進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-1308202015205900
論文名稱(中文) 嬰幼兒透過哺餵母乳暴露於鉛和汞之健康風險
論文名稱(英文) The health risk of the infants expose to lead and mercury through breastfeeding
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 食品安全衛生暨風險管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Food Safety / Hygiene and Risk Management
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 李存青
研究生(英文) Tsun-Ching Li
學號 SC6074033
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 145頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳秀玲
口試委員-李俊璋
口試委員-吳孟興
口試委員-張偉翔
中文關鍵字     飲食習慣  懸浮微粒  母乳 
英文關鍵字 lead  mercury  maternal dietary habits  particulate matter  breastmilk 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣傳統坐月子飲食為可能導致高重金屬暴露之特殊飲食習慣,若母乳受到鉛和汞等重金屬物質污染,其透過母乳哺餵傳遞給嬰幼兒而有神經毒性之疑慮。除了飲食消費習慣,空氣品質與外出活動習慣亦是影響哺乳婦女重金屬暴露的重要因素。
本研究目的為監測母乳中的鉛、汞與甲基汞濃度,探討母親哺乳期飲食習慣和空氣品質等因素是否會影響母乳中重金屬濃度,並針對嬰幼兒進行鉛和甲基汞暴露於神經毒性之協同風險評估。
本研究於成大醫院母乳庫招募符合標準之受試哺乳婦女,透過問卷追蹤其產後1-9月之飲食與外出活動習慣,並於每1-2週收集其母乳樣本,全血血液樣本則是於受試加入母乳庫之初進行採血,以做為重金屬定量基準。本研究使用感應耦合電漿質譜儀分析鉛含量,使用自動汞分析儀分析汞含量,甲基汞則以液相層析感應耦合電漿質譜儀進行定量分析,並同時以空氣品質檢測器偵測受試者家中PM2.5濃度。
本研究共納入39位符合條件之研究對象,母乳樣本共採集228件;血液樣本14件。母乳樣本鉛和汞濃度平均值分別為6.57 ± 5.29和0.76 ± 0.98 µg/L,甲基汞於母乳中的濃度則是皆未檢出;血液樣本鉛和汞濃度之平均值分別為21.2 ± 10.5和7.35 ± 2.16 µg/L。
研究結果顯示危害風險有隨著產後月數增加而逐漸降低的趨勢;生活習慣與環境,如住家附近污染源、日常打掃習慣、化妝品使用習慣等與飲食習慣如飲用水來源、內臟類、海鮮類和罐頭食品食用習慣等可能對於母乳中重金屬鉛或汞濃度造成影響,而母乳中鉛濃度對於上述因子之影響程度明顯高於汞;雖未達統計顯著差異,然研究結果發現室內空氣品質較佳之家戶,哺乳媽媽之母乳中鉛和汞皆有偏低的趨勢。
嬰幼兒透過哺餵母乳所暴露到重金屬鉛和汞之總非致癌風險危害指數為1.37,可能對嬰幼兒造成潛在危害,風險接近不可接受之閾值,且母乳庫之母乳提供對象為早產兒或病嬰等特殊敏感族群,因此仍需持續關注以確保母乳品質。
英文摘要 Maternal living and diet habits may be critical factors that would influence the metals exposure. The aim of this study is to monitor lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in breastmilk, and to discuss the effect of maternal dietary habits and air quality on the concentration of metals in breastmilk and to assess health risks of Pb and Hg exposure to infants through breastfeeding. Pb and Hg levels will be measured in breast milk and blood samples by ICP-MS and MeHg levels are measured by LC/ICP-MS. According to the result, it showed the significant differences of the infants’ risk among alternative postpartum month. Some of the living environment and food consumption habit, including pollution source near houses, cleaning habits, cosmetic usage, the type of drinking water, internal organs of animal source, egg product, seafood and canned food consumption, have significant influences on the concentration of toxic metal in human milk. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk (HI=1.37>1) for Pb and Hg was found in this study. The results indicated a potential non-cancer risk of toxic metals, especially Pb, for infants through the consumption of breast milk.
