進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-1308201514253600
論文名稱(中文) 台灣的糖尿病、腎臟病及不同克雷白氏肺炎菌感染之間的影響機轉
論文名稱(英文) The Complex Interplay among Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Kidney Disease and Different Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 臨床醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Clinical Medicine
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 林威宏
研究生(英文) Wei-Hung Lin
電子信箱 dindonwhlin@hotmail.com
學號 S98981131
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 140頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳俊忠
指導教授-王明誠
口試委員-柯文謙
口試委員-盧柏樑
口試委員-李建德
口試委員-鄧景浩
中文關鍵字 克雷白氏肺炎菌  糖尿病  尿道感染  末期腎病變 
英文關鍵字 K. pneumoniae  diabetes mellitus  urinary tract infection  end stage renal disease 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在社區環境之中,克雷白氏肺炎菌是一個會引起各種臨床感染包括菌血症、肺炎、尿道感染、腦膜炎以及各處膿瘍的致病菌。其中克雷白氏肺炎菌引起的社區型感染菌血症伴隨肝膿瘍,是一個在台灣相當被重視的臨床症候群。我的博士論文就是從國家健康保險資料庫去分析糖尿病是克雷白氏肺炎菌引起的肝膿瘍中,所扮演最重要的角色。從大型的世代研究,可以證實過去所研究的糖尿病與肝膿瘍罹病風險的關聯性。這樣的研究發現此風險存在於較為年輕的糖尿病病人,而且當伴隨膽道疾病或者肝硬化時,會有更高的罹患肝膿瘍風險,因此需要在診治糖尿病病人時,及早做預防和注意。基於對於流行病學研究的了解,我們發現糖尿病、肝膿瘍以及克雷白氏肺炎菌之間的緊密關聯性。為了能夠更深入研究,我建置了一個全國於1999年至2010年之間診斷為第一型糖尿病的台灣大型世代資料。這個於全篇論文所用來分析的世代族群是來自於臺灣的健保資料庫,並提供準確且代表全國第一型糖尿病病人的登錄資料。我先用此來研究第一型糖尿病在性別年齡分層的長期發生率趨勢,以及相對應的死亡率。我也用此世代資料觀察長期罹患末期腎病變的風險,並且檢視發病年齡、罹病時間以及性別對於發生末期腎病變的影響。
同時我也收集了國立成功大學附設醫院於2006年之後所有的克雷白氏肺炎菌,以研究克雷白氏肺炎菌引起的尿道感染、膿瘍以及腹膜透析腹膜炎之臨床以及微生物特性。我首先研究引致尿道感染的克雷白氏肺炎菌,探討細菌表現的黏著性、致病基因以及宿主因素,特別是和糖尿病的關聯性。接著我評估克雷白氏肺炎菌在復發性泌尿道感染所表現的宿主以及細菌特性,結果證實所有克雷白氏肺炎菌引致的復發性尿道感染都發生於糖尿病病人。然後我研究本院22年來所有腹膜透析腹膜炎致病菌種的長期消長,也探討克雷白氏肺炎菌於腹膜炎中的細菌特性以及包括年紀、糖尿病、免疫低下等宿主因素,以做為臨床治療的重要依據。最後,我從臨床克雷白氏肺炎菌致病菌株,篩選出一個特殊的黏著基因KPN_2990,並且使用此基因的突變株在動物尿道感染模式中的表現以及發炎細胞激素的分析,來探討此基因的重要性。我認為KPN_2990此基因可以透過對於前發炎細胞激素的調控機制來影響宿主尿道感染的嚴重性。而完整的病理致病機轉,還是要透過後續更為深入的研究,以解開克雷白氏肺炎菌引致尿道感染的全貌。
英文摘要 In the community setting, Klebsiella pneumoniae is a potential pathogen with various clinical manifestations, including septicemia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), meningitis, and purulent abscesses at various sites. In particular, a distinctive clinical syndrome, which is characterized by community-acquired K. pneumoniae bacteremia with primary liver abscess has been recognized in Taiwan. My PhD research started from National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to analyze the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) as most important host factor in pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) caused by K. pneumoniae. The large-scale cohort study confirmed the previously reported link between diabetes and risk of PLA onset. This study advanced the knowledge highlighting a stronger association noted for younger patients; and that diabetic patients with underlying biliary tract diseases and liver cirrhosis are at even greater risks of PLA onset and should be the objects of particular attention for the prevention of PLA onset in patients with diabetes. Based on the knowledge of our epidemiologic study, we found the close association between DM, PLA and K. pneumoniae. To be investigated more deeply, I constructed a large population-based type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) cohort in Taiwan diagnosed between 1999 and 2010. The data analyzed in my thesis were derived from Taiwan’s NHIRD that provides a valid and nation-wide registration system for T1DM. I investigated the long-term trends of incidence rate of T1DM in all sex and age stratifications and to explore the overall as well as the age and sex-specific risk of mortality in patients with T1DM. I also investigated the long-term risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with T1DM and examined how age at registration of diabetes, time period of registration, and sex affect these risks.
At the same time, I enrolled all the K. pneumoniae strains at National Cheng Kung University Hospital since 2006 to survey the clinical and microbiological characteristics in UTI, abscess and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. First, I investigated the expression of hypermucoviscosity (HV) and the presence of the virulence gene of K. pneumoniae in UTI strains including the association of host factors, especially DM, with K. pneumoniae associated UTI. Second, I evaluated the host and bacterial characteristics of K. pneumoniae in recurrent UTI (RUTI). The results demonstrated all the RUTI occurred in DM patients. Third, I studied the change in distribution of causative organisms in PD-related peritonitis during a 22-year period. I investigated the microbiological characteristics of K. pneumoniae and host factors in PD-related peritonitis such as old age, DM or immunocompromised status to predict critical case for clinical therapy. Finally, I screened a novel adhesion gene, KPN_2990, from my uropathogenic K. pneumoniae and investigated the role in K. pneumoniae UTI by mutant construction with inflammatory cytokines analysis and animal UTI model. I concluded that the mechanism of action of KPN_2990 can be explained partially by the modulation of proinflammatory cytokines response to Klebsiella infection. Their mode of action is certainly much more complex and further research is necessary for a better understanding of this phenomenon.
論文目次 Contents
Abstract in Chinese I
Abstract III
Acknowledgement V
Contents VII
Table Contents IX
Abbreviations XII
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Urinary tract infection and Klebsiella pneumoniae 2
1.2 Diabetes mellitus, liver abscess and Klebsiella pneumoniae 4
1.3 A Population-based cohort survey on the incidence of pyogenic liver abscess in patients with diabetes mellitus 5
1.3.1 Introduction 5
1.3.2 Methods 6
1.3.3 Results 9
1.3.4 Discussion 14
1.4 Thesis aims 19
Chapter 2. The Association Between Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease from Population Based Study 21
2.1 Backgrounds and aims 21
2.2 Materials and Methods 24
2.3 Results 28
2.4 Discussion 32
2.5 Figures and Tables 39
Chapter 3. The Close Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus and Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae in Urinary Tract Infections 50
3.1 Background and Aims 50
3.2 Materials and Methods 53
3.3 Results 60
3.4 Discussion 64
3.5 Figures and Tables 69
Chapter 4. The Close Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus and Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis 77
4.1 Background and Aims 77
4.2 Materials and Methods 80
4.3 Results 82
4.4 Discussion 85
4.5 Figures and Tables 88
Chapter 5. Identification and Survey of The Adhesion Gene KPN_2990 in Klebsiella pneumoniae-Related Urinary Tract Infection 92
5.1Background and Aims 92
5.2 Materials and Methods 94
5.3 Results 99
5.4 Discussion 101
5.5 Figures and Tables 105
Chapter 6. General Discussion, Conclusion and Prospects 114
6.1 Discussion for epidemiologic findings 114
6.2 Discussion for experimental findings 115
6.3 Prospects 116
REFERENCES 118
PLUBLICATIONS 139

參考文獻 REFERENCES
1987 Consensus statement on self-monitoring of blood glucose. Diabetes Care 10(1):95-9.
1991 Sex differences in the mortality associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in four countries. The Diabetes Epidemiology Research International (DERI) Study. Am J Epidemiol 133(6):577-84.
2006 Incidence and trends of childhood Type 1 diabetes worldwide 1990-1999. Diabet Med 23(8):857-66.
2010 Abstracts of the ISPD 15th International Conference on Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. July 11-14, 2010. Prenat Diagn 30 Suppl 1:S1-115.
Agace, W. W., et al.
1993 Interleukin-8 and the neutrophil response to mucosal gram-negative infection. J Clin Invest 92(2):780-5.
Albert, X., et al.
2004 Antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in non-pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD001209.
Arakawa, Y., et al.
1991 Biosynthesis of Klebsiella K2 capsular polysaccharide in Escherichia coli HB101 requires the functions of rmpA and the chromosomal cps gene cluster of the virulent strain Klebsiella pneumoniae Chedid (O1:K2). Infect Immun 59(6):2043-50.
Asao, K., et al.
2003 Long-term mortality in nationwide cohorts of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Japan and Finland. Diabetes Care 26(7):2037-42.
Backhed, F., et al.
2001 Induction of innate immune responses by Escherichia coli and purified lipopolysaccharide correlate with organ- and cell-specific expression of Toll-like receptors within the human urinary tract. Cell Microbiol 3(3):153-8.
Bagby, G. J., et al.
1991 Divergent efficacy of antibody to tumor necrosis factor-alpha in intravascular and peritonitis models of sepsis. J Infect Dis 163(1):83-8.
Bernardini, J., et al.
1991 An analysis of ten-year trends in infections in adults on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Clin Nephrol 36(1):29-34.
Bleves, S., and G. R. Cornelis
2000 How to survive in the host: the Yersinia lesson. Microbes Infect 2(12):1451-60.
Bliska, J. B., J. E. Galan, and S. Falkow
1993 Signal transduction in the mammalian cell during bacterial attachment and entry. Cell 73(5):903-20.
Bloembergen, W. E., and F. K. Port
1996 Epidemiological perspective on infections in chronic dialysis patients. Adv Ren Replace Ther 3(3):201-7.
Borch-Johnsen, K., S. Kreiner, and T. Deckert
1986 Mortality of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Denmark: a study of relative mortality in 2930 Danish type 1 diabetic patients diagnosed from 1933 to 1972. Diabetologia 29(11):767-72.
Boyko, E. J., et al.
2002 Diabetes and the risk of acute urinary tract infection among postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care 25(10):1778-83.
Bunke, C. M., M. E. Brier, and T. A. Golper
1997 Outcomes of single organism peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: gram negatives versus gram positives in the Network 9 Peritonitis Study. Kidney Int 52(2):524-9.
Bunke, M., M. E. Brier, and T. A. Golper
1995 Pseudomonas peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients: the Network #9 Peritonitis Study. Am J Kidney Dis 25(5):769-74.
Burnet, D. L., et al.
2007 Risk factors for mortality in a diverse cohort of patients with childhood-onset diabetes in Chicago. Diabetes Care 30(10):2559-63.
Cavaillon, J. M., et al.
2003 Cytokine cascade in sepsis. Scand J Infect Dis 35(9):535-44.
Chang, F. Y., and M. Y. Chou
1995 Comparison of pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and non-K. pneumoniae pathogens. J Formos Med Assoc 94(5):232-7.
Chang, S. C., et al.
2000 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing liver abscess in Taiwan. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 37(4):279-84.
Chen, F., et al.
2004 Death Certification and New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS) statistics for diabetes mellitus: an under-recognised health problem. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 63(2):113-8.
Chen, H. F., P. Chen, and C. Y. Li
2010 Risk of malignant neoplasms of liver and biliary tract in diabetic patients with different age and sex stratifications. Hepatology 52(1):155-63.
Chen, H. F., et al.
2012 Age- and sex-specific risks of colorectal cancers in diabetic patients. Tohoku J Exp Med 226(4):259-65.
Chen, S. C., et al.
2006 Risk factors for developing metastatic infection from pyogenic liver abscesses. Swiss Med Wkly 136(7-8):119-26.
Chen, Y. C., et al.
2014 Epidemiology and clinical outcome of pyogenic liver abscess: an analysis from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, 2000-2011. J Microbiol Immunol Infect.
Chen, Y. R., et al.
2013 Effectiveness of multidisciplinary care for chronic kidney disease in Taiwan: a 3-year prospective cohort study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 28(3):671-82.
Chiang-Ni, C., et al.
2009 emm1/sequence type 28 strains of group A streptococci that express covR at early stationary phase are associated with increased growth and earlier SpeB secretion. J Clin Microbiol 47(10):3161-9.
Chiang-Ni, C., et al.
2012 Environmental pH changes, but not the LuxS signalling pathway, regulate SpeB expression in M1 group A streptococci. Journal of medical microbiology 61(Pt 1):16-22.
Chiang, T. L.
1997 Taiwan's 1995 health care reform. Health Policy 39(3):225-39.
Chiu, Y. M., and C. H. Lai
2010 Nationwide population-based epidemiologic study of systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan. Lupus 19(10):1250-5.
Chuang, L. M., et al.
2001 The current state of diabetes management in Taiwan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 54 Suppl 1:S55-65.
Chuang, Y. P., et al.
2006 Genetic determinants of capsular serotype K1 of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing primary pyogenic liver abscess. J Infect Dis 193(5):645-54.
Collier-Hyams, L. S., et al.
2002 Cutting edge: Salmonella AvrA effector inhibits the key proinflammatory, anti-apoptotic NF-kappa B pathway. J Immunol 169(6):2846-50.
Collins, A. J., et al.
2013a US Renal Data System 2012 Annual Data Report. Am J Kidney Dis 61(1 Suppl 1):A7, e1-476.
Collins, A. J., et al.
2013b US Renal Data System 2012 Annual Data Report. Am J Kidney Dis 61(1 Suppl 1):031.
Cortes, G., et al.
2002 Role of lung epithelial cells in defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Infect Immun 70(3):1075-80.
Cossart, P., and H. Bierne
2001 The use of host cell machinery in the pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes. Curr Opin Immunol 13(1):96-103.
Costacou, T., et al.
2011 Sex differences in the development of kidney disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a contemporary analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 58(4):565-73.
Cowie, C. C., et al.
1989 Disparities in incidence of diabetic end-stage renal disease according to race and type of diabetes. N Engl J Med 321(16):1074-9.
Cox, S. D., et al.
2007 Predictors of survival and technique success after reinsertion of peritoneal dialysis catheter following severe peritonitis. Perit Dial Int 27(1):67-73.
Czaja, C. A., et al.
2009 Prospective cohort study of microbial and inflammatory events immediately preceding Escherichia coli recurrent urinary tract infection in women. J Infect Dis 200(4):528-36.
Darling, A. E., B. Mau, and N. T. Perna
2010 progressiveMauve: multiple genome alignment with gene gain, loss and rearrangement. PLoS One 5(6):e11147.
Dason, S., J. T. Dason, and A. Kapoor
2011 Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Can Urol Assoc J 5(5):316-22.
Dawson, S. I., et al.
2008 All-cause mortality in insulin-treated diabetic patients: a 20-year follow-up. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 80(1):e6-9.
de Lorenzo, V., and K. N. Timmis
1994 Analysis and construction of stable phenotypes in gram-negative bacteria with Tn5- and Tn10-derived minitransposons. Methods Enzymol 235:386-405.
de Man, P., et al.
1989 Interleukin-6 induced at mucosal surfaces by gram-negative bacterial infection. Infect Immun 57(11):3383-8.
Deckert, T., J. E. Poulsen, and M. Larsen
1978 Prognosis of diabetics with diabetes onset before the age of thirty-one. I. Survival, causes of death, and complications. Diabetologia 14(6):363-70.
Delamaire, M., et al.
1997 Impaired leucocyte functions in diabetic patients. Diabet Med 14(1):29-34.
Eden, C. S., et al.
1976 Variable adherence to normal human urinary-tract epithelial cells of Escherichia coli strains associated with various forms of urinary-tract infection. Lancet 1(7984):490-2.
Eskandari, M. K., et al.
1992 Anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody therapy fails to prevent lethality after cecal ligation and puncture or endotoxemia. J Immunol 148(9):2724-30.
Fang, C. T., et al.
2004 A novel virulence gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains causing primary liver abscess and septic metastatic complications. J Exp Med 199(5):697-705.
Fang, C. T., et al.
2007 Klebsiella pneumoniae genotype K1: an emerging pathogen that causes septic ocular or central nervous system complications from pyogenic liver abscess. Clin Infect Dis 45(3):284-93.
Farmer, J. J., III.
2007 Enterobacteriaceae: introduction and identification,
p. 438-449. In P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover, and
R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology. American Society for
Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
Farmer JJ, III. . ed.
2007 Enterobacteriaceae: introduction and identification. Washington, D.C. : American Society for Microbiology.
Fine, Jason P., and Robert J. Gray
1999 A Proportional Hazards Model for the Subdistribution of a Competing Risk. Journal of the American Statistical Association 94(446):496-509.
Finne, P., et al.
2005 Incidence of end-stage renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. JAMA 294(14):1782-7.
Foo, N. P., et al.
2010 Characteristics of pyogenic liver abscess patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Am J Gastroenterol 105(2):328-35.
Forsblom, C., et al.
2011 Competing-risk analysis of ESRD and death among patients with type 1 diabetes and macroalbuminuria. J Am Soc Nephrol 22(3):537-44.
Fox, L., A. H. Tzamaloukas, and G. H. Murata
1992 Metabolic differences between persistent and routine peritonitis in CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 8:346-50.
Foxman, B.
1990 Recurring urinary tract infection: incidence and risk factors. Am J Public Health 80(3):331-3.
Foxman, B., et al.
2000 Urinary tract infection: self-reported incidence and associated costs. Ann Epidemiol 10(8):509-15.
Foxman, B., et al.
1995 Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli causing first urinary tract infection predict risk of second infection. J Infect Dis 172(6):1536-41.
Fried, L. F., et al.
1996 Peritonitis influences mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 7(10):2176-82.
Fu, H., et al.
1994 Shanghai, China, has the lowest confirmed incidence of childhood diabetes in the world. Diabetes Care 17(10):1206-8.
Fung, C. P., et al.
2002 A global emerging disease of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess: is serotype K1 an important factor for complicated endophthalmitis? Gut 50(3):420-4.
Gabay, Cem
2006 Interleukin-6 and chronic inflammation. Arthritis research and therapy 8(2):S3.
Gallacher, S. J., et al.
1995 Neutrophil bactericidal function in diabetes mellitus: evidence for association with blood glucose control. Diabet Med 12(10):916-20.
Garner, J. S., et al.
1988 CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 16(3):128-40.
Geerlings, S. E.
2008 Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment. Int J Antimicrob Agents 31 Suppl 1:S54-7.
Geerlings, S. E., et al.
2002 Adherence of type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells: more in diabetic women than in control subjects. Diabetes Care 25(8):1405-9.
Godaly, G., et al.
2001 Neutrophil recruitment, chemokine receptors, and resistance to mucosal infection. J Leukoc Biol 69(6):899-906.
Goldstein, D. E., et al.
1980 Hemoglobin A1c levels in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 3(4):503-7.
Golper, T. A., et al.
1996 Risk factors for peritonitis in long-term peritoneal dialysis: the Network 9 peritonitis and catheter survival studies. Academic Subcommittee of the Steering Committee of the Network 9 Peritonitis and Catheter Survival Studies. Am J Kidney Dis 28(3):428-36.
Gupta, B., J. Bernardini, and B. Piraino
1996 Peritonitis associated with exit site and tunnel infections. Am J Kidney Dis 28(3):415-9.
Hagberg, L., et al.
1983 Ascending, unobstructed urinary tract infection in mice caused by pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli of human origin. Infect Immun 40(1):273-83.
Hansen, D. S., A. Gottschau, and H. J. Kolmos
1998 Epidemiology of Klebsiella bacteraemia: a case control study using Escherichia coli bacteraemia as control. J Hosp Infect 38(2):119-32.
Haraoka, M., et al.
1999 Neutrophil recruitment and resistance to urinary tract infection. J Infect Dis 180(4):1220-9.
Harjutsalo, V., L. Sjoberg, and J. Tuomilehto
2008 Time trends in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children: a cohort study. Lancet 371(9626):1777-82.
Hedges, S., et al.
1991 Interleukin-6 response to deliberate colonization of the human urinary tract with gram-negative bacteria. Infect Immun 59(1):421-7.
Hedges, S., et al.
1992 Comparison of urine and serum concentrations of interleukin-6 in women with acute pyelonephritis or asymptomatic bacteriuria. J Infect Dis 166(3):653-6.
Hedlund, M., et al.
2001 Fimbriae, transmembrane signaling, and cell activation. J Infect Dis 183 Suppl 1:S47-50.
Ho, Y. R., et al.
2013 The enhancement of biofilm formation in Group B streptococcal isolates at vaginal pH. Med Microbiol Immunol 202(2):105-15.
Hoberman, A., et al.
2003 Imaging studies after a first febrile urinary tract infection in young children. N Engl J Med 348(3):195-202.
Holley, J. L., J. Bernardini, and B. Piraino
1992 Polymicrobial peritonitis in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 19(2):162-6.
Homann, C., et al.
1997 Acquired C3 deficiency in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis predisposes to infection and increased mortality. Gut 40(4):544-9.
Hornick, D. B., et al.
1992 Adherence to respiratory epithelia by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Klebsiella pneumoniae type 3 fimbrial gene products. Infect Immun 60(4):1577-88.
Huang, J. J., and C. C. Tseng
2000 Emphysematous pyelonephritis: clinicoradiological classification, management, prognosis, and pathogenesis. Arch Intern Med 160(6):797-805.
Ikaheimo, R., et al.
1996 Recurrence of urinary tract infection in a primary care setting: analysis of a 1-year follow-up of 179 women. Clin Infect Dis 22(1):91-9.
Izquierdo, L., et al.
2003 The Klebsiella pneumoniae wabG gene: role in biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharide and virulence. J Bacteriol 185(24):7213-21.
Jacobsen, P., et al.
1999 Progression of diabetic nephropathy in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients. Kidney Int Suppl 71:S101-5.
Jain, A. K., and P. G. Blake
2006 Non-Pseudomonas Gram-negative peritonitis. Kidney Int 69(7):1107-9.
Jarvis, E. M., et al.
2010 Predictors, treatment, and outcomes of non-Pseudomonas Gram-negative peritonitis. Kidney Int 78(4):408-14.
Jassal, S. V., et al.
2002 Attitudes of British Isles nephrologists towards dialysis modality selection: a questionnaire study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 17(3):474-7.
Jepsen, P., et al.
2005 A nationwide study of the incidence and 30-day mortality rate of pyogenic liver abscess in Denmark, 1977-2002. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 21(10):1185-8.
Johannsen, E. C., C. D. Sifri, and L. C. Madoff
2000 Pyogenic liver abscesses. Infect Dis Clin North Am 14(3):547-63, vii.
Johnson, J. R., and J. J. Brown
1996 Defining inoculation conditions for the mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection that avoid immediate vesicoureteral reflux yet produce renal and bladder infection. J Infect Dis 173(3):746-9.
Kabha, K., et al.
1995 Relationships among capsular structure, phagocytosis, and mouse virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Infect Immun 63(3):847-52.
Kaplan, G. G., D. B. Gregson, and K. B. Laupland
2004 Population-based study of the epidemiology of and the risk factors for pyogenic liver abscess. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2(11):1032-8.
Karvonen, M., et al.
1993 A review of the recent epidemiological data on the worldwide incidence of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. World Health Organization DIAMOND Project Group. Diabetologia 36(10):883-92.
Kiernan, L., et al.
1995 Outcome of polymicrobial peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 25(3):461-4.
Klein, R., et al.
1999 The 10-year incidence of renal insufficiency in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22(5):743-51.
Klumpp, D. J., et al.
2001 Uropathogenic Escherichia coli potentiates type 1 pilus-induced apoptosis by suppressing NF-kappaB. Infect Immun 69(11):6689-95.
Ko, W. C., et al.
2002 Community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: global differences in clinical patterns. Emerg Infect Dis 8(2):160-6.
Krolewski, A. S., et al.
1985 The changing natural history of nephropathy in type I diabetes. Am J Med 78(5):785-94.
Krolewski, M., P. W. Eggers, and J. H. Warram
1996 Magnitude of end-stage renal disease in IDDM: a 35 year follow-up study. Kidney Int 50(6):2041-6.
Ku, Y. H., Y. C. Chuang, and W. L. Yu
2008 Clinical spectrum and molecular characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing community-acquired extrahepatic abscess. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 41(4):311-7.
Laffi, G., et al.
1993 Impaired superoxide anion, platelet-activating factor, and leukotriene B4 synthesis by neutrophils in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 105(1):170-7.
Laing, S. P., et al.
2005 Psychosocial and socioeconomic risk factors for premature death in young people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 28(7):1618-23.
Laing, S. P., et al.
1999a The British Diabetic Association Cohort Study, I: all-cause mortality in patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 16(6):459-65.
Lau, Y. J., et al.
2000 Identification of a major cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients with liver abscess in Taiwan. J Clin Microbiol 38(1):412-4.
Lawrence, J. M., et al.
2014 Validation of pediatric diabetes case identification approaches for diagnosed cases by using information in the electronic health records of a large integrated managed health care organization. Am J Epidemiol 179(1):27-38.
Lee, H. C., et al.
2006 Clinical implications of hypermucoviscosity phenotype in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates: association with invasive syndrome in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia. J Intern Med 259(6):606-14.
Lee, S. S., et al.
2008 Predictors of septic metastatic infection and mortality among patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess. Clin Infect Dis 47(5):642-50.
Levey, A. S., and J. T. Harrington
1982 Continuous peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure. Medicine (Baltimore) 61(5):330-9.
Lewis, E. J., et al.
1993 The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. The Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med 329(20):1456-62.
Lin, C. C., et al.
2005 Accuracy of diabetes diagnosis in health insurance claims data in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 104(3):157-63.
Lin, C. T., et al.
2013a Role of the cAMP-dependent carbon catabolite repression in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae. PLoS One 8(2):e54430.
Lin, J. C., et al.
2004 High prevalence of phagocytic-resistant capsular serotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae in liver abscess. Microbes Infect 6(13):1191-8.
Lin, K. Y., et al.
2003 Acute pyelonephritis and sequelae of renal scar in pediatric first febrile urinary tract infection. Pediatr Nephrol 18(4):362-5.
Lin, W. H., et al.
2013b Incidence of progression from newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus to end stage renal disease and all-cause mortality: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan. Int J Rheum Dis 16(6):747-53.
Lin, W. H., et al.
2014a Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae from community-acquired recurrent urinary tract infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 33(9):1533-9.
Lin, W. H., et al.
2013c Clinical and microbiological characteristics of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in southern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect.
Lin, W. H., et al.
2010 Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing community-acquired urinary tract infections. Infection 38(6):459-64.
Lin, W. H., et al.
2014b Incidence of and Mortality from Type I Diabetes in Taiwan From 1999 through 2010: A Nationwide Cohort Study. PLoS One 9(1):e86172.
Lin, Y. C., et al.
Polymicrobial peritonitis following colonoscopic polypectomy in a peritoneal dialysis patient. Intern Med 51(14):1841-3.
Lin, Y. T., et al.
2013d Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess in diabetic patients: association of glycemic control with the clinical characteristics. BMC Infect Dis 13:56.
Liu, C. C., et al.
2010 Trends in hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis in diabetic patients in Taiwan: analysis of national claims data, 1997-2005. J Formos Med Assoc 109(10):725-34.
Liu, Y. C., D. L. Cheng, and C. L. Lin
1986 Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess associated with septic endophthalmitis. Arch Intern Med 146(10):1913-6.
Lu, J. F., and W. C. Hsiao
2003 Does universal health insurance make health care unaffordable? Lessons from Taiwan. Health Aff (Millwood) 22(3):77-88.
Ma, L. C., et al.
2005 Genomic heterogeneity in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains is associated with primary pyogenic liver abscess and metastatic infection. J Infect Dis 192(1):117-28.
Markowitz, V. M., et al.
2006 The integrated microbial genomes (IMG) system. Nucleic Acids Res 34(Database issue):D344-8.
Martinez, J. J., et al.
2000 Type 1 pilus-mediated bacterial invasion of bladder epithelial cells. EMBO J 19(12):2803-12.
Matsushima, M., et al.
1995 Markedly increased renal disease mortality and incidence of renal replacement therapy among IDDM patients in Japan in contrast to Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA. Diabetes Epidemiology Research International (DERI) U.S.-Japan Mortality Study Group. Diabetologia 38(2):236-43.
Meddings, L., et al.
2010 A population-based study of pyogenic liver abscesses in the United States: incidence, mortality, and temporal trends. Am J Gastroenterol 105(1):117-24.
Meltzer, L. J., et al.
2001 Disordered eating, body mass, and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 24(4):678-82.
Mendelssohn, D. C.
2004 Empowerment of patient preference in dialysis modality selection. Am J Kidney Dis 43(5):930-2.
Molle, I., et al.
2001 Increased risk and case fatality rate of pyogenic liver abscess in patients with liver cirrhosis: a nationwide study in Denmark. Gut 48(2):260-3.
Mollsten, A., et al.
2010 Cumulative risk, age at onset, and sex-specific differences for developing end-stage renal disease in young patients with type 1 diabetes: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Diabetes 59(7):1803-8.
Mujais, S.
2006 Microbiology and outcomes of peritonitis in North America. Kidney Int Suppl (103):S55-62.
Muller, L. M., et al.
2005 Increased risk of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Infect Dis 41(3):281-8.
Nagappan, R., J. F. Collins, and W. T. Lee
1992 Fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis--the Auckland experience. Am J Kidney Dis 20(5):492-6.
Nassif, X., et al.
1989a Mucoid phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae is a plasmid-encoded virulence factor. Infect Immun 57(2):546-52.
Nassif, X., et al.
1989b Positive control of colanic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli by rmpA and rmpB, two virulence-plasmid genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 3(10):1349-59.
Nishimura, R., et al.
2001 Mortality trends in type 1 diabetes. The Allegheny County (Pennsylvania) Registry 1965-1999. Diabetes Care 24(5):823-7.
Noordzij, M., et al.
2014 Renal replacement therapy in Europe: a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report. Clin Kidney J 7(2):227-38.
Oelschlaeger, T. A., and B. D. Tall
1997 Invasion of cultured human epithelial cells by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the urinary tract. Infect Immun 65(7):2950-8.
Olszyna, D. P., et al.
1999 Sequential measurements of chemokines in urosepsis and experimental endotoxemia. J Clin Immunol 19(6):399-405.
Onkamo, P., et al.
1999 Worldwide increase in incidence of Type I diabetes--the analysis of the data on published incidence trends. Diabetologia 42(12):1395-403.
Orchard, T. J., et al.
2010 In the absence of renal disease, 20 year mortality risk in type 1 diabetes is comparable to that of the general population: a report from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. Diabetologia 53(11):2312-9.
Oreopoulos, D. G., and A. H. Tzamaloukas
2000 Peritoneal dialysis in the next millennium. Adv Ren Replace Ther 7(4):338-46.
Orth, K., et al.
2000 Disruption of signaling by Yersinia effector YopJ, a ubiquitin-like protein protease. Science 290(5496):1594-7.
Otto, G., et al.
1999 Interleukin-6 and disease severity in patients with bacteremic and nonbacteremic febrile urinary tract infection. J Infect Dis 179(1):172-9.
Patterson, C. C., et al.
2007 Early mortality in EURODIAB population-based cohorts of type 1 diabetes diagnosed in childhood since 1989. Diabetologia 50(12):2439-42.
Patterson, C. C., et al.
2012 Trends in childhood type 1 diabetes incidence in Europe during 1989-2008: evidence of non-uniformity over time in rates of increase. Diabetologia 55(8):2142-7.
Piraino, B.
1998 Peritonitis as a complication of peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 9(10):1956-64.
Piraino, B., et al.
2005 Peritoneal dialysis-related infections recommendations: 2005 update. Perit Dial Int 25(2):107-31.
Podschun, R., and U. Ullmann
1998 Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogens: epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors. Clin Microbiol Rev 11(4):589-603.
Regue, M., et al.
2004 A gene, uge, is essential for Klebsiella pneumoniae virulence. Infect Immun 72(1):54-61.
Riley, M. D., et al.
1995 The 1984 Tasmanian insulin treated diabetes mellitus prevalence cohort: an eight and a half year mortality follow-up investigation. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 29(1):27-35.
Rimola, A., et al.
1984 Reticuloendothelial system phagocytic activity in cirrhosis and its relation to bacterial infections and prognosis. Hepatology 4(1):53-8.
Rodin, G. M., and D. Daneman
1992 Eating disorders and IDDM. A problematic association. Diabetes Care 15(10):1402-12.
Ronald, A.
2003 The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens. Dis Mon 49(2):71-82.
Roos, V., E. M. Nielsen, and P. Klemm
2006 Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains: adhesins, growth and competition. FEMS Microbiol Lett 262(1):22-30.
Rosolowsky, E. T., et al.
2011 Risk for ESRD in type 1 diabetes remains high despite renoprotection. J Am Soc Nephrol 22(3):545-53.
Rotellar, C., et al.
1991 Ten years' experience with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 17(2):158-64.
Ruckdeschel, K., et al.
2001 Yersinia outer protein P of Yersinia enterocolitica simultaneously blocks the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway and exploits lipopolysaccharide signaling to trigger apoptosis in macrophages. J Immunol 166(3):1823-31.
Russo, T. A., et al.
1995 Chromosomal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Escherichia coli strains causing recurrent urinary tract infections in young women. J Infect Dis 172(2):440-5.
Samuelsson, P., et al.
2004 Toll-like receptor 4 expression and cytokine responses in the human urinary tract mucosa. Infect Immun 72(6):3179-86.
Sandhu, A., and S. Zheng
A case report of expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 32(2):229-30.
Sansonetti, P.
2001 Phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens: implications in the host response. Semin Immunol 13(6):381-90.
Schaubel, D. E., P. G. Blake, and S. S. Fenton
2001 Trends in CAPD technique failure: Canada, 1981-1997. Perit Dial Int 21(4):365-71.
Schilling, J. D., et al.
2003a Toll-like receptor 4 on stromal and hematopoietic cells mediates innate resistance to uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(7):4203-8.
Schilling, J. D., et al.
2003b CD14- and Toll-like receptor-dependent activation of bladder epithelial cells by lipopolysaccharide and type 1 piliated Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 71(3):1470-80.
Schilling, J. D., et al.
2001 Bacterial invasion augments epithelial cytokine responses to Escherichia coli through a lipopolysaccharide-dependent mechanism. J Immunol 166(2):1148-55.
Schlager, T. A., et al.
2002 Clonal diversity of Escherichia coli colonizing stools and urinary tracts of young girls. Infect Immun 70(3):1225-9.
Secrest, A. M., et al.
2010 All-cause mortality trends in a large population-based cohort with long-standing childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: the Allegheny County type 1 diabetes registry. Diabetes Care 33(12):2573-9.
Seeto, R. K., and D. C. Rockey
1996 Pyogenic liver abscess. Changes in etiology, management, and outcome. Medicine (Baltimore) 75(2):99-113.
Shankar, A., et al.
2007 Association between glycosylated hemoglobin level and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes. Am J Epidemiol 166(4):393-402.
Shen, S. X., et al.
1996 The incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in urban districts of Shanghai (1989-1993). J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 9(4):469-73.
Sherlock, Shiela, and James Dooley
2008 Diseases of the liver and biliary system: John Wiley & Sons.
Simoons-Smit, A. M., A. M. Verweij-van Vught, and D. M. MacLaren
1986 The role of K antigens as virulence factors in Klebsiella. J Med Microbiol 21(2):133-7.
Skrivarhaug, T., et al.
2006 Long-term mortality in a nationwide cohort of childhood-onset type 1 diabetic patients in Norway. Diabetologia 49(2):298-305.
Stahlhut, S. G., et al.
2009 Population variability of the FimH type 1 fimbrial adhesin in Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 191(6):1941-50.
Stamm, W. E., et al.
1989 Urinary tract infections: from pathogenesis to treatment. J Infect Dis 159(3):400-6.
Stephens, G. W., et al.
1990 Racial differences in the incidence of end-stage renal disease in types I and II diabetes mellitus. Am J Kidney Dis 15(6):562-7.
Struve, C., M. Bojer, and K. A. Krogfelt
2008 Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 1 fimbriae by detection of phase variation during colonization and infection and impact on virulence. Infect Immun 76(9):4055-65.
Struve, C., et al.
2005 Investigation of the putative virulence gene magA in a worldwide collection of 495 Klebsiella isolates: magA is restricted to the gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule serotype K1. J Med Microbiol 54(Pt 11):1111-3.
Svanborg, C., G. Godaly, and M. Hedlund
1999 Cytokine responses during mucosal infections: role in disease pathogenesis and host defence. Curr Opin Microbiol 2(1):99-105.
Szeto, C. C., et al.
2002 Feasibility of resuming peritoneal dialysis after severe peritonitis and Tenckhoff catheter removal. J Am Soc Nephrol 13(4):1040-5.
Szeto, C. C., et al.
2006 Enterobacteriaceae peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis: a review of 210 consecutive cases. Kidney Int 69(7):1245-52.
Szeto, C. C., et al.
2005 Change in bacterial aetiology of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis over 10 years: experience from a centre in South-East Asia. Clin Microbiol Infect 11(10):837-9.
Szeto, C. C., et al.
2003 Are peritoneal dialysis patients with and without residual renal function equivalent for survival study? Insight from a retrospective review of the cause of death. Nephrol Dial Transplant 18(5):977-82.
Szeto, C. C., et al.
2000 Importance of dialysis adequacy in mortality and morbidity of chinese CAPD patients. Kidney Int 58(1):400-7.
Tan, H. F., et al.
2005 Accessibility assessment of the Health Care Improvement Program in rural Taiwan. J Rural Health 21(4):372-7.
Tang, G. L., et al.
2005 The effect of gradual or acute arterial occlusion on skeletal muscle blood flow, arteriogenesis, and inflammation in rat hindlimb ischemia. J Vasc Surg 41(2):312-20.
Tarkkanen, A. M., et al.
1990 Type V collagen as the target for type-3 fimbriae, enterobacterial adherence organelles. Mol Microbiol 4(8):1353-61.
Tarkkanen, A. M., et al.
1997 Binding of the type 3 fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae to human endothelial and urinary bladder cells. Infect Immun 65(4):1546-9.
Tato, C. M., and C. A. Hunter
2002 Host-pathogen interactions: subversion and utilization of the NF-kappa B pathway during infection. Infect Immun 70(7):3311-7.
Thodis, E., et al.
2001 Peritoneal dialysis: better than, equal to, or worse than hemodialysis? Data worth knowing before choosing a dialysis modality. Perit Dial Int 21(1):25-35.
Thomsen, R. W., P. Jepsen, and H. T. Sorensen
2007 Diabetes mellitus and pyogenic liver abscess: risk and prognosis. Clin Infect Dis 44(9):1194-201.
Ting, W. H., et al.
2007 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: experience from a medical center. Acta Paediatr Taiwan 48(3):119-24.
Tranaeus, A., O. Heimburger, and B. Lindholm
1989 Peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD): diagnostic findings, therapeutic outcome and complications. Perit Dial Int 9(3):179-90.
Troidle, L., et al.
1998 Differing outcomes of gram-positive and gram-negative peritonitis. Am J Kidney Dis 32(4):623-8.
Tsai, F. C., et al.
2008 Pyogenic liver abscess as endemic disease, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis 14(10):1592-600.
Tsai, P. J., et al.
1998 Effect of group A streptococcal cysteine protease on invasion of epithelial cells. Infect Immun 66(4):1460-6.
Tsay, R. W., et al.
2002 Characteristics of bacteremia between community-acquired and nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae infection: risk factor for mortality and the impact of capsular serotypes as a herald for community-acquired infection. Arch Intern Med 162(9):1021-7.
Tseng, C. C., et al.
2001 Decreased predominance of papG class II allele in Escherichia coli strains isolated from adults with acute pyelonephritis and urinary tract abnormalities. J Urol 166(5):1643-6.
Tseng, C. C., et al.
2007 PapG II adhesin in the establishment and persistence of Escherichia coli infection in mouse kidneys. Kidney Int 71(8):764-70.
Tseng, C. C., et al.
2002 Roles of host and bacterial virulence factors in the development of upper urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli. Am J Kidney Dis 39(4):744-52.
Tseng, C. C., et al.
2005 Host and bacterial virulence factors predisposing to emphysematous pyelonephritis. Am J Kidney Dis 46(3):432-9.
Turck, M., K. N. Anderson, and R. G. Petersdorf
1966 Relapse and reinfection in chronic bacteriuria. N Engl J Med 275(2):70-3.
Usher-Smith, J. A., et al.
2012 Variation between countries in the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis at first presentation of type 1 diabetes in children: a systematic review. Diabetologia 55(11):2878-94.
Valdes-Sotomayor, J., et al.
2003 Increased severity of Escherichia coli peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients independent of changes in in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Perit Dial Int 23(5):450-5.
Vas, S.
2000 Changing picture of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 36(5):1057-8.
Vas, S. I.
1984 Etiology and treatment of peritonitis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 30:682-4.
Vonesh, E. F., and J. Moran
1999 Mortality in end-stage renal disease: a reassessment of differences between patients treated with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 10(2):354-65.
Vosti, K. L.
2007 A prospective, longitudinal study of the behavior of serologically classified isolates of Escherichia coli in women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Infect 55(1):8-18.
Wang, J. H., et al.
1998 Primary liver abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan. Clin Infect Dis 26(6):1434-8.
Wei, J. N., et al.
2003 National surveillance for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children. JAMA 290(10):1345-50.
Wen, C. P., et al.
2008 All-cause mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study based on 462 293 adults in Taiwan. Lancet 371(9631):2173-82.
Wiselka, MJ
1996 Infections of the Kidney and Urinary Tract.:pp 1597-1654.
Yang, C. C., et al.
2004 Comparison of pyogenic liver abscess caused by non-Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 37(3):176-84.
Yeh, K. M., et al.
2007 Capsular serotype K1 or K2, rather than magA and rmpA, is a major virulence determinant for Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess in Singapore and Taiwan. J Clin Microbiol 45(2):466-71.
Yu, S. C., et al.
2004 Treatment of pyogenic liver abscess: prospective randomized comparison of catheter drainage and needle aspiration. Hepatology 39(4):932-8.
Yu, V. L., et al.
2007a Virulence characteristics of Klebsiella and clinical manifestations of K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections. Emerg Infect Dis 13(7):986-93.
Yu, W. L., et al.
2007b Polymerase chain reaction analysis for detecting capsule serotypes K1 and K2 of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing abscesses of the liver and other sites. J Infect Dis 195(8):1235-6; author reply 1236.
Yu, W. L., et al.
2006 Association between rmpA and magA genes and clinical syndromes caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan. Clin Infect Dis 42(10):1351-8.
Zelenitsky, S., et al.
2000 Analysis of microbiological trends in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis from 1991 to 1998. Am J Kidney Dis 36(5):1009-13.


論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-09-30起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-09-30起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw