進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-1312201115274100
論文名稱(中文) 類泛素化在Sp1降解上所扮演的角色
論文名稱(英文) The role of sumoylation in Sp1 degradation
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 基礎醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 王怡婷
研究生(英文) Yi-Ting Wang
學號 s5894115
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 144頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪建中
指導教授-張文昌
召集委員-賴明德
口試委員-施修明
口試委員-呂佩融
口試委員-洪文俊
中文關鍵字 類泛素化 
英文關鍵字 sumoylation  Sp1  degradation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 Sp1是廣泛表現於細胞的轉錄因子,負責調節含有GC-rich的基因。決定一個轉錄因子的活性有三種要素,分別為轉錄活性、DNA結合能力及其本身蛋白質的量,此三項要素接受到轉譯後修飾作用所調控。研究顯示Sp1的轉譯後修飾作用,例如磷酸化、糖化、乙烯化、泛素化及類泛素化作用,可調控Sp1的活性並進而調控Sp1目標基因的表現。在本研究中,我們發現Sp1受到類泛素化的修飾位置是位於第16個離胺酸上。Sp1或Sp1(K6R)的mRNA量保持穩定的情況下,其蛋白質表現量增加與其目標基因 p21WAF1/CIP1的活性成正相關,因此Sp1受到類泛素化修飾後成為較不具活性的轉錄因子。當Cycloheximide (CHX)處理以檢測蛋白質降解效率,我們發現Sp1、Sp1(K16R)、 SUMO-1-Sp1的半衰期分別為3.8、5.9與小於1小時。我們亦證明類泛素化的修飾位置與泛素化的修飾位置不是在同一個離胺酸上,且類泛素化作用使Sp1更易進行泛素化作用。此外,類泛素化作用修飾Sp1後會增加其進行蛋白質分解的過程,且分解後的N端是受到類泛素化作用修飾的。體內與體外泛素化測驗結果顯示RNF4扮演Sp1的泛素化E3接合酵素的角色,Sp1的泛素化程度在RNF4存在下明顯增高。而Sp1的C端片段會直接與RNF4進行交互作用的,且類泛素化後的Sp1更易與RNF4有交互作用。因此,RNF4負向調控Sp1蛋白質的量,是藉由在泛素化-蛋白質體分解作用中,增加Sp1的降解作用而達成。此外,我們亦發現類泛素化修飾後的Sp1較易停留於細胞質中,而在此增加與蛋白質體其中一個組成單元rpt6的交互作用。我們進一步分析癌組織中的Sp1蛋白質表現量較高、類泛素化程度較低且與rpt6間的交互作用較高。另外,在細胞的有絲分裂期,Sp1受到c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1)的修飾而成為高磷酸化。此高磷酸化的Sp1與RNF4間的交互作用降低,進而預防Sp1的分解作用。因此高磷酸化的Sp1使Sp1與其泛素化E3接合酵素間的交互作用降低,保護其不受蛋白質降解作用藉以維持其在有絲分裂期Sp1蛋白質的量。綜合以上實驗結果得知,類泛素化作用參與Sp1的蛋白質降解機制,係經由增加其與RNF4及rpt6間的交互作用,藉由增加Sp1降解的效率以降低Sp1的蛋白質總量,最後達成其負向調控目標基因的目標。
英文摘要 Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that plays important role in the regulation of many GC-rich genes encoding for housekeeping proteins. The transcriptional activity of one transcriptional factor is mainly determined by three elements: transcriptional activity, DNA binding ability and its protein accumulation. All of the three elements are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). Previous studies have shown that the PTMs of Sp1 (phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation etc.) are implicated in the regulation of Sp1 activity and modulate the expression of Sp1-target genes. Our study has shown that the sumoylation site of Sp1 is located at the 16th lysine. The mRNA level of Sp1 or Sp1(K16R) remained stable, but the increased protein level correlated well with the promoter activity of p21WAF1/CIP1. The relative protein/mRNA level of Sp1(K16R) was significantly higher than that of Sp1. Cycloheximide (CHX) was used to measure the protein degradation rate, and the results indicated that the half-lives of Sp1, Sp1(K16R), and SUMO-1-Sp1 were 3.8, 5.9, and <1 h, respectively. We also demonstrated that Sumoylation site of Sp1 was irrelevant to ubiquitination site and sumoylation facilitated the ubiquitination of Sp1. We also found that the N-terminal cleavage fragment was modified by SUMO-1 and sumoylation of Sp1 facilitated its proteolytic process. In vitro and In vivo ubiquitination assays demonstrated that RNF4 was the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1 and Sp1 sumoylation facilitated the efficiency of RNF4-mediated degradation. C-terminal region of Sp1 [619-785 aa] directly contributed to the Sp1-RNF4 interaction, and sumoylation of Sp1 enhanced the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Therefore, RNF4 down-regulated Sp1 levels by increasing its degradation in an ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway, and sumoylation facilitated the RNF4-mediated degradation. In vitro and in vivo pull-down assays reveal that SUMO-1-Sp1 was prone to localize in the cytoplasm, where it increased the interaction with proteasome subunit rpt6. Interestingly, we also observed the high Sp1 protein level, low sumoylation level and high interaction with rpt6 is present in cervical cancer tissue. In addition, during mitosis, Sp1 was phosphorylated by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) at C-terminus, and its interaction with RNF4 was decreased, which prevented Sp1 from degradation. These data strongly suggested that highly phosphorylated Sp1 during mitosis retain its protein levels by preventing it from interacting with its ubiquitin E3 ligase-RNF4.
In conclusion, sumoylation is involved with Sp1 degradation mechanism through the increased interaction with RNF4 and rpt6, followed by decrease of the protein levels, leading to down regulation of Sp1-targeted genes.
論文目次 Certification............................................I
Abstract............................................II
Abstract in Chinese............................................IV
Acknowledgments............................................VI
Contents............................................VIII
Abbreviation list............................................XIII



Introduction………………………………………………………………. 1
I. The transcription factor - Specificity protein 1 (Sp1)…………………………1
A. Overview of Sp1……………………………………………… 1
B. Molecular cloning and structure features of Sp1……………... 2
C. Mechanisms regulating Sp1 transcriptional activity………….. 3
D. Sp1 degradation mechanism…………………………………… 4
E. The role of Sp1 in cancer………………………………………. 5
II. Post-translational modifiers (SUMO)……………………………… 6
A. SUMO pathway………………………………………………. 6
B. The role and molecular consequences of sumoylation in the cell……………………………………………...……………...7
C. Sumoylation and its contribution to cancer……….………….. 9
D. The SUMO pathway in mitosis……………………………….. 10
III. The ubiquitin-proteasome degradation system……………………. 11
A. Ubiquitination ………………………………………………… 11
B. The proteasome and Rpt6……………………………………... 12
IV. The ubiquitin E3 ligase and RNF4…………………………………. 14
A. The ubiquitin E3 ligase……………………………………….. 14
B. The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) ……………. 15
C. Ring finger protein 4 (RNF4)…………………………………. 16
V. The interplay of post-translational modifications………………18
A. Phosphorylation and sumoylation…………………………….. 19
B. Acetylation and sumoylation………………………………….. 20
C. Ubiquitination and sumoylation………………………………. 21


Research Aims…………………………………………………………………... 22
Materials and Methods…………………………………………………………. 23
I. Materials……………......................................... 23
II. Plasmids……………………………………………………………… 28
III. Methods………………………………………………………………. 30
1. Cell culture and tissue samples preparation…………………... 30
2. Transfection and reporter gene assay…………………………. 30
3. Reverse Transcription-PCR…………………………………… 31
4. Immunohistochemistry assay…………………………………. 31
5. Pull-down assay……………………………………………….. 32
6. In vitro sumoylation assay…………………………………….. 33
7. Western blotting assay………………………………………… 33
8. Immunoprecipitation assay…………………………………… 33
9. Protein synthesis in E. coli……………………………………. 34
10. In vitro ubiquitination assay…………………………………... 34
11. In vivo ubiquitination assay…………………………………… 35


Results …………………………………………………………………………... 36
Chapter 1
I. Study on sumoylation effect of Sp1……………................................ 36
A. Sumoylation of Sp1…………………………………………… 36
B. Effect of sumoylation on transcriptional activity of Sp1……... 36
C. Involvement of Sp1 sumoylation on protein levels…………… 37
D. Attenuation of Sp1 stability by sumoylation………………….. 38
II. Analysis of the ubiquitination of Sp1………………………………. 38
A. Irrelevant of Sp1 sumoylation and ubiquitination site………... 38
B. Effect of Sp1 sumoylation on Sp1 processing………………... 39
III. Identification of the ubiquitin E3 ligase involved in Sp1 degradation…………40
A. Analysis of Sp1-RNF4 interaction……………………………. 40
B. Effect of sumoylation on Sp1-RNF4 interaction……………… 42
C. Involvement of RNF4 and sumoylation on Sp1………………. 43
D. Function of RNF4 as an ubiquitin E3 ligase………………….. 44
IV. Study on the interaction between Sp1 and proteasome…………… 46
A. Effect of Sp1 sumoylation on Sp1-Rpt6 interaction………….. 46
B. Sp1 sumoylation on the interaction between Sp1 and Rpt6…... 47
Figures
Figure 1 Sp1 is covalently modified by SUMO-1 in vivo……………………. 49
Figure 2 Sumoylation regulates Sp1 transcriptional activity of p21WAF1/CIP1… 50
Figure 3 Sp1 modified by SUMO-1 decreases its protein expression level…. 51
Figure 4 Sumoylation of Sp1 attenuates its stability…………………………. 52
Figure 5 The sumoylation site of Sp1 is irrelevant to the ubiquitination residue…………53
Figure 6 Sumoylation of Sp1 facilitates Sp1 processing…………………….. 54
Figure 7 Sp1 interacts with RNF4 in vivo……………………………………. 55
Figure 8 The interaction between Sp1 and RNF4……………………………. 56
Figure 9 Effect of sumoylation in the interaction between Sp1 and RNF4….. 57
Figure 10 The role of RNF4 in Sp1 protein levels…………………………….. 58
Figure 11 RNF4 mediates the degradation of Sp1…………………………….. 59
Figure 12 RNF4 mediated the ubiquitination of Sp1 in vivo………………….. 60
Figure 13 RNF4 functions as an ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1…………………... 61
Figure 14 Sp1 modified by SUMO-1 augments the interaction between Sp1 and rpt6…62
Figure 15 The interaction and localization of SUMO-1-Sp1 and rpt6………… 63

Chapter 2
I. Study on pivotal role of Sp1 in cancer and mitosis........................... 64
A. Involvement of Sp1 in cancer…………………………………. 64
B. Interplay of sumoylation and phosphorylation on Sp1 during mitosis………………65
Figures
Figure 16 Accumulation of Sp1 is induced in cervical tumorigenesis………… 68
Figure 17 Sp1 phosphorylation affects Sp1-RNF4 interaction………………... 69
Figure 18 Model for the sumoylation involves in Sp1 degradation…………… 70

Discussion ………………………………………………………………………. 71
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………. 85
References……………………………………………………………………….. 86

Appendixes
Appendix 1 The structure feature of Sp1…………………………………… 103
Appendix 2 The repertoire of posttranslational modifications of Sp1……… 104
Appendix 3 The SUMO conjugation cycle…………………………………. 105
Appendix 4 The functional consequences of SUMO conjugation………….. 106
Appendix 5 The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway……………………………. 107
Appendix 6 The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) family……… 108
參考文獻 Abdel-Hafiz, H., Dudevoir, M. L. and Horwitz, K. B. (2009). "Mechanisms underlying the control of progesterone receptor transcriptional activity by SUMOylation." J Biol Chem 284: 9099-9108.
Abdelrahim, M., Smith, R., 3rd, Burghardt, R. and Safe, S. (2004). "Role of Sp proteins in regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells." Cancer Res 64: 6740-6749.
Akiyama, K., Yokota, K., Kagawa, S., Shimbara, N., DeMartino, G. N., Slaughter, C. A., Noda, C. and Tanaka, K. (1995). "cDNA cloning of a new putative ATPase subunit p45 of the human 26S proteasome, a homolog of yeast transcriptional factor Sug1p." FEBS Lett 363: 151-156.
Ammanamanchi, S. and Brattain, M. G. (2001). "Sp3 is a transcriptional repressor of transforming growth factor-beta receptors." J Biol Chem 276: 3348-3352.
Ardley, H. C. and Robinson, P. A. (2005). "E3 ubiquitin ligases." Essays Biochem 41: 15-30.
Armstrong, S. A., Barry, D. A., Leggett, R. W. and Mueller, C. R. (1997). "Casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of the C terminus of Sp1 decreases its DNA binding activity." J Biol Chem 272: 13489-13495.
Baba, D., Maita, N., Jee, J. G., Uchimura, Y., Saitoh, H., Sugasawa, K., Hanaoka, F., Tochio, H., Hiroaki, H. and Shirakawa, M. (2005). "Crystal structure of thymine DNA glycosylase conjugated to SUMO-1." Nature 435: 979-982.
Bardag-Gorce, F., Li, J., French, B. A. and French, S. W. (2005). "The effect of ethanol-induced CYP2E1 on proteasome activity: the role of 4-hydroxynonenal." Exp Mol Pathol 78: 109-115.
Bies, J., Markus, J. and Wolff, L. (2002). "Covalent attachment of the SUMO-1 protein to the negative regulatory domain of the c-Myb transcription factor modifies its stability and transactivation capacity." J Biol Chem 277: 8999-9009.
Black, A. R., Black, J. D. and Azizkhan-Clifford, J. (2001). "Sp1 and kruppel-like factor family of transcription factors in cell growth regulation and cancer." J Cell Physiol 188: 143-160.
Black, A. R., Jensen, D., Lin, S. Y. and Azizkhan, J. C. (1999). "Growth/cell cycle regulation of Sp1 phosphorylation." J Biol Chem 274: 1207-1215.
Borellini, F., Aquino, A., Josephs, S. F. and Glazer, R. I. (1990). "Increased expression and DNA-binding activity of transcription factor Sp1 in doxorubicin-resistant HL-60 leukemia cells." Mol Cell Biol 10: 5541-5547.
Bortnick, B., El-Khalili, N., Banov, M., Adson, D., Datto, C., Raines, S., Earley, W. and Eriksson, H. (2011). "Efficacy and tolerability of extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) monotherapy in major depressive disorder: a placebo-controlled, randomized study." J Affect Disord 128: 83-94.
Bose, S., Stratford, F. L., Broadfoot, K. I., Mason, G. G. and Rivett, A. J. (2004). "Phosphorylation of 20S proteasome alpha subunit C8 (alpha7) stabilizes the 26S proteasome and plays a role in the regulation of proteasome complexes by gamma-interferon." Biochem J 378: 177-184.
Bouras, T., Fu, M., Sauve, A. A., Wang, F., Quong, A. A., Perkins, N. D., Hay, R. T., Gu, W. and Pestell, R. G. (2005). "SIRT1 deacetylation and repression of p300 involves lysine residues 1020/1024 within the cell cycle regulatory domain 1." J Biol Chem 280: 10264-10276.
Bouwman, P. and Philipsen, S. (2002). "Regulation of the activity of Sp1-related transcription factors." Mol Cell Endocrinol 195: 27-38.
Briggs, M. R., Kadonaga, J. T., Bell, S. P. and Tjian, R. (1986). "Purification and biochemical characterization of the promoter-specific transcription factor, Sp1." Science 234: 47-52.
Bruderer, R., Tatham, M. H., Plechanovova, A., Matic, I., Garg, A. K. and Hay, R. T. (2011). "Purification and identification of endogenous polySUMO conjugates." EMBO Rep 12: 142-148.
Cadoret, A., Baron-Delage, S., Bertrand, F., Kornprost, M., Groyer, A., Gespach, C., Capeau, J. and Cherqui, G. (1998). "Oncogene-induced up-regulation of Caco-2 cell proliferation involves IGF-II gene activation through a protein kinase C-mediated pathway." Oncogene 17: 877-887.
Canaff, L., Zhou, X. and Hendy, G. N. (2008). "The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, up-regulates calcium-sensing receptor gene transcription via Stat1/3 and Sp1/3." J Biol Chem 283: 13586-13600.
Chadalapaka, G., Jutooru, I., Burghardt, R. and Safe, S. (2010). "Drugs that target specificity proteins downregulate epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer cells." Mol Cancer Res 8: 739-750.
Chatterjee, S., Zaman, K., Ryu, H., Conforto, A. and Ratan, R. R. (2001). "Sequence-selective DNA binding drugs mithramycin A and chromomycin A3 are potent inhibitors of neuronal apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and DNA damage in cortical neurons." Ann Neurol 49: 345-354.
Cheeseman, I. M., Hori, T., Fukagawa, T. and Desai, A. (2008). "KNL1 and the CENP-H/I/K complex coordinately direct kinetochore assembly in vertebrates." Mol Biol Cell 19: 587-594.
Chen, S. Y., Takeuchi, S., Moroi, Y., Hayashida, S., Kido, M., Uchi, H., Takahara, M., Uenotsuchi, T., Tu, Y. T., Urabe, K. and Furue, M. (2008). "Concordant over-expression of transcription factor Sp1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in extramammary Paget's disease." Int J Dermatol 47: 562-566.
Cheng, J., Bawa, T., Lee, P., Gong, L. and Yeh, E. T. (2006). "Role of desumoylation in the development of prostate cancer." Neoplasia 8: 667-676.
Chiariotti, L., Benvenuto, G., Fedele, M., Santoro, M., Simeone, A., Fusco, A. and Bruni, C. B. (1998). "Identification and characterization of a novel RING-finger gene (RNF4) mapping at 4p16.3." Genomics 47: 258-265.
Chiefari, E., Brunetti, A., Arturi, F., Bidart, J. M., Russo, D., Schlumberger, M. and Filetti, S. (2002). "Increased expression of AP2 and Sp1 transcription factors in human thyroid tumors: a role in NIS expression regulation?" BMC Cancer 2: 35.
Chu, S. and Ferro, T. J. (2005). "Sp1: regulation of gene expression by phosphorylation." Gene 348: 1-11.
Chuang, J. Y., Wang, Y. T., Yeh, S. H., Liu, Y. W., Chang, W. C. and Hung, J. J. (2008). "Phosphorylation by c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase 1 Regulates the Stability of Transcription Factor Sp1 during Mitosis." Mol Biol Cell 19: 1139-1151.
Chung, T. L., Hsiao, H. H., Yeh, Y. Y., Shia, H. L., Chen, Y. L., Liang, P. H., Wang, A. H., Khoo, K. H. and Shoei-Lung Li, S. (2004). "In vitro modification of human centromere protein CENP-C fragments by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein: definitive identification of the modification sites by tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the isopeptides." J Biol Chem 279: 39653-39662.