論文目次 目錄 VIII
表目錄 10
圖目錄 11
第1章 緒論 13
第一節 研究背景 13
第2章 文獻回顧 15
第一節 母乳哺育的重要性與南區母乳庫 15
第二節 坐月子飲食型態 17
第三節 重金屬污染與人類疾病 19
第四節 食品中重金屬含量 27
第五節 懸浮微粒中所含重金屬與人類疾病 33
第六節 美國國家健康和營養檢查調查 36
第七節 母乳中污染物之相關研究彙整 37
第3章 研究材料與方法 42
第一節 研究方法 42
第二節 研究對象與收樣流程 44
第三節 樣本分析 47
第四節 風險評估方法 52
第4章 結果與討論 53
第一節 研究對象招募 53
第二節 哺乳婦女和嬰幼兒基本資料與生活及飲食型態 54
第三節 母乳中重金屬之健康風險評估 90
第四節 研究重要性與限制 100
第5章 結論與建議 101
第6章 參考文獻 103
附錄一 115
附錄二 131
附錄三 137
附錄四 145
參考文獻 Affinito P, Tommaselli GA, di Carlo C, Guida F, Nappi C. 1996. Changes in bone mineral density and calcium metabolism in breastfeeding women: A one year follow-up study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 81:2314-2318.
Akan J, Abdulrahman F, Sodipo O, Chiroma YJRJoAS, Engineering, Technology. 2010. Distribution of heavy metals in the liver, kidney and meat of beef, mutton, caprine and chicken from kasuwan shanu market in maiduguri metropolis, borno state, nigeria. 2:743-748.
Al-Saleh I, Elkhatib R, Al-Rouqi R, Abduljabbar M, Eltabache C, Al-Rajudi T, et al. 2016a. Alterations in biochemical markers due to mercury (hg) exposure and its influence on infant's neurodevelopment. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 219:898-914.
Al-Saleh I, Nester M, Abduljabbar M, Al-Rouqi R, Eltabache C, Al-Rajudi T, et al. 2016b. Mercury (hg) exposure and its effects on saudi breastfed infant's neurodevelopment. International journal of hygiene and environmental health 219:129-141.
Al-Saleh I, Abduljabbar M. 2017. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic) in commonly imported rice grains (oryza sativa) sold in saudi arabia and their potential health risk. International journal of hygiene and environmental health 220:1168-1178.
Al Zabadi H, Sayeh G, Jodeh S. 2018. Environmental exposure assessment of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in different palestinian canned foods. Agriculture & Food Security 7:50.
Arbuckle TE, Liang CL, Morisset A-S, Fisher M, Weiler H, Cirtiu CM, et al. 2016. Maternal and fetal exposure to cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury: The mirec study. Chemosphere 163:270-282.
Arhami M, Hosseini V, Shahne MZ, Bigdeli M, Lai A, Schauer JJ. 2017. Seasonal trends, chemical speciation and source apportionment of fine pm in tehran. Atmos Environ 153:70-82.
Atkinson RW, Kang S, Anderson HR, Mills IC, Walton HA. 2014. Epidemiological time series studies of pm2.5 and daily mortality and hospital admissions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax 69:660-665.
Bakir F, Damluji SF, Amin-Zaki L, Murtadha M, Khalidi A, Al-Rawi N, et al. 1973. Methylmercury poisoning in iraq. Science 181:230-241.
Bassil M, Daou F, Hassan H, Yamani O, Kharma JA, Attieh Z, et al. 2018. Lead, cadmium and arsenic in human milk and their socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants in lebanon. Chemosphere 191:911-921.
Bassil M, Daou F, Hassan H, Yamani O, Kharma JA, ZouheirAttieh, et al. 2018. Lead, cadmium and arsenic in human milk and their socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants in lebanon. Chemosphere 191:911-921.
Belfort MB. 2017. The science of breastfeeding and brain development. Breastfeed Med 12:459-461.
Bernhoft RA. 2012. Mercury toxicity and treatment: A review of the literature. Journal of environmental and public health 2012.
Bocca B, Ruggieri F, Pino A, Rovira J, Calamandrei G, Martínez MÁ, et al. 2019. Human biomonitoring to evaluate exposure to toxic and essential trace elements during pregnancy. Part a. Concentrations in maternal blood, urine and cord blood. Environmental Research 177:108599.
Boland M. 2005. Exclusive breastfeeding should continue to six months. Paediatrics & child health 10:148-148.
Brochin R, Leone S, Phillips D, Shepard N, Zisa D, Angerio A. 2008. The cellular effect of lead poisioning and its clinical picture. Issues 5.
Burger J, Gochfeld M. 2004. Mercury in canned tuna: White versus light and temporal variation. Environmental Research 96:239-249.
