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系統識別號 U0026-1308201421250500
論文名稱(中文) 通風安全帽散熱效果之研究
論文名稱(英文) The study of cooling effect for a ventilation helmet
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics (on the job class)
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 杜晏臣
研究生(英文) Yen-Chen Tu
學號 P47011053
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 65頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳世雄
口試委員-陳建霖
口試委員-陳志超
中文關鍵字 安全帽  散熱  通風  風洞測試 
英文關鍵字 ventilation  helmet  cooling  wind tunnel testing 
學科別分類
中文摘要 機車安全帽的密不通風造成騎士的不舒服一直是個機車騎士頭痛的問題,本研究主要以實驗方式探討一個改良的通風安全帽散熱的能力,在機車行進中將氣流導入新設計通風安全帽內部之降溫效果。試驗方式是設置一組人頭模型,其內部均勻繞線圈再供應穩定電源以模擬人體的自然發熱,再安裝上安全帽以試驗風洞給予定數風速,分別測試內部降溫情況與散熱效果。加熱瓦數共分成四組2W、4W、6W、10W,風速分成四組0km/h、20km/h、40km/h、60km/h,先以風速0km/h測試無風速時不同瓦數下的溫度分佈,再以其溫度分佈延續試驗以20km/h、40km/h、60km/h風速下分別測量新式通風安全帽與傳統安全帽之降溫效果。試驗結果在0km/h風速下新式通風安全帽與傳統安全帽無明顯降溫差別,當風速提高時傳統安全帽溫差無明顯降溫,新式通風安全帽則是風速越大,降溫效果越明顯,且在風速較低時會有較大的溫降,以發熱功率3W在T3a點為例,當風速從0加速到20km/h時可降溫達7.16℃,當風速再由20km/h加速至40km/h可降溫2.1℃,當風速從40km/h加速至60km/h可降溫1.3℃。
英文摘要 In Taiwan, helmet laws for motorcycle riders were officially implemented on June 1st, 1997. All riders and passengers are required to wear safety helmets when riding motorcycles. According to statistics (source from Bureau of Health Promotion), wearing safety helmets not only protect the riders, but also greatly reduces the risk of injury and death from traffic accidents.

To better understand helmet use in Taiwan, the Institute of Transportation, Ministry of Transportation and Communications (1977) conducted a survey and found that helmet laws were supported and highly praised. However, inadequate ventilation and the inconvenience of carrying them are the main factors that influence people’s willingness to wear helmets.

Because Taiwan is located in a subtropical zone and the climate is hot and humid, most riders don't like to wear helmets. Due to inadequate ventilation and uncomfortableness, riders sweat a lot, especially in the summertime. Furthermore, helmets are perfect breeding grounds for bacteria because of the humidity in the storage compartment. Hence, it is liable to cause seborrheic dermatitis or illness resulting from improper cleansing.

To increase the willingness of wearing helmets, a new safety helmet is designed to improve the ventilation problem. With this new design, the wind will flow across the head to remove the heat.

This study investigated the ability of an improved ventilation cooling helmet by experimentation. Test mode is to set up a model of a head, wrap coil evenly on the inside, and then send a steady supply of power through it to mimic the body's natural heat. Then, install the helmet with a steady wind speed to test the internal cooling effect. Heating wattage is divided into four groups: 2W, 4W, 6W, and 10W. Wind speed is also divided into four groups; 0km/h, 20km/h, 40km/h, and 60km/h. The cooling effect of both the traditional helmet and the new ventilation helmet was tested by first testing the different wattages of temperature distribution at a wind speed of 0km/h, and then again at wind speeds of 20km/h, 40km/h, and 60km/h. The results of 0km/h wind speed showed no significant difference in cooling effects between the traditional and new ventilation helmets. However, as wind speeds became stronger, the traditional helmet still showed no significant cooling effect while the new ventilation helmet showed that the stronger the wind speed, the greater the cooling effect. Plus, lower wind speeds showed greater temperature drop. Take heating power 3W at T3a point as an example. When the wind speed accelerated from 0 to 20km/h, the temperature cooled down 7.16 ℃. When the wind speed accelerated from 20km/h to 40km/h, it cooled down 2.1 ℃. And when the wind speed accelerated from 40km/h to 60km/h, it cooled down 1.3 ℃.

The traditional helmet design mainly emphasized on safety, but there was no awareness for demanding ventilation. According to the study, the highest temperature could be increased by 20 degrees and reach up to 50℃, which can be very harmful to riders in the long run.

However, the new helmet design is featured with the cooling effect, no matter that the wind speed is 0km/h or 20km/h. With intake valves on helmets, riders can choose to close the valves to keep warm in winter or to open them to have better ventilation in summer. Also, compared with the wind speed at 0km/h, riders can feel the cooling effect more when the wind speed is 20km/h. Hence, this new design is very suitable for the riders in urban areas. The wind speed, in fact, is equal to the speed of the motorcycles. The heat can be easily reduced by air convection, which is indeed the most economic and simple method.

In the future, there are two things that can be further discussed and researched: to enhance the cooling performance and to verfiy the helmet structure. In fact, the design for air vents and air channels is a key factor that will have an effect on ventilation and cooling performances. This study did not research a better designm, but helmet structure design, such as air vent position, hole size, and rod materials and position, are recommended to be taken into consideration and modified in the future in order to improve the ventilation. Though it cannot be denied that the air vent’s design may possibly reduce protection to riders, the helmets with appropriate air vents have proven to still meet the requirements and also comform to the standard norm CNS 2396-Z2009. Moreover, the inner shell of traditional helmets are normally furnished with soft lining and sponges, which are at lower density to protect the head, whereas this study laid emphasis on ventilated helmets (utilizing rods which are at higher density). Hence, it will need the further verification between these two structures.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT I
誌謝 II
目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XII
符號說明 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 文獻回顧 1
1-3 內容概要 4
第二章 理論分析 5
2-1 新式安全帽通風設計 5
2-2 試驗方式 5
2-2-1 試驗模型製作 6
2-2-2 通風安全帽設計 6
2-2-3 測試參數設定 6
第三章 實驗設備與量測 8
3-1 測試平台架構 8
3-1-1 AMCA 210-85 標準風洞 8
3-1-2 試驗模型構造與安全帽安裝 9
3-2 實驗設備 9
3-3 實驗流程 10
3-3-1 無風速下升溫測試 10
3-3-2 有風速下降溫測試 11
第四章 結果與討論 12
4-1 無戴安全帽升溫測試 12
4-1-1 加熱功率 P= 10.0w,風速V=0 km/h 12
4-1-2 加熱功率 W= 6.0w,風速V=0 km/h 12
4-1-3 加熱功率 W= 4.0w,風速V=0 km/h 13
4-1-4 加熱功率W= 2.0w,風速V=0 km/h 13
4-2 傳統安全帽測試 13
4-2-1 加熱功率 W= 10.0w,風速V=0 km/h 14
4-2-2 加熱功率 W= 6.0w,風速V=0 km/h 14
4-2-3 加熱功率 W= 4.0w,風速V=0 km/h 14
4-2-4 加熱功率 W= 2.0w,風速V=0 km/h 14
4-2-5 加熱功率 W=10.0w,風速V=60 km/h 15
4-2-6 加熱功率 W=6.0w,風速V=60 km/h 15
4-2-7 加熱功率 W=4.0w ,風速V=60 km/h 15
4-2-8 加熱功率 W=2.0w ,風速V=60 km/h 16
4-3 新式通風安全帽測試 16
4-3-1 加熱功率 W= 10.0w,風速V=0 km/h 17
4-3-2 加熱功率 W= 6.0w,風速V=0 km/h 17
4-3-3 加熱功率 W= 4.0w,風速V=0 km/h 17
4-3-4 加熱功率 W= 2.0w,風速V=0 km/h 17
4-3-5 加熱功率 W= 10.0w,風速V=20 km/h 18
4-3-6 加熱功率 W= 6.0w,風速V=20 km/h 18
4-3-7 加熱功率 W= 4.0w,風速V=20 km/h 18
4-3-8 加熱功率 W= 2.0w,風速V=20 km/h 19
4-3-9 加熱功率 W= 10.0w,風速V=40 km/h 19
4-3-10 加熱功率 W= 6.0w,風速V=40 km/h 19
4-3-11 加熱功率 W= 4.0w,風速V=40 km/h 20
4-3-12 加熱功率 W= 2.0w,風速V=40 km/h 20
4-3-13 加熱功率 W= 10.0w,風速V=60 km/h 20
4-3-14 加熱功率 W= 6.0w,風速V=60 km/h 21
4-3-15 加熱功率 W= 4.0w,風速V=60 km/h 21
4-3-16 加熱功率 W= 2.0w,風速V=60 km/h 21
4-4 試驗結果與討論 22
4-4-1 試驗模型與真實人體的差異 22
4-4-2 傳統安全帽的散熱特性 23
4-4-3 新式通風安全帽的散熱特性 23
第五章 結論 25
5-1 綜合討論 25
5-2 未來工作及建議 26
參考文獻 27
附錄 29
參考文獻 1. 蔡益堅、王榮德,“台北市機車使用者戴安全帽對預防頭部外傷效果分析",台大公共衛生研究所碩士論文,1990
2. 中華民國國家標準CNS 2396,Z2009“騎乘機車用防護頭盔",2007 年5 月14日修訂公佈。
3. 顏重岳,“機車安全帽之有限元素動態模擬",國立陽明大學醫學工程研究所 碩士論文,1995。
4. 王秋華,“機車安全帽護顎之有限元素分析",國立成功大學醫學工程研究所 碩士論文,1998。
5. Liu, X., Holmer, I., 1995. Evaporative heat transfer characteristics of industral safety helmets. Applied Ergonomics 26(2), 135-140.
6. Hsu, Y.L., Tai, C.Y., Chen, T.C., 1999. Improving thermal Properties of industrial safety helmets. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 26, 109-117.
7. ASHRAE, Thermal Comfort, ASHRAE handbook Fundamental, ASHRAE(1997).
8. 周文生、陳惠堂“騎乘機車強制戴安全帽之成效分析",警學叢刊;29﹝5﹞185-202,1999。
9. 張嘉原,“建立耦合式衝擊模型以研究機車頭盔的保護效果",國立中正大學機械工程研究所 碩士論文,1999。
10. 林豐福,“機車駕駛行為與事故風險評估",交通運輸研究所,2003。
11. 劉宗韶,“散熱系統應用於安全帽之人因評估",國立成功大學工業設計學系研究所碩士論文,2008.6月.
12. 王啟川,“熱交換器設計”,五南出版社,2003.
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