||Design and Evaluation of the System Device for Mitigation of the Non-Specific Low Back Pain among Veterinarians
||Department of Industrial Design
Low Back Pain
Stability of Trunk
從獸醫手術期間的姿勢狀態著手，本研究結合了生物力學與生理解剖學觀點，系統化的將子宮卵巢摘除術過程分為三個階段進行手術行為分析，分別為：切腹壁、子宮摘除及縫合。系統裝置的設計發展分為兩個重要部分: (1) 兩階段的焦點團體法建立設計準則與設計發想， (2) 設計構想的特徵檢視，邀請獸醫進行討論以獲得使用性的相關評論，整合獸醫在進行手術時與動物間的關係。
In recent years, with the growing number of domestic pets, the demand for animal hospitals has increased greatly, and the occupational hazards of veterinarians have gradually emerged. Veterinarians work in complex and varied environments for prolonged working hours, which easily lead to Low Back Pain (LBP). Most LBP patients are classified as Non-Specific Low Back Pain (NSLBP), which means that lumbago itself has no known pathological anatomy reason, and its principle is strongly related to the pressure load of spine.
Starting from the posture state during veterinary surgery, this study combines the views of biomechanics and physiological anatomy, and systematically divided the ovariohysterectomy process into three stages for surgical behavior analysis, namely, abdominal wall cutting, uterus removal and suture. The design and development of the system devices was divided into two important parts: (1) The two-stage focus group to establish design criteria and design concept, (2) The feature inspection of design concept, when veterinarians were invited for discussion to obtain relevant comments on usability, and the relationship between veterinarians and animals during the surgery was integrated.
The evaluation method of this study first examined the stability of the trunk during veterinary surgery, taking into account the angle changes of the veterinarian's lower back, neck, shoulder and wrist and the blood flow state in the body. Innovative evaluation methods for experimental evaluation of the new system devices. The results show that the Upper Convex Surface proposed in this study was helpful to reduce the mechanical load of the spine and muscle overstretch and promote blood flow. After Upper Convex Surface was combined with screen mirroring, it was more effective to improve occupational injuries caused by veterinarians' low visual angle during surgery. Therefore, this study found that mitigating the NSLBP problem of veterinarians has a very important impact on the work quality and efficiency of veterinarians.
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivation 2
1.3 Purpose 3
1.4 Scope 4
1.5 Framework 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 The Factors that Cause NSLBP 6
2.1.1 Pathogenesis and Influencing Factors of NSLBP 6
2.1.2 Factors of Vertebral Joint Stability 8
2.1.3 Correlation between Soft Tissue and LBP 9
2.2 The Principle and Mechanism of Trunk Posture 11
2.2.1 Posture Control with the Lower Back 12
2.2.2 Neck Posture with the Lower Back 13
2.2.3 Visual Angle with the Lower Back 14
2.3 Back Biomechanics and Physiological Anatomy 15
2.3.1 Back Biomechanics Principles 15
2.3.2 Back Physiological Anatomy Concepts 16
2.3.3 LBP Product Mechanism and Overview 17
2.4 Evaluation Methods 19
2.4.1 Subjective evaluation 19
2.4.2 Objective measurement 19
2.5 Summary 21
CHAPTER 3 METHODS 22
3.1 Interviews 22
3.1.1 Expert Interview 22
3.1.2 Veterinarians Interview 22
3.2 Observation 24
3.2.1 Surgical Posture 24
3.2.2 Surgical Equipment 25
3.3 Focus Group 26
3.3.1 The First Stage Focus Group 27
3.3.2 The Second Stage Focus Group 28
3.4 Feature Inspection 31
3.5 The Design of the System Device 33
3.5.1 Development of Design 33
3.5.2 Features of Design 35
3.5.3 Prototyping 35
3.5.4 Operation of System Devices 37
3.6 Experiment 1 38
3.6.1 Participants 38
3.6.2 Environment and Equipment 38
3.6.3 Variables 40
3.6.4 Procedures 41
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 42
4.1 Result of Experiment 1 42
4.2 The Final Design 49
4.3 Experiment 2 50
4.3.1 Participants 50
4.3.2 Environment and Equipment 50
4.3.3 Variables 51
4.3.4 Procedures 52
4.3.5 Result of Experiment 2 53
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 61
5.1 Review of Research Findings 61
5.1.1 Previous Research for the Concept 61
5.1.2 Development of the Design 62
5.1.3 Evaluation of final design 62
5.2 Joint Angle 63
5.2.1 Experiment 1 64
5.2.2 Experiment 2 64
5.2.3 Comprehensive Discussion 65
5.3 Blood Flow 66
5.4 Surgical Quality 66
5.5 Limitation of the Study 67
5.6 Summary 67
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 69
Appendix A SUBJECTIVE SCALE IN EXPERIMENT 1 76
Appendix B SUBJECTIVE SCALE IN EXPERIMENT 2 77
Appendix C COMPARISON OF THREE DESIGN DEVICES 78
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