Burger J, Gochfeld M. 2005. Heavy metals in commercial fish in new jersey. Environmental Research 99:403-412.
Campbell JR, Rosier RN, Novotny L, Puzas JE. 2004. The association between environmental lead exposure and bone density in children. Environmental health perspectives 112:1200-1203.
Cardoso OO, Julião FC, Alves RIS, Baena AR, Díez IG, Suzuki MN, et al. 2014. Concentration profiles of metals in breast milk, drinking water, and soil: Relationship between matrices. Biological Trace Element Research 160:116-122.
Carrington CD, Bolger MP. 2002. An exposure assessment for methylmercury from seafood for consumers in the united states. Risk Analysis 22:689-699.
Caserta D, Graziano A, Monte GL, Bordi G, Moscarini M. 2013. Heavy metals and placental fetal-maternal barrier: A mini-review on the major concerns. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 17:2198-2206.
CDC. 2019. Lead.
CDC. 2020. National center for health statistics.
Cetin I, Berti C, Mandò C, Parisi F. 2011. Placental iron transport and maternal absorption. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 59:55-58.
Chain EPoCitF. 2010. Scientific opinion on lead in food. EFSA Journal 8:1570.
Chennaiaha JB, Rasheedb M, Patilb D. Received: 4th feb-2014 revised: 25th feb-2014 accepted: 27th feb-2014 research article concentration of heavy metals in drinking water with emphasis on human health.
Cherfi A, Abdoun S, Gaci O. 2014. Food survey: Levels and potential health risks of chromium, lead, zinc and copper content in fruits and vegetables consumed in algeria. Food and Chemical Toxicology 70:48-53.
Chien L-C, Han B-C, Hsu C-S, Jiang C-B, You H-J, Shieh M-J, et al. 2006a. Analysis of the health risk of exposure to breast milk mercury in infants in taiwan. Chemosphere 64:79-85.
Chien L-C, Yeh C-Y, Lee H-C, Chao HJ, Shieh M-J, Han B-C. 2006b. Effect of the mother's consumption of traditional chinese herbs on estimated infant daily intake of lead from breast milk. Science of the total environment 354:120-126.
Counter SA, Buchanan LH. 2004. Mercury exposure in children: A review. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 198:209-230.
D'Vaz N, Meldrum S, Dunstan J, Lee‐Pullen T, Metcalfe J, Holt B, et al. 2012. Fish oil supplementation in early infancy modulates developing infant immune responses. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 42:1206-1216.
Dorea JG. 2004. Mercury and lead during breast-feeding. British Journal of Nutrition 92:21-40.
Díez S. 2008. Human health effects of methylmercury exposure. In: Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology:Springer, 111-132.
Edition F. 2011. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO chronicle 38:104-108.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products N, Allergies. 2014a. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for iodine. EFSA Journal 12:3660.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products N, Allergies. 2014b. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for folate. EFSA Journal 12:3893.
Erickson PR, Lin VS. 2015. Research highlights: Elucidation of biogeochemical factors influencing methylmercury production. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 17:1708-1711.
Ettinger AS, Téllez-Rojo MM, Amarasiriwardena C, Bellinger D, Peterson K, Schwartz J, et al. 2004. Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age. Environmental Health Perspectives 112:1381.
Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith D, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, et al. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: Lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environmental health perspectives 122:87-92.
Evironmental Protection Administration ROCT.
Fathabad AE, Shariatifar N, Moazzen M, Nazmara S, Fakhri Y, Alimohammadi M, et al. 2018. Determination of heavy metal content of processed fruit products from tehran's market using icp- oes: A risk assessment study. Food and Chemical Toxicology 115:436-446.
Fatima J. 2018. Childhood lead poisoning.
FDA. 2017. About dental amalgam fillings.
FDA. 2018. Limiting lead in lipstick and other cosmetics.
Feizi R, Jaafarzadeh N, Akbari H, Jorfi S. 2019. Evaluation of lead and cadmium concentrations in lipstick and eye pencil cosmetics. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal 6:277-282.
Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A. 2012. Toxicity of lead: A review with recent updates. Interdisciplinary toxicology 5:47-58.
Food U, Administration D. 2014. A quantitative assessment of the net effects on fetal neurodevelopment from eating commercial fish (as measured by iq and also early age verbal development in children). Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition: Silver Spring, MD, USA.
Forsum E, Lönnerdal B. 1980. Effect of protein intake on protein and nitrogen composition of breast milk. The American journal of clinical nutrition 33:1809-1813.