Ciechanover, A. (1998). "The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway: on protein death and cell life." Embo J 17: 7151-7160.
Citron, B. A., Dennis, J. S., Zeitlin, R. S. and Echeverria, V. (2008). "Transcription factor Sp1 dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease." J Neurosci Res 86: 2499-2504.
Courey, A. J., Holtzman, D. A., Jackson, S. P. and Tjian, R. (1989). "Synergistic activation by the glutamine-rich domains of human transcription factor Sp1." Cell 59: 827-836.
Courey, A. J. and Tjian, R. (1988). "Analysis of Sp1 in vivo reveals multiple transcriptional domains, including a novel glutamine-rich activation motif." Cell 55: 887-898.
Curtin, D., Ferris, H. A., Hakli, M., Gibson, M., Janne, O. A., Palvimo, J. J. and Shupnik, M. A. (2004). "Small nuclear RING finger protein stimulates the rat luteinizing hormone-beta promoter by interacting with Sp1 and steroidogenic factor-1 and protects from androgen suppression." Mol Endocrinol 18: 1263-1276.
David, G., Neptune, M. A. and DePinho, R. A. (2002). "SUMO-1 modification of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) modulates its biological activities." J Biol Chem 277: 23658-23663.
Davies, L., Karthikeyan, N., Lynch, J. T., Sial, E. A., Gkourtsa, A., Demonacos, C. and Krstic-Demonacos, M. (2008). "Cross talk of signaling pathways in the regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor function." Mol Endocrinol 22: 1331-1344.
DeMartino, G. N. and Slaughter, C. A. (1999). "The proteasome, a novel protease regulated by multiple mechanisms." J Biol Chem 274: 22123-22126.
Dempsey, N. J., Ojalvo, L. S., Wu, D. W. and Little, J. A. (2003). "Induction of an embryonic globin gene promoter by short-chain fatty acids." Blood 102: 4214-4222.
Deniaud, E., Baguet, J., Mathieu, A. L., Pages, G., Marvel, J. and Leverrier, Y. (2006). "Overexpression of Sp1 transcription factor induces apoptosis." Oncogene 25: 7096-7105.
Deshaies, R. J. (1999). "SCF and Cullin/Ring H2-based ubiquitin ligases." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 15: 435-467.
Desterro, J. M., Rodriguez, M. S. and Hay, R. T. (1998). "SUMO-1 modification of IkappaBalpha inhibits NF-kappaB activation." Mol Cell 2: 233-239.
Devoy, A., Soane, T., Welchman, R. and Mayer, R. J. (2005). "The ubiquitin-proteasome system and cancer." Essays Biochem 41: 187-203.
Di Nocera, P. P. and Dawid, I. B. (1983). "Transient expression of genes introduced into cultured cells of Drosophila." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80: 7095-7098.
Dong, C., Granville, D. J., Tuffnel, C. E., Kenyon, J., English, D., Wilson, J. E. and McManus, B. M. (1999). "Bax and apoptosis in acute and chronic rejection of rat cardiac allografts." Lab Invest 79: 1643-1653.
Dynan, W. S. and Tjian, R. (1983). "Isolation of transcription factors that discriminate between different promoters recognized by RNA polymerase II." Cell 32: 669-680.
Dynan, W. S. and Tjian, R. (1983). "The promoter-specific transcription factor Sp1 binds to upstream sequences in the SV40 early promoter." Cell 35: 79-87.
Eun Jeoung, L., Sung Hee, H., Jaesun, C., Sung Hwa, S., Kwang Hum, Y., Min Kyoung, K., Tae Yoon, P. and Sang Sun, K. (2008). "Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta functions by modification of the small ubiquitin-like modifier." Open Biochem J 2: 67-76.
Everett, R. D., Lomonte, P., Sternsdorf, T., van Driel, R. and Orr, A. (1999). "Cell cycle regulation of PML modification and ND10 composition." J Cell Sci 112 ( Pt 24): 4581-4588.
Fang, S., Jensen, J. P., Ludwig, R. L., Vousden, K. H. and Weissman, A. M. (2000). "Mdm2 is a RING finger-dependent ubiquitin protein ligase for itself and p53." J Biol Chem 275: 8945-8951.
Fedele, M., Benvenuto, G., Pero, R., Majello, B., Battista, S., Lembo, F., Vollono, E., Day, P. M., Santoro, M., Lania, L., Bruni, C. B., Fusco, A. and Chiariotti, L. (2000). "A novel member of the BTB/POZ family, PATZ, associates with the RNF4 RING finger protein and acts as a transcriptional repressor." J Biol Chem 275: 7894-7901.
Ferrante, R. J., Kubilus, J. K., Lee, J., Ryu, H., Beesen, A., Zucker, B., Smith, K., Kowall, N. W., Ratan, R. R., Luthi-Carter, R. and Hersch, S. M. (2003). "Histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate chemotherapy ameliorates the neurodegenerative phenotype in Huntington's disease mice." J Neurosci 23: 9418-9427.
Finkenzeller, G., Sparacio, A., Technau, A., Marme, D. and Siemeister, G. (1997). "Sp1 recognition sites in the proximal promoter of the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene are essential for platelet-derived growth factor-induced gene expression." Oncogene 15: 669-676.
Fulda, S. and Kroemer, G. (2009). "Targeting mitochondrial apoptosis by betulinic acid in human cancers." Drug Discov Today 14: 885-890.
Geiss-Friedlander, R. and Melchior, F. (2007). "Concepts in sumoylation: a decade on." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8: 947-956.
Geoffroy, M. C. and Hay, R. T. (2009). "An additional role for SUMO in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10: 564-568.
Geoffroy, M. C., Jaffray, E. G., Walker, K. J. and Hay, R. T. (2010). "Arsenic-induced SUMO-dependent recruitment of RNF4 into PML nuclear bodies." Mol Biol Cell 21: 4227-4239.
Gerwins, P., Skoldenberg, E. and Claesson-Welsh, L. (2000). "Function of fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors in angiogenesis." Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 34: 185-194.
Gill, G. (2003). "Post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO has big effects on transcription factor activity." Curr Opin Genet Dev 13: 108-113.
Gill, G. (2004). "SUMO and ubiquitin in the nucleus: different functions, similar mechanisms?" Genes Dev 18: 2046-2059.
Gill, G. (2005). "Something about SUMO inhibits transcription." Curr Opin Genet Dev 15: 536-541.
Glozak, M. A., Sengupta, N., Zhang, X. and Seto, E. (2005). "Acetylation and deacetylation of non-histone proteins." Gene 363: 15-23.
Gregoire, S. and Yang, X. J. (2005). "Association with class IIa histone deacetylases upregulates the sumoylation of MEF2 transcription factors." Mol Cell Biol 25: 2273-2287.
Grewal, S., Smith, J., Ponnambalam, S. and Walker, J. (2004). "Stimulation-dependent recruitment of cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha to EA.hy.926 endothelial cell membranes leads to calcium-independent association." Eur J Biochem 271: 69-77.
Grillot, D. A., Gonzalez-Garcia, M., Ekhterae, D., Duan, L., Inohara, N., Ohta, S., Seldin, M. F. and Nunez, G. (1997). "Genomic organization, promoter region analysis, and chromosome localization of the mouse bcl-x gene." J Immunol 158: 4750-4757.
Guo, D., Han, J., Adam, B. L., Colburn, N. H., Wang, M. H., Dong, Z., Eizirik, D. L., She, J. X. and Wang, C. Y. (2005). "Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 337: 1308-1318.
Haering, C. H. and Nasmyth, K. (2003). "Building and breaking bridges between sister chromatids." Bioessays 25: 1178-1191.
Hakli, M., Karvonen, U., Janne, O. A. and Palvimo, J. J. (2001). "The RING finger protein SNURF is a bifunctional protein possessing DNA binding activity." J Biol Chem 276: 23653-23660.
Hakli, M., Karvonen, U., Janne, O. A. and Palvimo, J. J. (2005). "SUMO-1 promotes association of SNURF (RNF4) with PML nuclear bodies." Exp Cell Res 304: 224-233.
Hakli, M., Lorick, K. L., Weissman, A. M., Janne, O. A. and Palvimo, J. J. (2004). "Transcriptional coregulator SNURF (RNF4) possesses ubiquitin E3 ligase activity." FEBS Lett 560: 56-62.
Han, I. and Kudlow, J. E. (1997). "Reduced O glycosylation of Sp1 is associated with increased proteasome susceptibility." Mol Cell Biol 17: 2550-2558.
Han, J. Y., Lee, G. K., Yoo, S. Y., Yoon, S. J., Cho, E. Y., Kim, H. T. and Lee, J. S. (2010). "Association of SUMO1 and UBC9 genotypes with tumor response in non-small-cell lung cancer treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy." Pharmacogenomics J 10: 86-93.
Hanahan, D. and Weinberg, R. A. (2000). "The hallmarks of cancer." Cell 100: 57-70.
Hardeland, U., Steinacher, R., Jiricny, J. and Schar, P. (2002). "Modification of the human thymine-DNA glycosylase by ubiquitin-like proteins facilitates enzymatic turnover." Embo J 21: 1456-1464.
Hay, R. T. (2005). "SUMO: a history of modification." Mol Cell 18: 1-12.
