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論文名稱(中文) 台灣鐵路客運無障礙設施及服務的重要性與績效分析:從身心障礙乘客的觀點
論文名稱(英文) The Importance and Performance Analysis of Accessible Facilities and Service for Taiwan Railway Passenger Service: The Perspective of Disable Passengers
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science(on the job class)
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 薛仲利
研究生(英文) Hsueh Chung Li
學號 R57051162
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 89頁
口試委員 指導教授-廖俊雄
口試委員-黃國平
口試委員-林佐鼎
口試委員-楊忠山
口試委員-呂錦山
中文關鍵字 Kano模式  IPA分析  台灣鐵路管理局  身心障礙者  無障礙設施 
英文關鍵字 Kano model  IPA analysis  Taiwan Railway Administration  Passengers with physically and mentally disability  Accessible facilities 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在台灣身心障礙者的數量和比例發生了遽然變化,社會高齡化的步伐加快,截至2017年,全國共有近117萬人取得身心障礙手冊,佔總人口的4.95%,繼續創造歷史新高,同時在旅遊活動普及的時代,這些身心障礙人士對可及性的需求增加。台灣鐵路管理局(以下簡稱台鐵)做為政府經營的最大客貨運服務機構,是最大的城際交通運輸工具;且提供了龐大的輸客量。身心障礙者與高齡化社會需要無障礙設施的人數激增,本研究目的在以身心障礙者的觀點,來看台灣鐵路管理局的各項無障礙設施是不是符合身心障礙者的需求,評量身心障礙對這些設施的重要度與滿意度的態度,以及有無可以更提升服務品質的部分。
本研究針對台灣各地區殘障機構發放電子問卷,最後回收有效樣本為108份,藉由Kano的二維品質模式與重要-表現分析法,來了解台灣鐵路管理局所提供的無障礙服務,透過身心障礙旅客的需求,加以分類幫助車站了解不同類型身心障礙旅客的實際需求。透過已搭乘過台灣鐵路管理局客運服務的身心障礙的旅客,並以自身經驗,作為研究調查的客群而設計問卷,主要包含台鐵車站之抵達或離開、台鐵車站之車站移動、台鐵車站返月台、進出車箱時和台鐵人員服務態度。從IPA的分析結果中可以發現台鐵車站返月台、台鐵人員服務態度和台鐵車站之車站移動屬於優先改善的目標,更進一步利用問項進行改善,例如增加並優化車站內無障礙廁所設施和車站到停車月台之間設有電梯。同時從Kano分析看出每個問項的屬性,應重視必須品質屬性的部分,如台鐵車站之車站的移動應增加導盲磚和月台上應有足夠的休息座位。最後IPA與Kano模式進行屬性交叉歸類的結果,顯示身心障礙者認為台灣鐵路管理局所提供的無障礙客運服務,主要要素是在符合相關法規的規範,但在實務上從研究結果來看,普遍對無障礙設施,都認為是重要的,雖然比例有高低,相較於滿意程度,普遍的得分都較低,即表示「重要且不滿意」、「有做為與無做為的感受明顯的差距」。綜合以上述分析,建議台灣鐵路管理局在無障礙設施與服務方面,在「身心障構面之 IPA-Kano model 交叉分析」看到各個象限的狀況,從而得知可以努力改善的方向並作為提供無障礙設施服務的設置與使用參考、改善的依據。
英文摘要 The Importance and Performance Analysis of Accessible Facilities and Service for Taiwan Railway Passenger Service: The Perspective of Disable Passengers.
Hsueh Chung Li
Chun Hsiung Liao.
Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science
National Cheng Kung University

SUMMARY
The population of the disabled in Taiwan has increased along with the aging society. Simultaneously, the demand of accessibility and traveling activity for the disabled also increases in the time of tourism. This study intends, from the perspective of the disabled passengers, to investigate whether or not the accessible facilities in the TRA fits the need of the disabled by measuring their importance and performance levels towards these facilities. The research target is aimed at passengers with physically and mentally disability. Via distributing the questionnaire online to the institutions and the groups for the disabled, a total of 108 effective samples were collected for the analysis.