Furuhjelm C, Warstedt K, Larsson J, Fredriksson M, Böttcher MF, Fälth‐Magnusson K, et al. 2009. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy. Acta paediatrica 98:1461-1467.
García-Esquinas E, Pérez-Gómez B, Fernández MA, Pérez-Meixeira AM, Gil E, de Paz C, et al. 2011. Mercury, lead and cadmium in human milk in relation to diet, lifestyle habits and sociodemographic variables in madrid (spain). Chemosphere 85:268-276.
Gaxiola-Robles R, Labrada-Martagón V, Acosta-Vargas B, Méndez-Rodríguez LC, Zenteno-Savín T. 2014. Interaction between mercury (hg), arsenic (as) and selenium (se) affects the activity of glutathione s-transferase in breast milk; possible relationship with fish and shellfish intake. Nutricion hospitalaria 30:436-446.
Ghasemi Fard S, Wang F, Sinclair AJ, Elliott G, Turchini GM. 2019. How does high dha fish oil affect health? A systematic review of evidence. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 59:1684-1727.
Gillis BS, Arbieva Z, Gavin IM. 2012. Analysis of lead toxicity in human cells. BMC genomics 13:344.
Goyer RA. 1993. Lead toxicity: Current concerns. Environmental health perspectives 100:177-187.
Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. 2006. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. The Lancet 368:2167-2178.
Grote V, Verduci E, Scaglioni S, Vecchi F, Contarini G, Giovannini M, et al. 2016. Breast milk composition and infant nutrient intakes during the first 12 months of life. European journal of clinical nutrition 70:250-256.
Grzunov LetiniĿ J, Matek SariĿ M, Piasek M, JurasoviĿ J, Varnai VM, Sulimanec Grgec A, et al. 2016. Use of human milk in the assessment of toxic metal exposure and essential element status in breastfeeding women and their infants in coastal croatia. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 38:117-125.
Gundacker C, Pietschnig B, Wittmann KJ, Lischka A, Salzer H, Hohenauer L, et al. 2002. Lead and mercury in breast milk. Pediatrics 110:873-878.
Guo Y, Huo X, Li Y, Wu K, Liu J, Huang J, et al. 2010. Monitoring of lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel in placenta from an e-waste recycling town in china. Science of The Total Environment 408:3113-3117.
Guttikunda S. 2017. Infograph - what can you learn from the chemical composition of particulate matter?
Guxens M, Mendez MA, Moltó-Puigmartí C, Julvez J, García-Esteban R, Forns J, et al. 2011. Breastfeeding, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum, and infant mental development. Pediatrics 128:e880-e889.
Hernberg S. 2000. Lead poisoning in a historical perspective. American journal of industrial medicine 38:244-254.
Hon K, Fung C, Leung AK. 2017. Childhood lead poisoning: An overview. Hong Kong Med J 23:616-621.
Hu X, Zhang Y, Ding ZH, Wang TJ, Lian HZ, Sun YY, et al. 2012. Bioaccessibility and health risk of arsenic and heavy metals (cd, co, cr, cu, ni, pb, zn and mn) in tsp and pm2.5 in nanjing, china. Atmos Environ 57:146-152.
IHEALTH. 2018. 3招對抗「霾」葬健康的 pm2.5.
Iwai-Shimada M, Satoh H, Nakai K, Tatsuta N, Murata K, Akagi H. 2015. Methylmercury in the breast milk of japanese mothers and lactational exposure of their infants. Chemosphere 126:67-72.
Iwai-Shimada M, Kameo S, Nakai K, Yaginuma-Sakurai K, Tatsuta N, Kurokawa N, et al. 2019. Exposure profile of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, copper, selenium and zinc in maternal blood, cord blood and placenta: The tohoku study of child development in japan. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 24:35.
Jacob JM, Karthik C, Saratale RG, Kumar SS, Prabakar D, Kadirvelu K, et al. 2018. Biological approaches to tackle heavy metal pollution: A survey of literature. Journal of environmental management 217:56-70.
Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN. 2014. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary toxicology 7:60-72.
Jeong KS, Park H, Ha E, Shin J, Hong Y-C, Ha M, et al. 2017. High maternal blood mercury level is associated with low verbal iq in children. J Korean Med Sci 32:1097-1104.
