheses Development. 14
2.2.1 The Relationship between Sacrifice and Service Value. 14
2.2.2 The Relationship between Service Quality and Service Value. 15
2.2.3 The Relationship between Service Quality and Satisfaction. 16
2.2.4 The Relationship between Service Value and Satisfaction. 16
2.2.5 The Relationship between Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention. 17
2.2.6 The Relationship between Service Value and Behavioral Intention. 18
2.2.7 Trust on Private Label has Moderating Effect on the Relationship between Service Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention. 19
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 22
3.1 The Research Model. 22
3.2 Construct Measurement. 24
3.2.1 Sacrifice (SAC). 24
3.2.2 Service Quality (SQ). 25
3.2.3 Service Value (SV). 26
3.2.4 Satisfaction (SAT). 27
3.2.5 Behavioral Intention (BI). 28
3.2.6 Trust on Private Label (TU). 28
3.3 Research Hypotheses. 29
3.4 Questionnaire Design. 29
3.5 Sampling Plan. 30
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure. 30
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis. 30
3.6.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 31
3.6.3 Structural Equation Modeling. 31
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 32
4.1 Characteristics of Respondents. 32
4.2 Descriptive Statistical Analysis. 33
4.3 Score Reliability. 35
4.4 Item-to-total Correlation. 37
4.5 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). 38
4.5.1 Convergent Validity. 38
4.5.2 Discriminant Validity. 48
4.6 Path Model Analysis. 50
4.7 Moderator Analysis. 51
4.7.1 Moderating Effect between Service Value and Behavioral Intention. 52
4.7.2 Moderating Effect between Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention. 53
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 55
5.1 Research Conclusions. 55
5.2 Research Contributions and Discussions. 57
5.3 Managerial Implications. 57
5.4 Research Limitations and Future Research Suggestions. 58
Appendix 1: Questionnaire 65
Appendix 2: Inter-item Correlation Matrix 73
Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand equity: Capitalizing on the value of a brand name, Free Press.
Ailawadi, K. L., & Keller, K. L. (2004). Understanding retail branding: Conceptual insights and research priorities. Journal of Retailing, 80(4), 331-342.
Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: Findings from Sweden. The Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53-66.
Anderson, E. W., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms. Marketing Science, 12(2), 125-143.
Andreassen, T. W., & Lindestad, B. (1998). Customer loyalty and complex services: The impact of corporate image on quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty for customers with varying degrees of service expertise. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9(1), 7-23.
Bao, Y., & Sheng, S. (2011). Motivating purchase of private brands: Effects of store image, product signatureness, and quality variation. Journal of Business Research, 64(2), 220-226.
Berry, L. L., Seiders, K., & Grewal, D. (2002). Understanding service convenience. The Journal of Marketing, 66(3), 1-17.
Bitner, M. J. (1990). Evaluating service encounters: The effects of physical surroundings and employee responses. The Journal of Marketing, 54(2), 69-82.
Bolton, R. N., & Drew, J. H. (1991). A multistage model of customers' assessments of service quality and value. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), 375-384.
Boulding, W., Kalra, A., Staelin, R., & Zeithaml, V. A. (1993). A dynamic process model of service quality: From expectations to behavioral intentions. Journal of marketing research, 30(1), 7-27.
Brady, M. K., Knight, G. A., Cronin, J. J., Tomas, G., Hult, M., & Keillor, B. D. (2005). Removing the contextual lens: A multinational, multi-setting comparison of service evaluation models. Journal of Retailing, 81(3), 215-230.
Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: The role of brand loyalty. The Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81-93.
Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2002). Product-class effects on brand commitment and brand outcomes: The role of brand trust and brand affect. The Journal of Brand Management, 10(1), 33-58.
Chiou, J. S., & Droge, C. (2006). Service quality, trust, specific asset investment, and expertise: Direct and indirect effects in a satisfaction-loyalty framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(4), 613-627.
Chiou, J. S., & Shen, C. C. (2006). The effects of satisfaction, opportunism, and asset specificity on consumers' loyalty intention toward internet portal sites. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 17(1), 7-22.
Choi, K. S., Cho, W. H., Lee, S., Lee, H., & Kim, C. (2004). The relationships among quality, value, satisfaction and behavioral intention in health care provider choice: A South Korean study. Journal of Business Research, 57(8), 913-921.
Churchill Jr, G. A., & Surprenant, C. (1982). An investigation into the determinants of customer satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(4), 491-504.
Cretu, A. E., & Brodie, R. J. (2007). The influence of brand image and company reputation where manufacturers market to small firms: A customer value perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(2), 230-240.
Cronin, J. J., Brady, M. K., & Hult, G. T. M. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 193-218.
Cronin Jr, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: A reexamination and extension. The Journal of Marketing, 56(3), 55-68.
De Ruyter, K., & Wetzels, M. (2000). Customer equity considerations in service recovery: A cross-industry perspective. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(1), 91-108.
Delgado-Ballester, E., & Munuera-Aleman, J. L. (2001). Brand trust in the context of consumer loyalty. European Journal of Marketing, 35(11/12), 1238-1258.
DeWitt, T., Nguyen, D. T., & Marshall, R. (2008). Exploring customer loyalty following service recovery. Journal of Service Research, 10(3), 269-281.
Ding, M., Ross, W. T., Jr., & Rao, V. R. (2010). Price as an indicator of quality: Implications for utility and demand functions. Journal of Retailing, 86(1), 69-84.
Fornell, C., Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. E. (1996). The American customer satisfaction index: Nature, purpose, and findings. The Journal of Marketing, 60(4), 7-18.
Frederick, F. R. (1996). The loyalty effect: The hidden force behind growth, profits, and lasting value, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts.
Goldsmith, R. E., Flynn, L. R., Goldsmith, E., & Stacey, E. C. (2010). Consumer attitudes and loyalty towards private brands. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34(3), 339-348.
Ha, H. Y., & Perks, H. (2005). Effects of consumer perceptions of brand experience on the web: Brand familiarity, satisfaction and brand trust. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4(6), 438-452.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7 edition), New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Harris, L. C., & Goode, M. M. H. (2004). The four levels of loyalty and the pivotal role of trust: A study of online service dynamics. Journal of Retailing, 80(2), 139-158.
Hellier, P. K., Geursen, G. M., Carr, R. A., & Rickard, J. A. (2003). Customer repurchase intention: A general structural equation model. European Journal of Marketing, 37(11/12), 1762-1800.
Heskett, J. L., Sasser, W. E., & Hart, C. W. L. (1990). Service breakthroughs: Changing the rules of the game, Simon and Schuster.
Homburg, C., Hoyer, W. D., & Koschate, N. (2005). Customers‚ an reactions to price increases: Do customer satisfaction and perceived motive fairness matter? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(1), 36-49.
Hutchinson, J., Lai, F., & Wang, Y. (2009). Understanding the relationships of quality, value, equity, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions among golf travelers. Tourism Management, 30(2), 298-308.
Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., & Fornell, C. (1995). Rational and adaptive performance expectations in a customer satisfaction framework. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(4), 695-707.
Johnson, M. D., Herrmann, A., & Huber, F. (2006). The evolution of loyalty intentions. Journal of Marketing, 70(2), 122-132.
Lee, J. S., & Back, K. J. (2008). Attendee-based brand equity. Tourism Management, 29(2), 331-344.
Lewis, R. C., & Booms, B. H. (1983). The marketing aspects of service quality. Emerging Perspectives on Services Marketing, 65(4), 99-107.
Martin-Consuegra, D., Molina, A., & Esteban, Å. (2007). An integrated model of price, satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical analysis in the service sector. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 16(7), 459-468.
Moorman, C., Zaltman, G., & Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationships between providers and users of market research: The dynamics of trust within and between organizations. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(3), 314-328.
Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.
Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460-469.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. The Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50.
Parsuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40.
Pura, M. (2005). Linking perceived value and loyalty in location-based mobile services. Managing Service Quality, 15(6), 509-538.
Ravald, A., & Gronroos, C. (1996). The value concept and relationship marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 30(2), 19-30.
Rempel, J. K., Holmes, J. G., & Zanna, M. P. (1985). Trust in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), 95.
Reno, R. R., Cialdini, R. B., & Kallgren, C. A. (1993). The transsituational influence of social norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(1), 104.
Sanzo, M. J., Santos, M. L., Alvarez, L. I., & Vazquez, R. (2007). The effect of a buyer's market orientation on attitudinal loyalty toward a supplier: Is dependence a moderator? Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 12(4), 267-283.
Selnes, F. (1993). An examination of the effect of product performance on brand reputation, satisfaction and loyalty. European Journal of Marketing, 27(9), 19-35.
Sichtmann, C. (2007). An analysis of antecedents and consequences of trust in a corporate brand. European Journal of Marketing, 41(9/10), 999-1015.
Sirdeshmukh, D., Singh, J., & Sabol, B. (2002). Consumer trust, value, and loyalty in relational exchanges. The Journal of Marketing, 66(1), 15-37.
Spreng, R. A., & Mackoy, R. D. (1996). An empirical examination of a model of perceived service quality and satisfaction. Journal of Retailing, 72(2), 201-214.
Sweeney, J. C., Soutar, G. N., & Johnson, L. W. (1999). The role of perceived risk in the quality-value relationship: A study in a retail environment. Journal of Retailing, 75(1), 77-105.
Tam, J. L. M. (2004). Customer satisfaction, service quality and perceived value: An integrative model. Journal of Marketing Management, 20(7-8), 897-917.
Yang, Z., & Peterson, R. T. (2004). Customer perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty: The role of switching costs. Psychology and Marketing, 21(10), 799-822.
Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. The Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22.
Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. The Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31-46.
Zhang, J., & Bloemer, J. M. M. (2008). The impact of value congruence on consumer-service brand relationships. Journal of Service Research, 11(2), 161-178.