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系統識別號 U0026-1308202014273600
論文名稱(中文) 一個應用於無鉛壓電MEMS加速規之讀取電路及晶片設計
論文名稱(英文) Readout Circuit and Chip Design for a Piezoelectric MEMS Accelerometer
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 翁睿佟
研究生(英文) Rui-Tong Weng
學號 N26074736
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 102頁
口試委員 指導教授-張順志
口試委員-魏嘉玲
口試委員-蔡建泓
口試委員-許孟烈
口試委員-邱瀝毅
中文關鍵字 轉阻放大器  基於電流鏡讀取電路  無鉛壓電式加速規  類比數位轉換器  逐漸趨近式 
英文關鍵字 Transimpedance amplifier  Current mirror-based readout circuit  Piezoelectric accelerometer  Analog-to-digital converter  Successive approximation register(SAR) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文提出一個可以應用於壓電加速規的讀取電路。此讀取電路包含電流轉電壓轉換器以及類比至數位轉換器。在電流轉電壓轉換器部分,本論文基於兩種架構研製了兩個版本:傳統轉阻放大器(版本一)與基於電流鏡之電流轉電壓的轉換器(版本二)。與傳統轉阻放大器相比,本論文所提出之基於電流鏡之電流轉電壓的轉換器在不損失靈敏度以及線性度的條件之下,功耗下降約10倍左右。另外,本論文所研製之讀取電路涵蓋了類比至數位轉換器,因此可以直接將數位碼傳送到數位端做進一步的訊號處理。
在本論文中,以台積電180奈米製程完成晶片實作。第一顆晶片(版本一)量測效能顯示,在1.8伏特電源供電的條件下,加速規系統的線性度為0.9956,靈敏度為154 mV/g,消耗功率為0.435 mW。第二顆晶片(版本二)量測效能顯示,在1.8伏特電源供電的條件下,加速規系統的線性度為0.9998,靈敏度為142 mV/g,消耗功率為0.0489 mW。
英文摘要 This thesis presents a readout circuit for a piezoelectric accelerometer. The readout circuit includes a current-to-voltage converter and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). On the design of current-to-voltage converter, this work realizes two versions with different structures: conventional transimpedance amplifier (Version Ⅰ) and current mirror-based current-to-voltage converter (Version Ⅱ). Compared with the conventional transimpedance amplifier, the power consumption of the proposed current mirror-based current-to-voltage converter is reduced by approximately 10 times without losing sensitivity and linearity. In addition, compared with other readout circuits, this design also adds an analog-to-digital converter, so the digital code can be directly transmitted to the succeeding digital processor for further processing.
The proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated in the 180-nm CMOS process. The measurement results of the first chip (Version Ⅰ) show that the linearity of the accelerometer system is 0.9956, the sensitivity is 154 mV/g, and the power consumption is 0.435 mW under a 1.8 V supply voltage. The measurement results for the second chip (Version Ⅱ) show that the linearity of the accelerometer system is 0.9998, the sensitivity is 142 mV/g, and the power consumption is 0.0489 mW under a 1.8 V supply voltage.
論文目次 摘 要 I
Abstract II
List of Figures X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Organization of the Thesis 3
Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Accelerometers and Readout circuits 4
2.1 Accelerometer Sensing Technology 4
2.1.1 Piezoresistive sensing 5
2.1.2 Thermal sensing 6
2.1.3 Capacitive sensing 7
2.1.4 Piezoelectric sensing 8
2.1.5 Comparison table 9
2.2 Accelerometer-Related Specifications 9
2.2.1 Sensitivity 9
2.2.2 Sensing range 10
2.2.3 Non-linearity 10
2.2.4 Power consumption 11
2.2.5 Resonant frequency 11
2.2.6 Noise 12
2.2.7 Cross-Axis sensitivity 12
2.3 Principle of a Piezoelectric Accelerometer 13
2.3.1 Piezoelectric effect 14
2.4 Fundamentals of Piezoelectric Materials 16
2.4.1 Introduction to the MEMS process 16
2.4.2 Piezoelectric material 17
2.5 Piezoelectric Accelerometer Structure 18
2.5.1 Cantilever structure 18
2.5.2 Disc-type structures 19
2.6 Introduction to The Accelerometer Readout Circuit 20
2.6.1 Piezoresistive accelerometer readout circuit 20
2.6.2 Capacitive accelerometer readout circuit 22
2.6.3 Piezoelectric accelerometer readout circuit 26
Chapter 3 Fundamentals of Analog-to-Digital Converter 32
3.1 The Basic of Analog to Digital Converter 32
3.1.1 Quantization Error 33
3.1.2 Resolution and Accuracy 36
3.2 Static Specification 36
3.2.1 Offset error 36
3.2.2 Gain error 37
3.2.3 Nonlinearity 38
3.3 Dynamic Specification 42
3.3.1 Signal-to-Noise ratio 42
3.3.2 Signal-to-Noise and Distortion ratio 43
3.3.3 Effective Number of Bits 43
3.3.4 Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) 44
3.3.5 Total Harmonic Distortion 44
3.3.6 Effective Resolution Bandwidth (ERBW) 45
3.3.7 Figure of Merit 46
3.4 Types of Nyquist Rate ADCs 46
3.4.1 Flash ADC 47
3.4.2 Pipelined ADC 49
3.4.3 Successive-Approximation Register ADC 50
Chapter 4 A Piezoelectric MEMS Accelerometers Readout Circuit 52
4.1 Introduction 52
4.2 Proposed Readout Circuit for Piezoelectric Accelerometers 54
4.2.1 Operational amplifier specification consideration 54
4.2.2 Conventional readout circuit 57
4.2.3 Proposed current-mirror based readout circuit 59
4.3 Architecture of the Readout Circuit 62
4.3.1 Version Ⅰ 62
4.3.2 Version Ⅱ 64
4.4 Circuit Implementation 67
4.4.1 Operational Amplifier 67
4.4.2 Bootstrapped Switch 69
4.4.3 Dynamic Two-stage Comparator 71
4.4.4 Digital control Logic circuit 72
4.4.5 Capacitive DAC 75
Chapter 5 Simulation and Measurement Results 78
5.1 Layout and Chip Floor Plan 78
5.1.1 Version Ⅰ 78
5.1.2 Version Ⅱ 80
5.2 Simulation Result 81
5.2.1 Version Ⅰ 81
5.2.2 Version Ⅱ 83
5.3 Chip Microphotograph and Measurement Environment Setup 85
5.3.1 SAR ADC 86
5.3.2 Accelerometer system 87
5.4 Measurement Result 88
5.4.1 Version Ⅰ 88
5.4.2 Version Ⅱ 93
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 96
Bibliography 98
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