Jernigan TL, Baaré WFC, Stiles J, Madsen KS. 2011. Postnatal brain development: Structural imaging of dynamic neurodevelopmental processes. Prog Brain Res 189:77-92.
Kabamba M, Tuakuila J. 2020. Toxic metal (cd, hg, mn, pb) partition in the maternal/foetal unit: A systematic mini — review of recent epidemiological studies. Toxicology Letters 332:20-26.
Kauffman RE, Banner W, Berlin C, Blumer J, Gorman R, Lambert G, et al. 1994. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 93:137-150.
Khaldi N, Vijayakumar V, Dallas DC, Guerrero A, Wickramasinghe S, Smilowitz JT, et al. 2014. Predicting the important enzymes in human breast milk digestion. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 62:7225-7232.
Khan MF, Latif MT, Saw WH, Amil N, Nadzir MSM, Sahani M, et al. 2016. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: Monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment. Atmos Chem Phys 16:597-617.
Khanjani N, Jafari M, Mousavi EA. 2018. Breast milk contamination with lead and cadmium and its related factors in kerman, iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering 16:323-335.
Kim KH, Kabir E, Kabir S. 2015. A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter. Environ Int 74:136-143.
Kvestad I, Vabø S, Kjellevold M, Nøstbakken OJ, Midtbø LK, Hysing M, et al. 2018. Fatty fish, hair mercury and cognitive function in norwegian preschool children: Results from the randomized controlled trial fins-kids. Environment international.
Laiho K, Lampi A-M, Hämäläinen M, Moilanen E, Piironen V, Arvola T, et al. 2003. Breast milk fatty acids, eicosanoids, and cytokines in mothers with and without allergic disease. Pediatric research 53:642-647.
Landrigan PJ, Boffetta P, Apostoli P. 2000. The reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of lead: A critical review. American journal of industrial medicine 38:231-243.
Lauritzen L, Carlson SE. 2011. Maternal fatty acid status during pregnancy and lactation and relation to newborn and infant status. Maternal & child nutrition 7:41-58.
Leotsinidis M, Alexopoulos A, Kostopoulou-Farri E. 2005. Toxic and essential trace elements in human milk from greek lactating women: Association with dietary habits and other factors. Chemosphere 61:238-247.
Lepage P, Van de Perre P. 2012. The immune system of breast milk: Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. In: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and breastfeeding:Springer, 121-137.
LetiniĿ JG, Matek SariĿ M, Piasek M, JurasoviĿ J, Varnai VM, Sulimanec Grgec A, et al. 2016. Use of human milk in the assessment of toxic metal exposure and essential element status in breastfeeding women and their infants in coastal croatia. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 38:117-125.
Leung AK, Sauve RS. 2005. Breast is best for babies. Journal of the national medical association 97:1010.
Li P, Xin JY, Wang YS, Wang SG, Shang KZ, Liu ZR, et al. 2013. Time-series analysis of mortality effects from airborne particulate matter size fractions in beijing. Atmos Environ 81:253-262.
Li YP, Zhang ZS, Liu HF, Zhou H, Fan ZY, Lin M, et al. 2016. Characteristics, sources and health risk assessment of toxic heavy metals in pm2.5 at a megacity of southwest china. Environ Geochem Health 38:353-362.
Liu K-s, Hao J-h, Xu Y-q, Gu X-q, Shi J, Dai C-f, et al. 2013. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels in suburban areas of nanjing, china. Chinese Medical Sciences Journal 28:7-15.
Makrides M, Neumann M, Gibson RA. 1996. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (dha) supplementation on breast milk composition. European journal of clinical nutrition 50:352-357.
Marangoni F, Cetin I, Verduci E, Canzone G, Giovannini M, Scollo P, et al. 2016. Maternal diet and nutrient requirements in pregnancy and breastfeeding. An italian consensus document. Nutrients 8:629.
Martin CR, Ling P-R, Blackburn GL. 2016. Review of infant feeding: Key features of breast milk and infant formula. Nutrients 8:279.
MOHW-HPA. 2019. 母乳哺育國內現況.
Momodu M, Anyakora C. 2010. Heavy metal contamination of ground water: The surulere case study. Res J Environ Earth Sci 2:39-43.
Morais S, e Costa FG, de Lourdes Pereira M. 2012. Heavy metals and human health. In: Environmental health-emerging issues and practice:InTech.
Nassir IM, Al-Sharify AN, Baiee HA. 2013. Lead and cadmium in the breast milk of lactating mothers living in hilla city, babylon, iraq, during the year 2012. Journal of University of Babylon 21:2861-2872.
Navas-Acien A, Guallar E, Silbergeld EK, Rothenberg SJ. 2007. Lead exposure and cardiovascular disease--a systematic review. Environmental health perspectives 115:472-482.
Nead KG, Halterman JS, Kaczorowski JM, Auinger P, Weitzman M. 2004. Overweight children and adolescents: A risk group for iron deficiency. Pediatrics 114:104-108.
Needleman H. 2004. Lead poisoning. Annu Rev Med 55:209-222.
Niemi A, Venäläinen E-R, Hirvi T, Hirn J, Karppanen EJZfL-UuF. 1991. The lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney from finnish pigs and cattle during 1987–1988. 192:427-429.
Norouzi E, Bahramifar N, Ghasempouri SM. 2012. Effect of teeth amalgam on mercury levels in the colostrums human milk in lenjan. Environmental monitoring and assessment 184:375-380.
Nriagu JO, Blankson ML, Ocran K. 1996. Childhood lead poisoning in africa: A growing public health problem. Science of the Total Environment 181:93-100.
O'Connor DL, Green T, Picciano MF. 1997. Maternal folate status and lactation. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia 2:279-289.
Ogwok P, Bamuwamye M, Apili G, Hatoho Musalima J. 2020. Health risk posed by lead, copper and iron via consumption of organ meats in kampala city (uganda). Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health 2:69-73.
Örün E, Yalçın SS, Aykut O, Orhan G, Morgil GK, Yurdakök K, et al. 2011. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of ankara. Science of The Total Environment 409:2467-2472.
Ou Y, Bloom MS, Nie Z, Han F, Mai J, Chen J, et al. 2017. Associations between toxic and essential trace elements in maternal blood and fetal congenital heart defects. Environment International 106:127-134.
Park Y, Lee A, Choi K, Kim H-J, Lee JJ, Choi G, et al. 2018. Exposure to lead and mercury through breastfeeding during the first month of life: A check cohort study. Science of The Total Environment 612:876-883.
Piomelli S. 2002. Childhood lead poisoning. Pediatric Clinics of North America 49:1285-1304, vii.
Prentice P, Ong KK, Schoemaker MH, van Tol EA, Vervoort J, Hughes IA, et al. 2016. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth. Acta Paediatrica 105:641-647.
Quintana PJE. 2014. Children's environmental health. In: Encyclopedia of toxicology (third edition), (Wexler P, ed). Oxford:Academic Press, 830-832.
Rastogi SK. 2008. Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine 12:103-106.
Rea MF. 2004. Benefits of breastfeeding and women’s health. J Pediatr (Rio J) 80:S142-S146.
Rogier EW, Frantz AL, Bruno ME, Wedlund L, Cohen DA, Stromberg AJ, et al. 2014. Secretory antibodies in breast milk promote long-term intestinal homeostasis by regulating the gut microbiota and host gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:3074-3079.
Rothenberg SE, Korrick SA, Fayad R. 2015. The influence of obesity on blood mercury levels for u.S. Non-pregnant adults and children: Nhanes 2007-2010. Environmental research 138:173-180.
Sabel K-G, Strandvik B, Petzold M, Lundqvist-Persson C. 2012. Motor, mental and behavioral developments in infancy are associated with fatty acid pattern in breast milk and plasma of premature infants. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 86:183-188.
Samiee F, Vahidinia A, Javad MT, Leili MJSotTE. 2019a. Exposure to heavy metals released to the environment through breastfeeding: A probabilistic risk estimation. 650:3075-3083.
Samiee F, Vahidinia A, Taravati Javad M, Leili M. 2019b. Exposure to heavy metals released to the environment through breastfeeding: A probabilistic risk estimation. Science of The Total Environment 650:3075-3083.
Schug TT, Blawas AM, Gray K, Heindel JJ, Lawler CP. 2015. Elucidating the links between endocrine disruptors and neurodevelopment. Endocrinology 156:1941-1951.
Schwarzenberg SJ, Georgieff MK. 2018. Advocacy for improving nutrition in the first 1000 days to support childhood development and adult health. Pediatrics:e20173716.
Scinicariello F, Buser MC, Mevissen M, Portier CJ. 2013. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in nhanes 1999-2006. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 273:516-523.
Sedki A, Lekouch N, Gamon S, Pineau AJSotte. 2003. Toxic and essential trace metals in muscle, liver and kidney of bovines from a polluted area of morocco. 317:201-205.
Shao W, Liu Q, He X, Liu H, Gu A, Jiang Z. 2017. Association between level of urinary trace heavy metals and obesity among children aged 6-19 years: Nhanes 1999-2011. Environmental science and pollution research international 24:11573-11581.
Sharma R, Pervez S. 2005. Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in central india. Environmental geochemistry and health 27:39-45.
Sheehan MC, Burke TA, Navas-Acien A, Breysse PN, McGready J, Fox MA. 2014. Global methylmercury exposure from seafood consumption and risk of developmental neurotoxicity: A systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 92:254-269F.
Sánchez-Chardi A, López-Fuster MJ, Nadal J. 2007. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula, from the ebro delta (ne spain): Sex-and age-dependent variation. Environmental Pollution 145:7-14.
Sowers MR, Scholl TO, Hall G, Jannausch ML, Kemp FW, Li X, et al. 2002. Lead in breast milk and maternal bone turnover. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 187:770-776.
TFDA. 2016. 孕婦兒童魚類攝食指南.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. Particulate matter (pm) pollution. Available: https://www.epa.gov/pm-pollution/particulate-matter-pm-basics#PM.
Vahidinia A, Samiee F, Faradmal J, Rahmani A, Javad MT, Leili M. 2019. Mercury, lead, cadmium, and barium levels in human breast milk and factors affecting their concentrations in hamadan, iran. Biological trace element research 187:32-40.
Vollset M, Iszatt N, Enger Ø, Gjengedal ELF, Eggesbø M. 2019. Concentration of mercury, cadmium, and lead in breast milk from norwegian mothers: Association with dietary habits, amalgam and other factors. Science of the Total Environment 677:466-473.
Wani AL, Ara A, Usmani JA. 2015. Lead toxicity: A review. Interdisciplinary toxicology 8:55-64.
WHO. 2006. Who child growth standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992) Supplement 450:76.
WHO. 2009. Infant and young child feeding: Model chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals:World Health Organization.
WHO. 2010. Children's exposure to mercury compounds.
WHO. 2011. Exclusive breastfeeding for six months best for babies everywhere.
Wiener RC, Long DL, Jurevic RJ. 2015. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children aged 24-72 months: Nhanes iii. Caries Research 49:26-33.
Wijga AH, van Houwelingen AC, Kerkhof M, Tabak C, de Jongste JC, Gerritsen J, et al. 2006. Breast milk fatty acids and allergic disease in preschool children: The prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy birth cohort study. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 117:440-447.
Xu X, Liu J, Huang C, Lu F, Chiung YM, Huo X. 2015a. Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and lead co-exposure with child physical growth and development in an e-waste recycling town. Chemosphere 139:295-302.
Xu X, Yekeen TA, Liu J, Zhuang B, Li W, Huo X. 2015b. Chromium exposure among children from an electronic waste recycling town of china. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22:1778-1785.
Zeng X, Xu X, Zheng X, Reponen T, Chen A, Huo X. 2016. Heavy metals in pm2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area. Environmental Pollution 210:346-353.
Zeng X, Xu XJ, Zheng XB, Reponen T, Chen AM, Huo X. 2016. Heavy metals in pm2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area. Environ Pollut 210:346-353.
Zhang YY, Ji XT, Ku TT, Li GK, Sang N. 2016. Heavy metals bound to fine particulate matter from northern china induce season-dependent health risks: A study based on myocardial toxicity. Environ Pollut 216:380-390.
Zhou SZ, Yuan Q, Li WJ, Lu YL, Zhang YM, Wang WX. 2014. Trace metals in atmospheric fine particles in one industrial urban city: Spatial variations, sources, and health implications. J Environ Sci 26:205-213.
李秀娟. 2009. 台灣中部海線地區之產婦乳汁中微量金屬分佈及其影響因子. 台中市:弘光科技大學.
張嘉智. 2005. 幼兒血鉛濃度影響因子之探討-以花蓮地區及高雄地區為例. 花蓮縣:慈濟大學.
陳潮宗. :坐月子漫談. :臺灣中醫臨床醫學雜誌 卷期:12卷4期:頁309-314.
蔡欣芳. 2003. 飲食型態與母乳中鉛、鎘、銅、鋅金屬元素濃度之關係研究. 台北市:臺北醫學大學.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2023-07-22起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw