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系統識別號 U0026-1308201920220800
論文名稱(中文) 公司策略「變」或「不變」:從自我強化觀點探討績效回顧效果
論文名稱(英文) The Company strategy change or not:Performance Feedback Effect from The Self-enhancement Perspective
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 國際企業研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of International Business
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 金珉秀
研究生(英文) Min-Su Kim
電子信箱 hou4767@naver.com
學號 R66067049
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 80頁
口試委員 指導教授-林玟廷
口試委員-曾瓊慧
口試委員-林豪傑
中文關鍵字 公司行為理論  自我強化  自戀經理人 
英文關鍵字 The Behavioral Theory of the Firm  Self-enhancement  Narcissistic CEO 
學科別分類
中文摘要 績效反饋理論將決策者視為尋求提高績效的問題解決者。然而並非績效不如預期都能激發經理人執行策略變革,有時管理者使用自我強化手法,策略變動與自我強化取決於低績效是否威脅經理人的自我形象以及經理人是否具管理裁量權。故本研究試圖探討績效低於期望目標的情況下,自戀經理人、董事警覺程度、企業社會責任以及產業環境對於執行策略變革的調節效果。
本研究採用台灣經濟新報資料庫(TEJ),彙整出2013年至2018年共263家上市公司資料為實證樣本。研究結果顯示,經理人自戀、董事警覺、產業環境對將績效落差與策略變革之正向關係具有調節效果,亦即高度經理人自戀、高度董事警覺、高度產業複雜,與高度產業動態弱化績效落差與策略變革之正向關係。
本研究具有重要理論意義。首先,本研究結合公司行為理論中績效回饋觀點與社會心理學自我強化觀點,探討自我強化在公司績效落差與與策略變革之關係扮演的調節角色;其二,本研究將心理學的自我強化觀點拓展至公司策略領域,並進行實證研究證明自我強化對績效落差與策略變革之關係的干擾;其三,本研究將自戀經理人抽離主效果探討自戀經理人在績效落差與策略變動關係的影響,在自戀經理人研究方面提出新的觀點。
英文摘要 SUMMARY
The purpose of this thesis is to understand how CEO self-enhancement attitude affects company strategic change while company facing low performance. This study considered some factors affecting CEO’s self-image, such as CEO narcissism, director vigilance, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and industrial environment.

This study used 263 Taiwanese listed firms on TEJ database from 2014 to 2018 as the samples. The empirical evidence indicates that CEO narcissism, director vigilance, and industrial environment have a moderating effect on the positive relationship between performance shortfalls and strategic change. High CEO narcissism, director vigilance and industrial complexity weaken this positive relationship.

This study has important theoretical contributions. First, this study integrates insights from the self-enhancement literature into the theory of performance feedback.

Second, this study extends self-enhancement perspectives from social psychology into corporate strategy, and conducts empirical research to prove the impact of self-enhancement on the relationship between performance shortfalls and strategic change. Third, existing literature on the CEO narcissism has long focused on the positive relationship between CEO narcissism and strategic change, but this study puts forward new perspective on CEO narcissism research by showing moderating role of the how CEO narcissism.

INTRODUCTION
The theory of performance feedback views decision makers as problem solvers seeking to improve performance. However, it is not expected that all performance shortfalls can stimulate managers to implement strategic changes. Sometimes, managers use self-enhancement strategy, the implementation of self-enhancement strategy depends on whether low performance threatens manager's self-image and whether the manager has management discretion. Therefore, this study intends to explore the moderating effect of narcissistic CEO, director vigilance, corporate social responsibility and industrial environment on strategic change when the performance is lower than aspiration level.


MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study used 263 Taiwanese listed firms on Taiwan Economic Journal (TEJ) database from 2013 to 2018 as the samples.
Data were collected from following sources: First, this article collected CEO narcissism from company’s annual report, company's press releases, and TEJ database. Second, this article took reference on Common Wealth Magazine and Global Views Monthly to collect CSR rewarding datum, Taipei Exchange official website for corporate governance evaluation performance evaluation performance datum to gather CSR information. Data regarding industrial environments were obtained from the Taiwan Industry Economics Service database, the AREMOS database, and the TEJ database. Finally, director vigilance information including ownership and board composition also used TEJ database.
Descriptive statistics analysis, Correlation analysis and Panel data analysis are applied in this empirical research.

RESULT
The empirical results showed that the positive relationship between performance shortfalls and strategic change. As for the moderating effects, this study found that High CEO narcissism, director vigilance and industrial complexity weaken the positive relationship between performance shortfalls and strategic change. However, as for the moderating effect on CSR and industrial dynamics, it’s not supported.


CONCLUSTION
The purpose of this study is to explore factors that influence the relationship between performance shortfalls and strategic change. The main theory combines the performance feedback perspective of company behavior theory and self-enhancement perspective of social psychology, and explores moderating effect of the internal and external situational factors such as narcissistic personality, director vigilance, CSR and industrial environment.
This study has three theoretical contributions. First, this study integrates insights from the self-enhancement literature into the theory of performance feedback. Second, in terms of self-enhancement perspective, the past research on self-enhance perspective mainly belongs to the field of organizational behavior and human resources. To sum up, this study extends this perspective from the micro-individual level to the macro-company strategy level. Third, in terms of CEO narcissism research, most scholars pay attain to narcissistic CEO prefer high-risk activities such as strategy change, R&D and international market expansion. This study explores the moderator role of CEO narcissism. This conveys another implication which is narcissistic managers will be reluctant to change their strategies when they face low performance. This propose new viewpoint in the CEO narcissism research.

For practical implications, this study suggests that companies can restrain manager use self-enhancement strategies through informal control system such as company culture. Moreover, companies can consider using formal control system, such as rules, clear standard and incentive program to limit manager distort actual performance. Besides, companies can hire professionals when they make a decision. Finally, this study suggests that company can consider valuable CSR activities, such as adjusting production processes, scheduling and recycling resources, because those actives not only maintain environmental protection, but also reduce the operating cost and improve firm performance.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 vii
目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究流程 6
第二章 文獻深討 8
第一節 公司行為與自我強化 8
第二節 自戀人格與自我強化 11
第三節 董事警覺與自我強化 15
第四節 企業社會責任與自我強化 18
第五節 產業環境與自我強化 22
第三章 研究方法 26
第一節 研究架構 26
第二節 研究對象與樣本 27
第三節 研究變項 28
第四節 分析方法與工具 34
第四章 實證結果與分析 36
第一節 研究變項敘述統計與相關分析 36
第二節 迴歸模型與假說分析 39
第五章 結論與建議 45
第一節 研究結論 45
第二節 理論貢獻 48
第三節 實務意涵 50
第四節 研究限制與後續研究建議 53
參考文獻 55
附錄A產業分類說明 80
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三、韓文部分
정재승, 문철우, & 김상균. 2016. 사외이사의 독립성이 전략변화에 미치는 영향. 조직과 인사관리연구, 40(1), 41-72.
곽영민, & 박진모. 2017. 최고경영자의 경영재량권과 목표이익 달성을 위한 이익조정. 생산성논집(구 생산성연구), 31(4), 61-84.
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