Heideker, J., Perry, J. J. and Boddy, M. N. (2009). "Genome stability roles of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases." DNA Repair (Amst) 8: 517-524.
Hershko, A. and Ciechanover, A. (1998). "The ubiquitin system." Annu Rev Biochem 67: 425-479.
Hietakangas, V., Ahlskog, J. K., Jakobsson, A. M., Hellesuo, M., Sahlberg, N. M., Holmberg, C. I., Mikhailov, A., Palvimo, J. J., Pirkkala, L. and Sistonen, L. (2003). "Phosphorylation of serine 303 is a prerequisite for the stress-inducible SUMO modification of heat shock factor 1." Mol Cell Biol 23: 2953-2968.
Higgins, K. J., Abdelrahim, M., Liu, S., Yoon, K. and Safe, S. (2006). "Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by Sp proteins." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 345: 292-301.
Hilgarth, R. S., Hong, Y., Park-Sarge, O. K. and Sarge, K. D. (2003). "Insights into the regulation of heat shock transcription factor 1 SUMO-1 modification." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303: 196-200.
Hirano, T. (2005). "Condensins: organizing and segregating the genome." Curr Biol 15: R265-275.
Hirvonen-Santti, S. J., Rannikko, A., Santti, H., Savolainen, S., Nyberg, M., Janne, O. A. and Palvimo, J. J. (2003). "Down-regulation of estrogen receptor beta and transcriptional coregulator SNURF/RNF4 in testicular germ cell cancer." Eur Urol 44: 742-747; discussion 747.
Honda, H., Pazin, M. J., Ji, H., Wernyj, R. P. and Morin, P. J. (2006). "Crucial roles of Sp1 and epigenetic modifications in the regulation of the CLDN4 promoter in ovarian cancer cells." J Biol Chem 281: 21433-21444.
Hong, Y., Rogers, R., Matunis, M. J., Mayhew, C. N., Goodson, M. L., Park-Sarge, O. K. and Sarge, K. D. (2001). "Regulation of heat shock transcription factor 1 by stress-induced SUMO-1 modification." J Biol Chem 276: 40263-40267.
Huang, E. J. and Reichardt, L. F. (2003). "Trk receptors: roles in neuronal signal transduction." Annu Rev Biochem 72: 609-642.
Hung, J. J., Wang, Y. T. and Chang, W. C. (2006). "Sp1 deacetylation induced by phorbol ester recruits p300 to activate 12(S)-lipoxygenase gene transcription." Mol Cell Biol 26: 1770-1785.
Ii, T., Fung, J., Mullen, J. R. and Brill, S. J. (2007). "The yeast Slx5-Slx8 DNA integrity complex displays ubiquitin ligase activity." Cell Cycle 6: 2800-2809.
Jackson, S., Gottlieb, T. and Hartley, K. (1993). "Phosphorylation of transcription factor Sp1 by the DNA-dependent protein kinase." Adv Second Messenger Phosphoprotein Res 28: 279-286.
Jensen, D. E., Black, A. R., Swick, A. G. and Azizkhan, J. C. (1997). "Distinct roles for Sp1 and E2F sites in the growth/cell cycle regulation of the DHFR promoter." J Cell Biochem 67: 24-31.
Jia, Z., Gao, Y., Wang, L., Li, Q., Zhang, J., Le, X., Wei, D., Yao, J. C., Chang, D. Z., Huang, S. and Xie, K. (2010). "Combined treatment of pancreatic cancer with mithramycin A and tolfenamic acid promotes Sp1 degradation and synergistic antitumor activity." Cancer Res 70: 1111-1119.
Jiang, J., Ballinger, C. A., Wu, Y., Dai, Q., Cyr, D. M., Hohfeld, J. and Patterson, C. (2001). "CHIP is a U-box-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase: identification of Hsc70 as a target for ubiquitylation." J Biol Chem 276: 42938-42944.
Jiang, Y., Wang, L., Gong, W., Wei, D., Le, X., Yao, J., Ajani, J., Abbruzzese, J. L., Huang, S. and Xie, K. (2004). "A high expression level of insulin-like growth factor I receptor is associated with increased expression of transcription factor Sp1 and regional lymph node metastasis of human gastric cancer." Clin Exp Metastasis 21: 755-764.
Joazeiro, C. A. and Weissman, A. M. (2000). "RING finger proteins: mediators of ubiquitin ligase activity." Cell 102: 549-552.
Johnson, E. S. (2004). "Protein modification by SUMO." Annu Rev Biochem 73: 355-382.
Jolliff, K., Li, Y. and Johnson, L. F. (1991). "Multiple protein-DNA interactions in the TATAA-less mouse thymidylate synthase promoter." Nucleic Acids Res 19: 2267-2274.
Jones, K. A., Kadonaga, J. T., Luciw, P. A. and Tjian, R. (1986). "Activation of the AIDS retrovirus promoter by the cellular transcription factor, Sp1." Science 232: 755-759.
Joseph, J., Tan, S. H., Karpova, T. S., McNally, J. G. and Dasso, M. (2002). "SUMO-1 targets RanGAP1 to kinetochores and mitotic spindles." J Cell Biol 156: 595-602.
Jung, G. R., Kim, K. J., Choi, C. H., Lee, T. B., Han, S. I., Han, H. K. and Lim, S. C. (2007). "Effect of betulinic acid on anticancer drug-resistant colon cancer cells." Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 101: 277-285.
Kaczynski, J., Cook, T. and Urrutia, R. (2003). "Sp1- and Kruppel-like transcription factors." Genome Biol 4: 206.
Kadare, G., Toutant, M., Formstecher, E., Corvol, J. C., Carnaud, M., Boutterin, M. C. and Girault, J. A. (2003). "PIAS1-mediated sumoylation of focal adhesion kinase activates its autophosphorylation." J Biol Chem 278: 47434-47440.
Kadonaga, J. T. (1998). "Eukaryotic transcription: an interlaced network of transcription factors and chromatin-modifying machines." Cell 92: 307-313.
Kadonaga, J. T., Carner, K. R., Masiarz, F. R. and Tjian, R. (1987). "Isolation of cDNA encoding transcription factor Sp1 and functional analysis of the DNA binding domain." Cell 51: 1079-1090.
Kaiser, F. J., Moroy, T., Chang, G. T., Horsthemke, B. and Ludecke, H. J. (2003). "The RING finger protein RNF4, a co-regulator of transcription, interacts with the TRPS1 transcription factor." J Biol Chem 278: 38780-38785.
Kanda, N., Koike, S. and Watanabe, S. (2005). "Prostaglandin E2 enhances neurotrophin-4 production via EP3 receptor in human keratinocytes." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 315: 796-804.
Kang, Q. and Chen, A. (2009). "Curcumin inhibits srebp-2 expression in activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro by reducing the activity of specificity protein-1." Endocrinology 150: 5384-5394.
Kawada, H., Nishiyama, C., Takagi, A., Tokura, T., Nakano, N., Maeda, K., Mayuzumi, N., Ikeda, S., Okumura, K. and Ogawa, H. (2005). "Transcriptional regulation of ATP2C1 gene by Sp1 and YY1 and reduced function of its promoter in Hailey-Hailey disease keratinocytes." J Invest Dermatol 124: 1206-1214.
Kerscher, O., Felberbaum, R. and Hochstrasser, M. (2006). "Modification of proteins by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 22: 159-180.
Khachigian, L. M., Lindner, V., Williams, A. J. and Collins, T. (1996). "Egr-1-induced endothelial gene expression: a common theme in vascular injury." Science 271: 1427-1431.
Kirsh, O., Seeler, J. S., Pichler, A., Gast, A., Muller, S., Miska, E., Mathieu, M., Harel-Bellan, A., Kouzarides, T., Melchior, F. and Dejean, A. (2002). "The SUMO E3 ligase RanBP2 promotes modification of the HDAC4 deacetylase." Embo J 21: 2682-2691.
Kisselev, A. F., Akopian, T. N. and Goldberg, A. L. (1998). "Range of sizes of peptide products generated during degradation of different proteins by archaeal proteasomes." J Biol Chem 273: 1982-1989.
Klein, U. R., Haindl, M., Nigg, E. A. and Muller, S. (2009). "RanBP2 and SENP3 function in a mitotic SUMO2/3 conjugation-deconjugation cycle on Borealin." Mol Biol Cell 20: 410-418.
Koegl, M., Hoppe, T., Schlenker, S., Ulrich, H. D., Mayer, T. U. and Jentsch, S. (1999). "A novel ubiquitination factor, E4, is involved in multiubiquitin chain assembly." Cell 96: 635-644.
Kollmar, R., Sukow, K. A., Sponagle, S. K. and Farnham, P. J. (1994). "Start site selection at the TATA-less carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing)/aspartate carbamoyltransferase/dihydroorotase promoter." J Biol Chem 269: 2252-2257.
Kumar, A. P. and Butler, A. P. (1998). "Serum responsive gene expression mediated by Sp1." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 252: 517-523.
Kumar, A. P. and Butler, A. P. (1999). "Enhanced Sp1 DNA-binding activity in murine keratinocyte cell lines and epidermal tumors." Cancer Lett 137: 159-165.
Kutoh, E., Margot, J. B. and Schwander, J. (1999). "Identification and characterization of the putative retinoblastoma control element of the rat insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 gene." Cancer Lett 136: 187-194.
