||A smart city perspective towards the development of disaster awareness framework
||Department of Geomatics
Regardless of regions or countries, disaster has been a major devastating threat to the human society. Even a single hazard can bring tremendous causality to the people, households, living environment, and economic growth. Due to the complex nature of current disasters, the collaboration of disaster-related stakeholders requires a new thinking that integrates the cross-domain demands of data, technology, and policy. Following the innovated concept of the smart city, this paper proposes the development of disaster awareness framework for the generation, management and dissemination of alert information, in order to enhance the resilience, awareness, and preparedness towards the disaster threat.
The framework is composed of four tier, respectively developed to suffice different needs, including; (1) sensor tier, which is responsible for monitoring reality and updating observation from sensors deployed at critical facilities (2) data distribution tier, which is responsible for collecting and distributing a variety of hazard-related information between responsible stakeholders; (3) decision support tier, which is responsible for examining the continuously updated situations for making emergency decisions; and (4) alert tier, which is responsible for informing and warning citizens who living in the area under threats. The whole framework is built upon the collaboration of different stakeholders, including data provider, decision maker, experts, representative citizens, and EOC. Since the cross-domain stakeholders participate in data sharing and alert issuing, the heterogeneity obstacles must be removed. Standardized web interface, oabservations (OGC SOS) and alert messages (CAP) are introduced to facilitate the interoperable sharing of required information.
We use simulated disaster data from TERIA and hazard potential dataset to test the proposed architecture. By using the simulated disaster data, the critical location choice, service area, and route analysis can be successfully generated approached by disaster scenario and its impact analysis. Before and after comparison of the impact analysis proves the suggested route provided by the system effectively reduce the travel time for required alert information and evacuation plan. The use of SOS web service interface assists sharing mechanism between disaster-related stakeholders by registering, storing and retrieving the sensor and sensor observation to/from the web service with standardized request. In addition, the possibility template derived from CAP standards assists the decision maker in minimizing the involvement of human being for conducting the real-time observation. Such that, the proposed architecture proves that adopting smart city concept in term of assisting the interaction of cross-domain stakeholders by following standards, using the advanced technologies e.g. sensor web enables to support the development of disaster awareness.
Table of content v
List of table viii
List of Figure ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research scope and major strategy 4
1.3 Organization of the thesis 6
Chapter 2 Literature Review 8
2.1 Disaster Management 8
2.1.1 Risk assessment 9
2.1.2 Disaster management component 10
2.1.3 Organization 14
2.2 Smart city 17
2.2.1 Smart city characteristic and component 17
2.2.2 The concept of IoT in smart city 19
2.2.3 Alert Service 20
2.3 Emergency management in smart city 21
2.3.1 Earthquake early warning system 21
2.3.2 Decision Making Supports – the use of collaborative GIS framework 24
Chapter 3 Proposed Framework 29
3.1 4-tier disaster aware architecture 29
3.1.1 Sensor tier 30
3.1.2 Data distribution tier 32
3.1.3 Decision support tier 35
3.1.4 Alert tier 38
3.2 Standardization in the framework 40
3.2.1 Sensor Observation Service (SOS) 40
3.2.2 Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) 45
3.3 The stakeholder of the framework 48
Chapter 4 Framework mechanism 56
4.1 Sensor data distribution 56
4.1.1 Sensor observation 57
4.1.2 Data distribution via SOS web service 60
4.2 Decision support tier mechanism 62
4.2.1 Preliminary disaster analysis 64
4.2.2 During disaster 70
4.3 Alerting system consideration 74
4.3.1 Alert type 75
4.3.2 Alert template 76
4.3.3 Alert dissemination 83
4.4 Visualization approach 86
Chapter 5 Framework Implementation 88
5.1 Background implementation 88
5.1.1 Simulated disaster data 89
5.1.2 Facility data 90
5.1.3 Network datasets 91
5.2 Pre-disaster analysis 91
5.2.1 Impact analysis before disaster 91
5.2.2 Critical location choice analysis 95
5.2.3 Registering and retrieving sensor observation 100
5.3 Flood scenario analysis 107
5.3.1 Scenario 1 107
5.3.2 Impact analysis 108
5.3.3 Creating alert message for flood 111
5.4 Earthquake scenario 115
5.4.1 Scenario 2 and 3 115
5.4.2 Impact analysis 118
5.5 Dashboard 126
Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future Work 128
6.1 Conclusion 128
6.2 Future work 130
Chapter 7 References 131
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