||Understanding Knowledge Sharing in Open Source Software Project community: Perspectives of Individual Motivation, Virtual Community and Virtual Team
||Understanding Knowledge Sharing in Open Source Software Project community: Perspectives of Individual Motivation, Virtual Community and Virtual Team
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)
||Ha Quang An
Nowadays, Open Source Software (OSS) is widely used and plays a crucial role in the software industry. OSS development is a knowledge-intensive activity that requires very high levels of domain knowledge and needs to maintain the knowledge sharing environment. OSS project develop by the contribution of OSS members on its virtual community where every member can communicate and develop software together. To create new open source software needs the motivation of all members, the resources embedded in the relationship in community and the coordination of members as a virtual team to complete the OSS tasks. This study focused on the knowledge sharing in the OSS project community under the individual motivation, virtual community and virtual team perspectives. We analyzed 304 surveys collected from OSS communities and found that the extrinsic motivation, some perspectives of virtual community such as social interaction, identification and perspective of virtual team – team cognition have a direct impact on knowledge sharing of OSS project community. The study found that all the perspectives of virtual community have a significant impact on team cognition, and therefore have indirect effect on the knowledge sharing in OSS. Moreover, our results indicated that knowledge sharing has a significant impact on project performance. Implications for theory building, practical management and future research are also discussed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES IX
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation. 1
1.2 Objective of the Study. 5
1.3 Scope of the Study. 6
1.4 The Organization of the Study. 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Open-Source Software Project Community. 8
2.1.1 Open Source Software Project. 8
2.1.2 Open-Source Software Community as a Virtual Community. 10
2.1.3 Open-Source Software Community as a Virtual Team. 11
2.1.4 OSS Project Performance. 12
2.2 Knowledge Sharing. 12
2.2.1 Definition of Knowledge Sharing. 12
2.2.2 Knowledge Sharing in OSS Community. 14
2.2.3 Knowledge Sharing Barriers in OSS Project. 15
2.3 Individual Motivation. 18
2.4 Social Capital in Virtual Community. 20
2.4.1 Definition of Social Capital. 20
2.4.2 Structural Dimension: Social Interaction. 21
2.4.3 Relational Dimension: Trust and Identification. 21
2.4.4 Cognitive Dimension: Shared Vision. 22
2.5 Team Cognition. 23
2.6 Hypotheses Development. 24
2.6.1 The Influence of Individual Motivation on Knowledge Sharing. 24
2.6.2 The Influence of Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing in OSS Community Setting. 26
2.6.3 The Influence of Team Cognition on Knowledge Sharing. 29
2.6.4 The Influence of Social Capital in OSS Community on Team Cognition. 30
2.6.5 The Influence of Knowledge Sharing on OSS Performance. 32
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 34
3.1 Research Model. 34
3.2 Hypotheses to be Tested. 35
3.3 Constructs Measurements. 35
3.3.1 Individual Motivations. 35
3.3.2 Social Capital. 37
3.3.3 Team Cognition. 38
3.3.4 Knowledge Sharing. 38
3.3.5 OSS Project Performance. 39
3.3.6 Control Variables. 40
3.4 Sample Plan and Data Collection. 40
3.5 Data Analysis Procedure. 41
3.5.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis. 41
3.5.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 41
3.5.3 Structural Equation Model (SEM). 42
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 44
4.1 Descriptive Analysis. 44
4.1.1 Data Collection. 44
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents. 45
4.1.3 Measurement Results for Relevant Research Variables. 46
4.2 Common Method Bias Test 49
4.3 Reliability and Validation Test. 51
4.4 Structural Equation Model (SEM). 56
4.5 Analysis of Variance. 61
4.5.1 T-test Analysis for Gender and Marital Status. 61
4.5.2 One-way ANOVA of Age. 62
4.5.3 One-way ANOVA of Experience in Participating OSS Project. 63
4.5.4 One-way ANOVA of Nationality. 63
4.5.5 One-way ANOVA of OSS Community Size. 64
4.5.6 One-way ANOVA of OSS Project Ages. 65
4.5.7 One-way ANOVA of OSS Category. 66
4.6 Testing the Role of Team Cognition as Mediator in Unsupported Hypothesis. 67
4.7 The Survey Result of Knowledge Barriers to Knowledge Sharing in OSS Community. 68
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 72
5.1 Research Conclusions. 72
5.2 Research Implications. 75
5.2.1 Theoretical Implication. 75
5.2.2 Managerial Implication. 76
5.3 Research Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research. 77
APPENDICE A 85
APPENDICE B 94
Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S.-W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. The Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17-40.
Ale Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S., & Taha, Z. (2009). Virtual R&D teams in small and medium enterprises: A literature review. Scientific Research and Essays, 4(13), 25.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Dholakia, U. M. (2002). Intentional social action in virtual communities. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 16(2), 2-21.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Youjae Yi. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
Bagozzi, R. P. Y., Youjae. (1990). Assessing method variance in multitrait-multimethod matrices: The case of self-reported affect and perceptions at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(5), 13.