Lallemand-Breitenbach, V., Jeanne, M., Benhenda, S., Nasr, R., Lei, M., Peres, L., Zhou, J., Zhu, J., Raught, B. and de The, H. (2008). "Arsenic degrades PML or PML-RARalpha through a SUMO-triggered RNF4/ubiquitin-mediated pathway." Nat Cell Biol 10: 547-555.
Lallemand-Breitenbach, V., Zhu, J., Puvion, F., Koken, M., Honore, N., Doubeikovsky, A., Duprez, E., Pandolfi, P. P., Puvion, E., Freemont, P. and de The, H. (2001). "Role of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) sumolation in nuclear body formation, 11S proteasome recruitment, and As2O3-induced PML or PML/retinoic acid receptor alpha degradation." J Exp Med 193: 1361-1371.
Le Drean, Y., Mincheneau, N., Le Goff, P. and Michel, D. (2002). "Potentiation of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity by sumoylation." Endocrinology 143: 3482-3489.
Lee, J. H., Park, S. M., Kim, O. S., Lee, C. S., Woo, J. H., Park, S. J., Joe, E. H. and Jou, I. (2009). "Differential SUMOylation of LXRalpha and LXRbeta mediates transrepression of STAT1 inflammatory signaling in IFN-gamma-stimulated brain astrocytes." Mol Cell 35: 806-817.
Lee, T. H., Chuang, L. Y. and Hung, W. C. (2000). "Induction of p21WAF1 expression via Sp1-binding sites by tamoxifen in estrogen receptor-negative lung cancer cells." Oncogene 19: 3766-3773.
Leitao, B. B., Jones, M. C. and Brosens, J. J. (2011). "The SUMO E3-ligase PIAS1 couples reactive oxygen species-dependent JNK activation to oxidative cell death." FASEB J 25: 3416-3425.
Lenoble, J., Martin, T., Blumthaler, M., Philipona, R., Albold, A., Cabot, T., de La Casiniere, A., Grobner, J., Masserot, D., Muller, M., Pichler, T., Seckmeyer, G., Schmucki, D., Toure, M. L. and Yvon, A. (2002). "Retrieval of the ultraviolet aerosol optical depth during a spring campaign in the Bavarian Alps." Appl Opt 41: 1629-1639.
Li, F. and Altieri, D. C. (1999). "The cancer antiapoptosis mouse survivin gene: characterization of locus and transcriptional requirements of basal and cell cycle-dependent expression." Cancer Res 59: 3143-3151.
Li, L., He, S., Sun, J. M. and Davie, J. R. (2004). "Gene regulation by Sp1 and Sp3." Biochem Cell Biol 82: 460-471.
Lin, C. C., Chou, C. M., Hsu, Y. L., Lien, J. C., Wang, Y. M., Chen, S. T., Tsai, S. C., Hsiao, P. W. and Huang, C. J. (2004). "Characterization of two mosquito STATs, AaSTAT and CtSTAT. Differential regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding activity by lipopolysaccharide treatment and by Japanese encephalitis virus infection." J Biol Chem 279: 3308-3317.
Lin, D. Y., Huang, Y. S., Jeng, J. C., Kuo, H. Y., Chang, C. C., Chao, T. T., Ho, C. C., Chen, Y. C., Lin, T. P., Fang, H. I., Hung, C. C., Suen, C. S., Hwang, M. J., Chang, K. S., Maul, G. G. and Shih, H. M. (2006). "Role of SUMO-interacting motif in Daxx SUMO modification, subnuclear localization, and repression of sumoylated transcription factors." Mol Cell 24: 341-354.
Lin, X., Liang, M., Liang, Y. Y., Brunicardi, F. C. and Feng, X. H. (2003). "SUMO-1/Ubc9 promotes nuclear accumulation and metabolic stability of tumor suppressor Smad4." J Biol Chem 278: 31043-31048.
Lin, X., Liang, M., Liang, Y. Y., Brunicardi, F. C., Melchior, F. and Feng, X. H. (2003). "Activation of transforming growth factor-beta signaling by SUMO-1 modification of tumor suppressor Smad4/DPC4." J Biol Chem 278: 18714-18719.
Ling, Y., Sankpal, U. T., Robertson, A. K., McNally, J. G., Karpova, T. and Robertson, K. D. (2004). "Modification of de novo DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) by SUMO-1 modulates its interaction with histone deacetylases (HDACs) and its capacity to repress transcription." Nucleic Acids Res 32: 598-610.
Liu, Y. W., Arakawa, T., Yamamoto, S. and Chang, W. C. (1997). "Transcriptional activation of human 12-lipoxygenase gene promoter is mediated through Sp1 consensus sites in A431 cells." Biochem J 324 ( Pt 1): 133-140.
Lou, Z., O'Reilly, S., Liang, H., Maher, V. M., Sleight, S. D. and McCormick, J. J. (2005). "Down-regulation of overexpressed sp1 protein in human fibrosarcoma cell lines inhibits tumor formation." Cancer Res 65: 1007-1017.
Lu, J., Lee, W., Jiang, C. and Keller, E. B. (1994). "Start site selection by Sp1 in the TATA-less human Ha-ras promoter." J Biol Chem 269: 5391-5402.
Luster, T. A., Johnson, L. R., Nowling, T. K., Lamb, K. A., Philipsen, S. and Rizzino, A. (2000). "Effects of three Sp1 motifs on the transcription of the FGF-4 gene." Mol Reprod Dev 57: 4-15.
Lyngso, C., Bouteiller, G., Damgaard, C. K., Ryom, D., Sanchez-Munoz, S., Norby, P. L., Bonven, B. J. and Jorgensen, P. (2000). "Interaction between the transcription factor SPBP and the positive cofactor RNF4. An interplay between protein binding zinc fingers." J Biol Chem 275: 26144-26149.
Mahajan, R., Delphin, C., Guan, T., Gerace, L. and Melchior, F. (1997). "A small ubiquitin-related polypeptide involved in targeting RanGAP1 to nuclear pore complex protein RanBP2." Cell 88: 97-107.
Majee, S., Dasgupta, D. and Chakrabarti, A. (1999). "Interaction of the DNA-binding antitumor antibiotics, chromomycin and mithramycin with erythroid spectrin." Eur J Biochem 260: 619-626.
Mann, K. K. and Miller, W. H., Jr. (2004). "Death by arsenic: implications of PML sumoylation." Cancer Cell 5: 307-309.
Martin, N., Schwamborn, K., Schreiber, V., Werner, A., Guillier, C., Zhang, X. D., Bischof, O., Seeler, J. S. and Dejean, A. (2009). "PARP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by sumoylation upon heat shock." Embo J 28: 3534-3548.
Matunis, M. J., Coutavas, E. and Blobel, G. (1996). "A novel ubiquitin-like modification modulates the partitioning of the Ran-GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 between the cytosol and the nuclear pore complex." J Cell Biol 135: 1457-1470.
Mazure, N. M., Brahimi-Horn, M. C. and Pouyssegur, J. (2003). "Protein kinases and the hypoxia-inducible factor-1, two switches in angiogenesis." Curr Pharm Des 9: 531-541.
McClure, R. F., Heppelmann, C. J. and Paya, C. V. (1999). "Constitutive Fas ligand gene transcription in Sertoli cells is regulated by Sp1." J Biol Chem 274: 7756-7762.
McDoniels-Silvers, A. L., Nimri, C. F., Stoner, G. D., Lubet, R. A. and You, M. (2002). "Differential gene expression in human lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas." Clin Cancer Res 8: 1127-1138.
McDoniels-Silvers, A. L., Stoner, G. D., Lubet, R. A. and You, M. (2002). "Differential expression of critical cellular genes in human lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in comparison to normal lung tissues." Neoplasia 4: 141-150.
McDonough, P. M., Hanford, D. S., Sprenkle, A. B., Mellon, N. R. and Glembotski, C. C. (1997). "Collaborative roles for c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, serum response factor, and Sp1 in calcium-regulated myocardial gene expression." J Biol Chem 272: 24046-24053.
Milanini, J., Vinals, F., Pouyssegur, J. and Pages, G. (1998). "p42/p44 MAP kinase module plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in fibroblasts." J Biol Chem 273: 18165-18172.
Mo, Y. Y. and Moschos, S. J. (2005). "Targeting Ubc9 for cancer therapy." Expert Opin Ther Targets 9: 1203-1216.
Mo, Y. Y., Yu, Y., Theodosiou, E., Ee, P. L. and Beck, W. T. (2005). "A role for Ubc9 in tumorigenesis." Oncogene 24: 2677-2683.
Mortensen, E. R., Marks, P. A., Shiotani, A. and Merchant, J. L. (1997). "Epidermal growth factor and okadaic acid stimulate Sp1 proteolysis." J Biol Chem 272: 16540-16547.
Moschos, S. J. and Mo, Y. Y. (2006). "Role of SUMO/Ubc9 in DNA damage repair and tumorigenesis." J Mol Histol 37: 309-319.
Mukhopadhyay, D. and Dasso, M. (2007). "Modification in reverse: the SUMO proteases." Trends Biochem Sci 32: 286-295.
Mullen, J. R. and Brill, S. J. (2008). "Activation of the Slx5-Slx8 ubiquitin ligase by poly-small ubiquitin-like modifier conjugates." J Biol Chem 283: 19912-19921.
Muller, S., Berger, M., Lehembre, F., Seeler, J. S., Haupt, Y. and Dejean, A. (2000). "c-Jun and p53 activity is modulated by SUMO-1 modification." J Biol Chem 275: 13321-13329.
Muller, S., Hoege, C., Pyrowolakis, G. and Jentsch, S. (2001). "SUMO, ubiquitin's mysterious cousin." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2: 202-210.
Murata, Y., Kim, H. G., Rogers, K. T., Udvadia, A. J. and Horowitz, J. M. (1994). "Negative regulation of Sp1 trans-activation is correlated with the binding of cellular proteins to the amino terminus of the Sp1 trans-activation domain." J Biol Chem 269: 20674-20681.
Musacchio, A. and Salmon, E. D. (2007). "The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8: 379-393.
Nagata, D., Suzuki, E., Nishimatsu, H., Satonaka, H., Goto, A., Omata, M. and Hirata, Y. (2001). "Transcriptional activation of the cyclin D1 gene is mediated by multiple cis-elements, including SP1 sites and a cAMP-responsive element in vascular endothelial cells." J Biol Chem 276: 662-669.
Nicolas, M., Noe, V. and Ciudad, C. J. (2003). "Transcriptional regulation of the human Sp1 gene promoter by the specificity protein (Sp) family members nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) and E2F." Biochem J 371: 265-275.
Nicolas, M., Noe, V., Jensen, K. B. and Ciudad, C. J. (2001). "Cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human transcription factor Sp1 gene." J Biol Chem 276: 22126-22132.
Nishida, T., Terashima, M., Fukami, K. and Yamada, Y. (2007). "PIASy controls ubiquitination-dependent proteasomal degradation of Ets-1." Biochem J 405: 481-488.
Nishinaka, T., Fu, Y. H., Chen, L. I., Yokoyama, K. and Chiu, R. (1997). "A unique cathepsin-like protease isolated from CV-1 cells is involved in rapid degradation of retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, RB, and transcription factor SP1." Biochim Biophys Acta 1351: 274-286.
Noe, V., Chen, C., Alemany, C., Nicolas, M., Caragol, I., Chasin, L. A. and Ciudad, C. J. (1997). "Cell-growth regulation of the hamster dihydrofolate reductase gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1." Eur J Biochem 249: 13-20.
Olofsson, B. A., Kelly, C. M., Kim, J., Hornsby, S. M. and Azizkhan-Clifford, J. (2007). "Phosphorylation of Sp1 in response to DNA damage by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase." Mol Cancer Res 5: 1319-1330.
Opitz, O. G. and Rustgi, A. K. (2000). "Interaction between Sp1 and cell cycle regulatory proteins is important in transactivation of a differentiation-related gene." Cancer Res 60: 2825-2830.
Orford, K., Crockett, C., Jensen, J. P., Weissman, A. M. and Byers, S. W. (1997). "Serine phosphorylation-regulated ubiquitination and degradation of beta-catenin." J Biol Chem 272: 24735-24738.
Owerbach, D., McKay, E. M., Yeh, E. T., Gabbay, K. H. and Bohren, K. M. (2005). "A proline-90 residue unique to SUMO-4 prevents maturation and sumoylation." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 337: 517-520.
Parisi, F., Wirapati, P. and Naef, F. (2007). "Identifying synergistic regulation involving c-Myc and sp1 in human tissues." Nucleic Acids Res 35: 1098-1107.
Park, H. J., Zheng, H., Kulkarni, D., Kerrigan, J., Pungaliya, P., Saleem, A. and Rubin, E. H. (2008). "Identification of phosphorylation sites of TOPORS and a role for serine 98 in the regulation of ubiquitin but not SUMO E3 ligase activity." Biochemistry 47: 13887-13896.
Pascal, E. and Tjian, R. (1991). "Different activation domains of Sp1 govern formation of multimers and mediate transcriptional synergism." Genes Dev 5: 1646-1656.
Percherancier, Y., Germain-Desprez, D., Galisson, F., Mascle, X. H., Dianoux, L., Estephan, P., Chelbi-Alix, M. K. and Aubry, M. (2009). "Role of SUMO in RNF4-mediated promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) degradation: sumoylation of PML and phospho-switch control of its SUMO binding domain dissected in living cells." J Biol Chem 284: 16595-16608.
Pero, R., Lembo, F., Palmieri, E. A., Vitiello, C., Fedele, M., Fusco, A., Bruni, C. B. and Chiariotti, L. (2002). "PATZ attenuates the RNF4-mediated enhancement of androgen receptor-dependent transcription." J Biol Chem 277: 3280-3285.
Philipsen, S. and Suske, G. (1999). "A tale of three fingers: the family of mammalian Sp/XKLF transcription factors." Nucleic Acids Res 27: 2991-3000.
Pichler, A., Knipscheer, P., Oberhofer, E., van Dijk, W. J., Korner, R., Olsen, J. V., Jentsch, S., Melchior, F. and Sixma, T. K. (2005). "SUMO modification of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-25K." Nat Struct Mol Biol 12: 264-269.
Piedrafita, F. J. and Pfahl, M. (1997). "Retinoid-induced apoptosis and Sp1 cleavage occur independently of transcription and require caspase activation." Mol Cell Biol 17: 6348-6358.
Plechanovova, A., Jaffray, E. G., McMahon, S. A., Johnson, K. A., Navratilova, I., Naismith, J. H. and Hay, R. T. (2011). "Mechanism of ubiquitylation by dimeric RING ligase RNF4." Nat Struct Mol Biol 18: 1052-1059.
Porter, W., Saville, B., Hoivik, D. and Safe, S. (1997). "Functional synergy between the transcription factor Sp1 and the estrogen receptor." Mol Endocrinol 11: 1569-1580.
Poukka, H., Aarnisalo, P., Santti, H., Janne, O. A. and Palvimo, J. J. (2000). "Coregulator small nuclear RING finger protein (SNURF) enhances Sp1- and steroid receptor-mediated transcription by different mechanisms." J Biol Chem 275: 571-579.
Poukka, H., Karvonen, U., Yoshikawa, N., Tanaka, H., Palvimo, J. J. and Janne, O. A. (2000). "The RING finger protein SNURF modulates nuclear trafficking of the androgen receptor." J Cell Sci 113 ( Pt 17): 2991-3001.
Prudden, J., Pebernard, S., Raffa, G., Slavin, D. A., Perry, J. J., Tainer, J. A., McGowan, C. H. and Boddy, M. N. (2007). "SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases in genome stability." Embo J 26: 4089-4101.
Pugh, B. F. and Tjian, R. (1991). "Transcription from a TATA-less promoter requires a multisubunit TFIID complex." Genes Dev 5: 1935-1945.
Qiu, Z., Norflus, F., Singh, B., Swindell, M. K., Buzescu, R., Bejarano, M., Chopra, R., Zucker, B., Benn, C. L., DiRocco, D. P., Cha, J. H., Ferrante, R. J. and Hersch, S. M. (2006). "Sp1 is up-regulated in cellular and transgenic models of Huntington disease, and its reduction is neuroprotective." J Biol Chem 281: 16672-16680.
Rafty, L. A. and Khachigian, L. M. (2001). "Sp1 phosphorylation regulates inducible expression of platelet-derived growth factor B-chain gene via atypical protein kinase C-zeta." Nucleic Acids Res 29: 1027-1033.
Rajendra, R., Malegaonkar, D., Pungaliya, P., Marshall, H., Rasheed, Z., Brownell, J., Liu, L. F., Lutzker, S., Saleem, A. and Rubin, E. H. (2004). "Topors functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase with specific E2 enzymes and ubiquitinates p53." J Biol Chem 279: 36440-36444.
Rebollo, A., Dumoutier, L., Renauld, J. C., Zaballos, A., Ayllon, V. and Martinez, A. C. (2000). "Bcl-3 expression promotes cell survival following interleukin-4 deprivation and is controlled by AP1 and AP1-like transcription factors." Mol Cell Biol 20: 3407-3416.
Remsing, L. L., Bahadori, H. R., Carbone, G. M., McGuffie, E. M., Catapano, C. V. and Rohr, J. (2003). "Inhibition of c-src transcription by mithramycin: structure-activity relationships of biosynthetically produced mithramycin analogues using the c-src promoter as target." Biochemistry 42: 8313-8324.
Rickers, A., Peters, N., Badock, V., Beyaert, R., Vandenabeele, P., Dorken, B. and Bommert, K. (1999). "Cleavage of transcription factor SP1 by caspases during anti-IgM-induced B-cell apoptosis." Eur J Biochem 261: 269-274.
Rock, K. L., Gramm, C., Rothstein, L., Clark, K., Stein, R., Dick, L., Hwang, D. and Goldberg, A. L. (1994). "Inhibitors of the proteasome block the degradation of most cell proteins and the generation of peptides presented on MHC class I molecules." Cell 78: 761-771.
Roos, M. D., Su, K., Baker, J. R. and Kudlow, J. E. (1997). "O glycosylation of an Sp1-derived peptide blocks known Sp1 protein interactions." Mol Cell Biol 17: 6472-6480.
Roscic, A., Moller, A., Calzado, M. A., Renner, F., Wimmer, V. C., Gresko, E., Ludi, K. S. and Schmitz, M. L. (2006). "Phosphorylation-dependent control of Pc2 SUMO E3 ligase activity by its substrate protein HIPK2." Mol Cell 24: 77-89.
Rosmarin, A. G., Luo, M., Caprio, D. G., Shang, J. and Simkevich, C. P. (1998). "Sp1 cooperates with the ets transcription factor, GABP, to activate the CD18 (beta2 leukocyte integrin) promoter." J Biol Chem 273: 13097-13103.