By adopting the importance and performance analysis and Kano’s two-dimensional quality model, the accessible facilities provided by the TRA and divided into five constructs which are examined and verified by the personal experiences of the disabled passengers taking the TRA services. In all the quadrants, the importance levels of the attributes perceived the disabled passengers for the accessible facilities are revealed to be higher than their respective performance levels. It implies that these passengers view these attributes are important but dissatisfied and there are significant gaps between the feelings of doing nothing and not doing it in Kano’s result. In the end, the cross comparison of attribute types in the IPA and Kano results provides the suggestions for the TRA in the improvement of the accessible facilities.
Keywords: Kano model, IPA analysis, Taiwan Railway Administration, Passengers with physically and mentally disability, Accessible facilities

INTRODUCTION
Sudden changes have taken place in the number and proportion of people with physical and mental disabilities in Taiwan. The pace of social aging has accelerated, and the demand for accessibility has increased. As of 2017, a total of nearly 1.17 million people across the country have obtained the handbook for physically and mentally handicapped people. 4.95% of the total population (Statistics Division, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2017), Taiwan Railway Administration, as the largest intercity transportation means, is an object worth exploring.
In recent years, research on service quality has gradually attracted attention from all walks of life. Kano’s two-dimensional quality model has escaped the general perception of “satisfaction when available, and not satisfaction when not available”. When applied to strategy, it can make up for disadvantages of one-dimensional quality thinking. The Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) proposed by Martilla and James (1977) is a measure of "importance"-importance to customers and "performance"-customer satisfaction. A technology that prioritizes related attributes of a particular service or product. This study combines the Kano two-dimensional model and IPA analysis to explore the service quality of the Taiwan Railway barrier-free facilities.
Based on the foregoing research motivation and background, the main purpose of this study is to understand and analyze the views of people with physical and mental disabilities on the importance and satisfaction of barrier-free facilities inside and outside the Taiwan Railway Station, and the differences between passengers with different background variables. The research scope is mainly based on the Taiwan Railway’s passenger and attempts to explore the service quality of the Taiwan Railway’s barrier-free facilities from the perspective of the physically and mentally disabled.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of perception and satisfaction of the use of facilities for people with disabilities from the perspective of people with disabilities in order to provide services that meet the physical needs of people with disabilities. To improve service quality. This study uses Kano's two-dimensional quality model and IPA model to analyze the importance and satisfaction of people with physical and mental disabilities when using facilities related to Taiwan Railways. The study subjects were people with disabilities who used barrier-free facilities of the Taiwan Railways.
The questionnaire design is divided into three parts. The first part is basic information to understand the types of people with disabilities. The second part is divided into five items. The first four items are about accessible facilities. The fifth item is the attitude survey of service staff. The third part is the open opinions of the survey respondents. This study used the Likert five-point scale. The final valid questionnaires were 108.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The average score of important attributes of each research facet was 4.41, which were: Arriving/leaving Station (ALS) 4.30; In the Station (ITS) 4.41; Station to Platform (STP) 4.52; In/Out Cabin (IOC) 4.44; Staff Service Attitude (SSA) 4.42. The average score of satisfactory attributes fell at 2.29, respectively: ALS 2.62; ITS 2.18; STP 2.24; IOC 2.32 SSA; 2.18. It can be seen from the analysis that the questionnaire items are generally considered important, but the satisfaction part is not ideal, and there is room for improvement.
The classification results of the Kano model include ALS as non-differential attribute, ITS as required attribute, STP as required attribute, IOC as non-differential attribute, and SSA as one-dimensional attribute. By analyzing the attributes of the question item, it can know how consumers feel about do or not to do.
Through the definition of the model, the collection of data, and the results of the analysis, we can achieve the purpose of this study.

CONCLUSION
Based on the above results, this study proposes the following recommendations to provide the Taiwan Railway Administration as a reference for improving passenger service quality and operating management, thereby promoting a high degree of customer satisfaction and achieving a win-win situation for social fairness and justice. This study obtained important items and satisfaction of people with disabilities when using the various facilities of the Taiwan Railways, and experienced how the Taiwan Railways do and do not experience.
List various priority improvement projects, secondary improvement projects, sustainable efforts and excessive efforts, etc., which can be used by the railway to provide facilities for people with physical and mental disabilities to use the railway's various facilities and as a reference.
The limitation of this study is that it is not easy to sample. The number of people with disabilities who use the Taiwan Railway facilities may be a minority among them. When the questionnaire was implemented, the number of responses was very small, so it was difficult to present a general pattern. However, this study should be the result of reporting the opinions of people with disabilities who are willing to take the initiative to respond; it should be able to reflect the actual situation and serve as a reference for improving the services provided by the Taiwan Railways to people with disabilities.
論文目次 表目錄 ................ x
圖目錄 ............... xi
第一章 緒論 ............. 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 ........... 1
1.2 研究目的 ............. 4
1.3 研究探討的問題 ........... 7
第二章 文獻回顧 ............. 8
2.1 身心障礙者現況與高齡化社會現象 ....... 8
2.2 台鐵在城際運輸的重要性 ......... 13
2.3 台鐵無障礙設施的評鑑與改進 ......... 14
2.4 服務品質重要性與滿意度 ......... 17
2.4.1 服務的定義 ........... 17
2.4.2 品質定義、服務品質與滿意度 ....... 19
2.4.3 二維品質模式探討 ......... 20
第三章 研究架構與方法 ........... 25
3.1 研究架構 ............. 25
3.2 受訪問卷的題項 ........... 26
3.3 研究設計範圍與對象 ........... 28
3.3.1 研究範圍與對象 ......... 28
3.3.2 問卷調查設計 ........... 29
3.4 研究方法 ............. 29
3.4.1 統計分析 ........... 29
3.4.2 IPA 分析 ........... 29
3.4.3 Kano 二維品質 ........... 30
3.5 資料搜集與分析方法 ........... 31
第四章 研究分析 ............. 36
4.1 描述性統計分析 ........... 36
4.2 信效度分析 ............. 39
4.3 集群分析 ............. 42
4.3.1 重要屬性分群 ........... 43
4.3.2 滿意屬性分群 ........... 45
4.4 重要 - 績效結果............ 48
4.4.1 五個構面IPA 的結果 ........ 52
4.4.2 各問項IPA 的結果 .......... 53
4.4.3 各個問項IPA 數值與所屬象限表 ....... 56
4.5 Kano Model Result 卡諾模型結果 ....... 58
4.5.1 Kano 析屬性分類結果 ......... 59
4.5.2 不同構面的Kano 結果 ........ 63
第五章 結論與建議 ............. 71
5.1. 研究限制 ............. 71
5.2 IPA 整體結論 ........... 71
5.2.1 在台鐵車站之抵達或離開車站時 ....... 71
5.2.2 台鐵車站之車站內移動時 ......... 71
5.2.3 台鐵車站往返月台時 ......... 72
5.2.4 進出台鐵客車車箱時 ......... 72
5.2.5 台鐵人員的服務態度 ......... 72
5.3 Kano 整體結論 ........... 72
5.3.1 台鐵車站之抵達或離開車站時的個人感受 ..... 72
5.3.2 在台鐵車站之車站內移動的感受 ....... 73
5.3.3 對台鐵車站返月台時的感受 ....... 73
5.3.4 對進出台鐵客車車箱時的感受 ....... 73
5.3.5 對台鐵人員的服務態度的感受 ....... 74
5.4 管理意涵 ............. 74
參考文獻 ............... 76
中文參考文獻 ............. 76
西文參考文獻 ............. 77
附錄問卷調查 ............ 80
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