Bitzer, J., Schrettl, W., & Schroder, P. J. H. (2007). Intrinsic motivation in open source software development. Journal of Comparative Economics, 35(1), 160.
Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life: New York: Wiley.
Bock, G.-W., Zmud, R. W., Kim, Y.-G., & Lee, J.-N. (2005). Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 87-111.
Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (pp. 241-258).
Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Salas, E., & Converse, S. (1993). Shared mental models in expert team decision making. In Current issues in individual and group decision making (pp. 221-246). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Chang, H. H., & Chuang, S.-S. (2011). Social capital and individual motivations on knowledge sharing: Participant involvement as a moderator. Information & Management, 48(1), 9-18.
Chiu, C.-M., Hsu, M.-H., & Wang, E. T. G. (2006). Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision Support Systems, 42(3), 1872-1888.
Cooke, N., Salas, E., Kiekel, P., & Bell, B. (2004). Advances in measuring team cognition. In E. Salas & S. Fiore (Eds.), Team cognition: Understanding the factors that drive process and performance (pp. 83-106). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Crowston, K., Li, Q., Wei, K., Eseryel, U. Y., & Howison, J. (2007). Self-organization of teams for free/libre open source software development. Information & Software Technology, 49(6), 564.
Cummings, J. N. (2004). Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization. Management Science, 50(3), 352-364.
Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Dirks, K. T. (1999). The effects of interpersonal trust on work group performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 84.
Fan, X., Thompson, B., & Wang, L. (1999). Effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit indexes. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 56-83.
Faraj, S., & Sproull, L. (2000). Coordinating expertise in software development teams. Management Science, 46(12), 1554-1568.
Fiore, S. M., & Salas, E. (2004). Why we need team cognition. In Team cognition: Understanding the factors that drive process and performance (pp. 235-248). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.): Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Hall, H., & Graham, D. (2004). Creation and recreation: Motivating collaboration to generate knowledge capital in online communities. International Journal of Information Management, 24(3), 235-246.
Hars, A., & Qu, S. (2002). Working for free? Motivations for participating in open-source projects. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6(3), 25.
He, J., Butler, B., & King, W. (2007). Team cognition: Development and evolution in software project teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24(2), 261-292.
Hertel, G., Niedner, S., & Herrmann, S. (2003). Motivation of software developers in open source projects: An internet-based survey of contributors to the Linux kernel. Research Policy, 32(7), 1159.
Hoegl, M., & Gemuenden, H. (2001). Teamwork quality and the success of innovative projects: A theoretical concept and empirical evidence. Organization Science, 12(4), 435-449.
Hof, R. D., Browder, S., & Elstrom, P. (1997). Internet communities. BusinessWeek European Edition, 9.
Hsu, J. S. C., Chang, J. Y. T., Klein, G., & Jiang, J. J. (2011). Exploring the impact of team mental models on information utilization and project performance in system development. International Journal of Project Management, 29(1), 1-12.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling. Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 76-99). London Sage.
Hung, S.-Y., Durcikova, A., Lai, H.-M., & Lin, W.-M. (2011). The influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on individuals' knowledge sharing behavior. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69(6), 415-427.
Kanawattanachai, P., & Yoo, Y. (2007). The impact of knowledge coordination on virtual team performance over time. MIS Quarterly, 31, 783-808.
Kankanhalli, A., Tan, B. C. Y., & Wei, K.-k. (2005). Contributing knowledge to electronic knowledge repositories: An empirical investigation MIS Quarterly, 29, 30.
Kraut, R., & Streeter, L. (1995). Coordination in software development. Commun. ACM, 38(3), 69-81.
Krogh, G. V., & Grand, S. (2002). From economic theory toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge(Oxford University Press), 163-164.
Lacobucci, D., Saldanha, N., & Deng, X. (2007). A Meditation on Mediation: Evidence That Structural Equations Models Perform Better Than Regressions. Journal of Consumer Psychology (Elsevier Science), 17(2), 140.
Lanzara, G. F., & Morner, M. (2003). The knowledge ecology of open-source software projects Paper presented at the 19 th EGOS Colloquium.
Li, L. (2005). The effects of trust and shared vision on inward knowledge transfer in subsidiaries’ intra- and inter-organizational relationships. International Business Review, 14(1), 77-95.
Lin, C., Wu, J.-C., & Yen, D. C. (2012). Exploring barriers to knowledge flow at different knowledge management maturity stages. Information & Management, 49(1), 10-23.
Lin, N. (1999). Building a network theory of social capital. Connections, 22(1), 28-51.
Ljungberg, J. (2000). Open source movements as a model for organizing. European Journal of Information Systems, 9(4).
MacKinnon, D. P., Warsi, G., & Dwyer, J. H. (1995). A simulation study of mediated effect measures. Multivariate Behaviour Research, 30(1), 41.
MacMillan, J., Entin, E. E. S., Daniel, & Salas, E. F., Stephen M. (2004). Communication overhead: The hidden cost of team cognition. In Team cognition: Understanding the factors that drive process and performance (pp. 61-82): American Psychological Association.
Marques, D. V., Cardoso, L., & Zappalá, S. (2008). Knowledge sharing networks and performance. Comportamento Organizacional e Gestão, 14(2), 161-192.
Mathieu, J., Heffner, T., Goodwin, G., Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. (2000). The influence of shared mental models on team process and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(2), 273-283.
McAllister, D. J. (1995). Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. The Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 24-59.
McNeish, J., & Mann, I. J. S. (2010). Knowledge sharing and trust in organizations. IUP Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(1/2), 18-38.
Méndez-Durón, R., & García, C. (2009). Returns from social capital in open source software networks. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 19(2), 277-295.
Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. The Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242-266.
Nelson, K. M., & Cooprider, J. G. (1996). The contribution of shared knowledge to IS group performance. MIS Quarterly, 20(4), 409-432.
Nonaka, & Takeushi. (1995). The knowledge-creating company. New York.
Open Source Initiative. (2011). The open source definition. Retrieved Feb 20 2012, from http://opensource.org/docs/osd
Parke, P. M. (2011). The 2011-2016 world outlook for standalone open-source software. World Outlook Reports, 201.
Pearsall, M., Ellis, A., & Bell, B. (2010). Building the infrastructure: The effects of role identification behaviors on team cognition development and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 192-200.
Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.
Popadiuk, S., & Choo, C. W. (2006). Innovation and knowledge creation: How are these concepts related? International Journal of Information Management, 26(4), 302-312.
Powell, A., Piccoli, G., & Ives, B. (2004). Virtual teams: a review of current literature and directions for future research. SIGMIS Database, 35(1), 6-36.
Putnam, R. (1995). Tuning in, tuning out: The strange disappearance of social capital in America. PS: Political Science and Politics, 28(4), 664-683.
Raymond, E. S. (1999). The Cathedral and the Bazaar: O'Reilly Media.
Reisinger, Y., & Turner, L. (1999). Structural equation modeling with Lisrel: application in tourism. Tourism Management, 20(1), 71-88.
Rheingold, H. (1993). The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Riege, A. (2005). Three-dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(3), 17.
Roberts, J. A., Il-Horn, H., & Slaughter, S. A. (2006). Understanding the motivations, participation, and performance of open source software developers: A longitudinal study of the Apache projects. Management Science, 52(7), 984.
Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization (1st ed.): Doubleday/Currency.
Sowe, S. K., Stamelos, I., & Angelis, L. (2008). Understanding knowledge sharing activities in free/open source software projects: An empirical study. Journal of Systems and Software, 81(3), 431-446.
SPSS Inc. (2007). PASW Statistics Base 17.0 User’s Guide: SPSS Inc.
Stewart, K. J., & Gosain, S. (2006). The impact of ideology on effectiveness in open source software development teams. MIS Quarterly, 30(2), 291.
Subramanian, A. M., & Pek-Hooi, S. (2008). Knowledge Integration and Effectiveness of Open Source Software Development Projects. IIMB Management Review (Indian Institute of Management Bangalore), 20(2), 139-148.
Toral, S. L., Martínez-Torres, M. R., & Barrero, F. (2010). Analysis of virtual communities supporting OSS projects using social network analysis. Information and Software Technology, 52(3), 296-303.
Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. The Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464-476.
Turner, J. C., & Oakes, P. J. (1986). The significance of the social identity concept for social psychology with reference to individualism, interactionism and social influence. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25(3), 237-252.
Usoro, A., Sharratt, M. W., Tsui, E., & Shekhar, S. (2007). Trust as an antecedent to knowledge sharing in virtual communities of practice. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 5(3), 199-212.
von Hippel, E., & von Krogh, G. (2003). Open source software and the “private-collective” innovation model: Issues for organization science. Organization Science, 14(2), 209-223.
von Krogh, G., Spaeth, S., & Lakhani, K. R. (2003). Community, joining, and specialization in open source software innovation: A case study. Research Policy, 32(7), 1217.
Walz, D. B., Elam, J. J., & Curtis, B. (1993). Inside a software design team: knowledge acquisition, sharing, and integration. Communication of ACM, 36(10), 63-77.
Wang, J. (2012). Survival factors for free Open Source Software projects: A multi-stage perspective. European Management Journal(0).
Wasko, M. M., & Faraj, S. (2005). Why should I share? Examining social capital and knowledge contribution in electronic networks of practice. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 35-57.
Wegner, D. M. (1995). A computer network model of human transactive memory. Social Cognition, 13, 1-21.