Rubin, D. M., Glickman, M. H., Larsen, C. N., Dhruvakumar, S. and Finley, D. (1998). "Active site mutants in the six regulatory particle ATPases reveal multiple roles for ATP in the proteasome." Embo J 17: 4909-4919.
Ryu, H., Lee, J., Olofsson, B. A., Mwidau, A., Dedeoglu, A., Escudero, M., Flemington, E., Azizkhan-Clifford, J., Ferrante, R. J. and Ratan, R. R. (2003). "Histone deacetylase inhibitors prevent oxidative neuronal death independent of expanded polyglutamine repeats via an Sp1-dependent pathway." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 4281-4286.
Safe, S. and Abdelrahim, M. (2005). "Sp transcription factor family and its role in cancer." Eur J Cancer 41: 2438-2448.
Safe, S. and Kim, K. (2004). "Nuclear receptor-mediated transactivation through interaction with Sp proteins." Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 77: 1-36.
Saffer, J. D., Jackson, S. P. and Annarella, M. B. (1991). "Developmental expression of Sp1 in the mouse." Mol Cell Biol 11: 2189-2199.
Samson, S. L. and Wong, N. C. (2002). "Role of Sp1 in insulin regulation of gene expression." J Mol Endocrinol 29: 265-279.
Sapetschnig, A., Rischitor, G., Braun, H., Doll, A., Schergaut, M., Melchior, F. and Suske, G. (2002). "Transcription factor Sp3 is silenced through SUMO modification by PIAS1." Embo J 21: 5206-5215.
Satoh, K., Sasajima, H., Nyoumura, K. I., Yokosawa, H. and Sawada, H. (2001). "Assembly of the 26S proteasome is regulated by phosphorylation of the p45/Rpt6 ATPase subunit." Biochemistry 40: 314-319.
Saville, B., Poukka, H., Wormke, M., Janne, O. A., Palvimo, J. J., Stoner, M., Samudio, I. and Safe, S. (2002). "Cooperative coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 human breast cancer cells by SNURF and TATA-binding protein." J Biol Chem 277: 2485-2497.
Schilling, L. J. and Farnham, P. J. (1995). "The bidirectionally transcribed dihydrofolate reductase and rep-3a promoters are growth regulated by distinct mechanisms." Cell Growth Differ 6: 541-548.
Schnell, J. D. and Hicke, L. (2003). "Non-traditional functions of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins." J Biol Chem 278: 35857-35860.
Seeler, J. S. and Dejean, A. (2003). "Nuclear and unclear functions of SUMO." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4: 690-699.
Shalizi, A., Gaudilliere, B., Yuan, Z., Stegmuller, J., Shirogane, T., Ge, Q., Tan, Y., Schulman, B., Harper, J. W. and Bonni, A. (2006). "A calcium-regulated MEF2 sumoylation switch controls postsynaptic differentiation." Science 311: 1012-1017.
Shen, X., Park, J. S., Qiu, Y., Sugar, J. and Yue, B. Y. (2009). "Effects of Sp1 overexpression on cultured human corneal stromal cells." Genes Cells 14: 1133-1139.
Shi, Q., Le, X., Abbruzzese, J. L., Peng, Z., Qian, C. N., Tang, H., Xiong, Q., Wang, B., Li, X. C. and Xie, K. (2001). "Constitutive Sp1 activity is essential for differential constitutive expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma." Cancer Res 61: 4143-4154.
Sorensen, P. and Wintersberger, E. (1999). "Sp1 and NF-Y are necessary and sufficient for growth-dependent regulation of the hamster thymidine kinase promoter." J Biol Chem 274: 30943-30949.
Spencer, J. A. and Misra, R. P. (1999). "Expression of the SRF gene occurs through a Ras/Sp/SRF-mediated-mechanism in response to serum growth signals." Oncogene 18: 7319-7327.
Spengler, M. L. and Brattain, M. G. (2006). "Sumoylation inhibits cleavage of Sp1 N-terminal negative regulatory domain and inhibits Sp1-dependent transcription." J Biol Chem 281: 5567-5574.
Spiro, R. G. (2002). "Protein glycosylation: nature, distribution, enzymatic formation, and disease implications of glycopeptide bonds." Glycobiology 12: 43R-56R.
Stankovic-Valentin, N., Deltour, S., Seeler, J., Pinte, S., Vergoten, G., Guerardel, C., Dejean, A. and Leprince, D. (2007). "An acetylation/deacetylation-SUMOylation switch through a phylogenetically conserved psiKXEP motif in the tumor suppressor HIC1 regulates transcriptional repression activity." Mol Cell Biol 27: 2661-2675.
Stehmeier, P. and Muller, S. (2009). "Phospho-regulated SUMO interaction modules connect the SUMO system to CK2 signaling." Mol Cell 33: 400-409.
Strack, B., Calistri, A., Accola, M. A., Palu, G. and Gottlinger, H. G. (2000). "A role for ubiquitin ligase recruitment in retrovirus release." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 13063-13068.
Su, K., Roos, M. D., Yang, X., Han, I., Paterson, A. J. and Kudlow, J. E. (1999). "An N-terminal region of Sp1 targets its proteasome-dependent degradation in vitro." J Biol Chem 274: 15194-15202.
Su, K., Yang, X., Roos, M. D., Paterson, A. J. and Kudlow, J. E. (2000). "Human Sug1/p45 is involved in the proteasome-dependent degradation of Sp1." Biochem J 348 Pt 2: 281-289.
Sun, H., Leverson, J. D. and Hunter, T. (2007). "Conserved function of RNF4 family proteins in eukaryotes: targeting a ubiquitin ligase to SUMOylated proteins." Embo J 26: 4102-4112.
Suske, G. (1999). "The Sp-family of transcription factors." Gene 238: 291-300.
Suzuki, T., Kimura, A., Nagai, R. and Horikoshi, M. (2000). "Regulation of interaction of the acetyltransferase region of p300 and the DNA-binding domain of Sp1 on and through DNA binding." Genes Cells 5: 29-41.
Takahashi, Y., Dulev, S., Liu, X., Hiller, N. J., Zhao, X. and Strunnikov, A. (2008). "Cooperation of sumoylated chromosomal proteins in rDNA maintenance." PLoS Genet 4: e1000215.
Takahashi, Y., Kahyo, T., Toh, E. A., Yasuda, H. and Kikuchi, Y. (2001). "Yeast Ull1/Siz1 is a novel SUMO1/Smt3 ligase for septin components and functions as an adaptor between conjugating enzyme and substrates." J Biol Chem 276: 48973-48977.
Takahashi, Y., Toh-e, A. and Kikuchi, Y. (2001). "A novel factor required for the SUMO1/Smt3 conjugation of yeast septins." Gene 275: 223-231.
Takahashi, Y., Yong-Gonzalez, V., Kikuchi, Y. and Strunnikov, A. (2006). "SIZ1/SIZ2 control of chromosome transmission fidelity is mediated by the sumoylation of topoisomerase II." Genetics 172: 783-794.
Tamura, N., Lottspeich, F., Baumeister, W. and Tamura, T. (1998). "The role of tricorn protease and its aminopeptidase-interacting factors in cellular protein degradation." Cell 95: 637-648.
Tatham, M. H., Geoffroy, M. C., Shen, L., Plechanovova, A., Hattersley, N., Jaffray, E. G., Palvimo, J. J. and Hay, R. T. (2008). "RNF4 is a poly-SUMO-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase required for arsenic-induced PML degradation." Nat Cell Biol 10: 538-546.
Tsui, S., Fernando, R., Chen, B. and Smith, T. J. (2011). "Divergent Sp1 protein levels may underlie differential expression of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase by fibroblasts: role in susceptibility to orbital Graves disease." J Biol Chem 286: 24487-24499.
Ulrich, E., Kauffmann-Zeh, A., Hueber, A. O., Williamson, J., Chittenden, T., Ma, A. and Evan, G. (1997). "Gene structure, cDNA sequence, and expression of murine Bak, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member." Genomics 44: 195-200.
Ulrich, H. D. (2005). "Mutual interactions between the SUMO and ubiquitin systems: a plea of no contest." Trends Cell Biol 15: 525-532.
Uzunova, K., Gottsche, K., Miteva, M., Weisshaar, S. R., Glanemann, C., Schnellhardt, M., Niessen, M., Scheel, H., Hofmann, K., Johnson, E. S., Praefcke, G. J. and Dohmen, R. J. (2007). "Ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic control of SUMO conjugates." J Biol Chem 282: 34167-34175.
van Hagen, M., Overmeer, R. M., Abolvardi, S. S. and Vertegaal, A. C. (2010). "RNF4 and VHL regulate the proteasomal degradation of SUMO-conjugated Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2alpha." Nucleic Acids Res 38: 1922-1931.
Verger, A., Perdomo, J. and Crossley, M. (2003). "Modification with SUMO. A role in transcriptional regulation." EMBO Rep 4: 137-142.
Vertegaal, A. C., Andersen, J. S., Ogg, S. C., Hay, R. T., Mann, M. and Lamond, A. I. (2006). "Distinct and overlapping sets of SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 target proteins revealed by quantitative proteomics." Mol Cell Proteomics 5: 2298-2310.
Voges, D., Zwickl, P. and Baumeister, W. (1999). "The 26S proteasome: a molecular machine designed for controlled proteolysis." Annu Rev Biochem 68: 1015-1068.
Vu, H. M., Pasternack, L. B. and Kearns, D. R. (1999). "Specificity of hydroxylmethyluracil-containing DNA for transcription factor 1: structural insights." Biopolymers 52: 57-63.
Waby, J. S., Bingle, C. D. and Corfe, B. M. (2008). "Post-translational control of sp-family transcription factors." Curr Genomics 9: 301-311.
Wang, L., Wei, D., Huang, S., Peng, Z., Le, X., Wu, T. T., Yao, J., Ajani, J. and Xie, K. (2003). "Transcription factor Sp1 expression is a significant predictor of survival in human gastric cancer." Clin Cancer Res 9: 6371-6380.
Weger, S., Hammer, E. and Heilbronn, R. (2005). "Topors acts as a SUMO-1 E3 ligase for p53 in vitro and in vivo." FEBS Lett 579: 5007-5012.
Wei, D., Wang, L., He, Y., Xiong, H. Q., Abbruzzese, J. L. and Xie, K. (2004). "Celecoxib inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression in and reduces angiogenesis and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer via suppression of Sp1 transcription factor activity." Cancer Res 64: 2030-2038.
Wei, S., Chuang, H. C., Tsai, W. C., Yang, H. C., Ho, S. R., Paterson, A. J., Kulp, S. K. and Chen, C. S. (2009). "Thiazolidinediones mimic glucose starvation in facilitating Sp1 degradation through the up-regulation of beta-transducin repeat-containing protein." Mol Pharmacol 76: 47-57.
Wei, S., Lin, L. F., Yang, C. C., Wang, Y. C., Chang, G. D., Chen, H. and Chen, C. S. (2007). "Thiazolidinediones modulate the expression of beta-catenin and other cell-cycle regulatory proteins by targeting the F-box proteins of Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase independently of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma." Mol Pharmacol 72: 725-733.
Wei, S., Yang, H. C., Chuang, H. C., Yang, J., Kulp, S. K., Lu, P. J., Lai, M. D. and Chen, C. S. (2008). "A novel mechanism by which thiazolidinediones facilitate the proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 in cancer cells." J Biol Chem 283: 26759-26770.
Weisshaar, S. R., Keusekotten, K., Krause, A., Horst, C., Springer, H. M., Gottsche, K., Dohmen, R. J. and Praefcke, G. J. (2008). "Arsenic trioxide stimulates SUMO-2/3 modification leading to RNF4-dependent proteolytic targeting of PML." FEBS Lett 582: 3174-3178.
Wierstra, I. (2008). "Sp1: emerging roles--beyond constitutive activation of TATA-less housekeeping genes." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 372: 1-13.
Wilkinson, K. D. (2000). "Ubiquitination and deubiquitination: targeting of proteins for degradation by the proteasome." Semin Cell Dev Biol 11: 141-148.
Winn, P. J., Religa, T. L., Battey, J. N., Banerjee, A. and Wade, R. C. (2004). "Determinants of functionality in the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme family." Structure 12: 1563-1574.
Woo, C. H., Shishido, T., McClain, C., Lim, J. H., Li, J. D., Yang, J., Yan, C. and Abe, J. (2008). "Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 SUMOylation antagonizes shear stress-induced antiinflammatory response and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in endothelial cells." Circ Res 102: 538-545.
Wu, S. M., Kuo, W. C., Hwu, W. L., Hwa, K. Y., Mantovani, R. and Lee, Y. M. (2004). "RNF4 is a coactivator for nuclear factor Y on GTP cyclohydrolase I proximal promoter." Mol Pharmacol 66: 1317-1324.
Wykoff, D. D. and O'Shea, E. K. (2005). "Identification of sumoylated proteins by systematic immunoprecipitation of the budding yeast proteome." Mol Cell Proteomics 4: 73-83.
Xie, Y., Kerscher, O., Kroetz, M. B., McConchie, H. F., Sung, P. and Hochstrasser, M. (2007). "The yeast Hex3.Slx8 heterodimer is a ubiquitin ligase stimulated by substrate sumoylation." J Biol Chem 282: 34176-34184.
Xue, Y., Zhou, F., Fu, C., Xu, Y. and Yao, X. (2006). "SUMOsp: a web server for sumoylation site prediction." Nucleic Acids Res 34: W254-257.
Yang, H., Huang, Z. Z., Wang, J. and Lu, S. C. (2001). "The role of c-Myb and Sp1 in the up-regulation of methionine adenosyltransferase 2A gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma." FASEB J 15: 1507-1516.
Yang, S., Kuo, C., Bisi, J. E. and Kim, M. K. (2002). "PML-dependent apoptosis after DNA damage is regulated by the checkpoint kinase hCds1/Chk2." Nat Cell Biol 4: 865-870.
Yang, S. H., Galanis, A., Witty, J. and Sharrocks, A. D. (2006). "An extended consensus motif enhances the specificity of substrate modification by SUMO." Embo J 25: 5083-5093.
Yang, S. H., Jaffray, E., Senthinathan, B., Hay, R. T. and Sharrocks, A. D. (2003). "SUMO and transcriptional repression: dynamic interactions between the MAP kinase and SUMO pathways." Cell Cycle 2: 528-530.
Yang, S. H. and Sharrocks, A. D. (2004). "SUMO promotes HDAC-mediated transcriptional repression." Mol Cell 13: 611-617.
Yang, S. H. and Sharrocks, A. D. (2010). "MAP Kinase: SUMO pathway interactions." Methods Mol Biol 661: 343-367.
Yang, X., Su, K., Roos, M. D., Chang, Q., Paterson, A. J. and Kudlow, J. E. (2001). "O-linkage of N-acetylglucosamine to Sp1 activation domain inhibits its transcriptional capability." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 6611-6616.
Yao, J. C., Wang, L., Wei, D., Gong, W., Hassan, M., Wu, T. T., Mansfield, P., Ajani, J. and Xie, K. (2004). "Association between expression of transcription factor Sp1 and increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression, advanced stage, and poor survival in patients with resected gastric cancer." Clin Cancer Res 10: 4109-4117.
Yao, Q., Li, H., Liu, B. Q., Huang, X. Y. and Guo, L. (2011). "SUMOylation-regulated protein phosphorylation, evidence from quantitative phosphoproteomics analyses." J Biol Chem 286: 27342-27349.
Ye, X. and Liu, S. F. (2007). "Lipopolysaccharide causes Sp1 protein degradation by inducing a unique trypsin-like serine protease in rat lungs." Biochim Biophys Acta 1773: 243-253.
Yeh, E. T. (2009). "SUMOylation and De-SUMOylation: wrestling with life's processes." J Biol Chem 284: 8223-8227.
Yoo, E. K., Rook, A. H., Elenitsas, R., Gasparro, F. P. and Vowels, B. R. (1996). "Apoptosis induction of ultraviolet light A and photochemotherapy in cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma: relevance to mechanism of therapeutic action." J Invest Dermatol 107: 235-242.
Yu, H. T., Chan, W. W., Chai, K. H., Lee, C. W., Chang, R. C., Yu, M. S., McLoughlin, D. M., Miller, C. C. and Lau, K. F. (2010). "Transcriptional regulation of human FE65, a ligand of Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein, by Sp1." J Cell Biochem 109: 782-793.
Yuan, P., Wang, L., Wei, D., Zhang, J., Jia, Z., Li, Q., Le, X., Wang, H., Yao, J. and Xie, K. (2007). "Therapeutic inhibition of Sp1 expression in growing tumors by mithramycin a correlates directly with potent antiangiogenic effects on human pancreatic cancer." Cancer 110: 2682-2690.
Zannetti, A., Del Vecchio, S., Carriero, M. V., Fonti, R., Franco, P., Botti, G., D'Aiuto, G., Stoppelli, M. P. and Salvatore, M. (2000). "Coordinate up-regulation of Sp1 DNA-binding activity and urokinase receptor expression in breast carcinoma." Cancer Res 60: 1546-1551.
Zenzie-Gregory, B., Khachi, A., Garraway, I. P. and Smale, S. T. (1993). "Mechanism of initiator-mediated transcription: evidence for a functional interaction between the TATA-binding protein and DNA in the absence of a specific recognition sequence." Mol Cell Biol 13: 3841-3849.
Zhang, F., Hu, Y., Huang, P., Toleman, C. A., Paterson, A. J. and Kudlow, J. E. (2007). "Proteasome function is regulated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase through phosphorylation of Rpt6." J Biol Chem 282: 22460-22471.
Zhang, F., Su, K., Yang, X., Bowe, D. B., Paterson, A. J. and Kudlow, J. E. (2003). "O-GlcNAc modification is an endogenous inhibitor of the proteasome." Cell 115: 715-725.
Zhang, X. D., Goeres, J., Zhang, H., Yen, T. J., Porter, A. C. and Matunis, M. J. (2008). "SUMO-2/3 modification and binding regulate the association of CENP-E with kinetochores and progression through mitosis." Mol Cell 29: 729-741.
Zhang, Y. Q. and Sarge, K. D. (2008). "Sumoylation regulates lamin A function and is lost in lamin A mutants associated with familial cardiomyopathies." J Cell Biol 182: 35-39.
Zhu, J., Lallemand-Breitenbach, V. and de The, H. (2001). "Pathways of retinoic acid- or arsenic trioxide-induced PML/RARalpha catabolism, role of oncogene degradation in disease remission." Oncogene 20: 7257-7265.
Zhu, Q. and Liao, K. (2000). "Differential expression of the adipocyte amino acid transporter is transactivated by SP1 and SP3 during the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation process." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 271: 100-106.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-01-01起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw