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系統識別號 U0026-1307202000185800
論文名稱(中文) 以學習動機模式與認知負載理論探討在行動遊戲式學習系統中形成性評估對學習者學習成效之影響
論文名稱(英文) Based on Learning Motivation Model and Cognitive Load Theory to Explore the Effects of Formative Assessment on Learners' Academic Achievement in Mobile Game-Based Learning System
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Information Management
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 黃雯歆
研究生(英文) Wen-Hsin Huang
學號 R76074137
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 157頁
口試委員 指導教授-王維聰
口試委員-陳信宏
口試委員-林彣珊
中文關鍵字 行動遊戲式學習  遊戲品質  形成性評估  學習動機  認知負載  學習成效 
英文關鍵字 Mobile game-based learning  Game quality  Formative assessment  ARCS motivation model  Cognitive load theory  Learning effectiveness 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著資訊科技的進步,行動遊戲式學習成為近來研究發展的趨勢。行動學習加入創新的遊戲元素,使得教學活動不再單調、無趣,更因不受時間以及地點影響,得以作為行動網路服務應用在教育領域中的解決辦法。然而,行動遊戲式學習的環境容易因遊戲互動性和教材設計的元素增加,造成個體認知運作上的負擔,或是受遊戲設計的方式影響到學習者的學習動機。故本研究將深入探討學習動機模式和認知負載理論之間的關聯,以解釋影響學習成效最重要的因素,並且在行動遊戲式學習系統中加入形成性評估,來進一步觀察不同遊戲元素的組成其遊戲品質對學習者學習動機、認知負載以及學習成效之影響。
本研究以系統分析與設計課程中的資料流程圖作為行動遊戲式學習的單元,確認受試者符合實驗對象後進行分組,操弄變項為形成性評估。兩組受試者在實驗過程中需配戴可攜式腦波儀,以客觀的生理訊號測量受試者學習時的注意力程度。共回收130份有效問卷,透過結構方程模型進行資料分析與驗證。
研究結果顯示遊戲品質會正向影響學習動機各構面,而滿足感是影響認知負載最重要的因素,相關性則最無影響。自信心與增生認知負載會正向影響學習成效,外在認知負載則會負向影響學習成效。雖然遊戲品質會受到形成性評估影響,但對兩組別之間的學習成效並無顯著影響。因此,無論測驗題目是否需要重複填答,學習者均能從作答正確與否的回饋中學到知識。根據研究結果,本研究認為若要提升學習成效,必須從激發學習動機開始,透過有趣的遊戲設計吸引學習者的注意力,而學習過程中產生的自信心與滿足感能促進其認知活動,進而達到更好的學習效果。此外,由腦波資料的分析結果可知,注意力高的學生所獲得的實際測驗成績也較高,符合學習動機對學習成效有正向影響的解釋。最後,本研究結果將提供教學者和系統開發者建議與參考,用以提升學習者對行動網路學習之使用率。
英文摘要 Through the mobility of smart devices and interactive elements of games, mobile game-based learning (MGBL) offers students for ubiquitous learning with game design features that may enhance motivation. However, due to the complexity of game elements, it may have negative effects on students’ cognitive process and thus influence their learning performance. Therefore, this study will investigate how the game design quality impacts learning effectiveness based on learning motivation model and cognitive load theory. In other words, we will investigate the effects of motivational factors such as attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction on learners’ extraneous and germane cognitive load.
This study used a survey research approach with system implementation to validate related hypotheses and theories. Participants were categorized into two groups, the experimental group learned with the MGBL system, while the control group learned with the same MGBL system without formative assessment. Data was collected from 130 students who experienced the system and completed questionnaires. SPSS and SmartPLS were adopted to get a more detailed and extensive data.
The results reveal that game quality has a positive effect on motivational factors, and satisfaction has a positive effect on cognitive load. Both attention and confidence positively affect germane cognitive load. Moreover, confidence and germane cognitive load have positive effects on learning effectiveness. This study validates the relationship among constructs based on theoretical framework of learning motivation model. Therefore, we can conclude that a well-designed MGBL can enhance students’ motivation, confidence and learning effectiveness. Based on above analysis, suggestions for future MGBL studies will be elaborated in the paper.
論文目次 摘要 (Abstract)..I
Abstract..II
致謝 (Acknowledgments)..VI
目錄 (Table of Contents)..VII
表目錄 (List of Tables)..X
圖目錄 (List of Figures)..XII
第一章 緒論 (Introduction) 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 (Background and Motivation)..1
1.2 研究目的 (Research Purpose)..4
1.3 研究對象 (Participants)..5
1.4 研究流程 (Research Procedure)..6
第二章 文獻探討 (Literature Review)..7
2.1 行動遊戲式學習 (Mobile Game-based Learning)..7
2.1.1 遊戲品質的衡量..8
2.2 評估 (Assessment)..13
2.2.1 評估的分類..13
2.3 學習動機 (Learning Motivation)..18
2.3.1 ARCS動機模式..19
2.3.2 學習動機的衡量方式..21
2.4 認知負載理論 (Cognitive Load Theory, CLT) ..22
2.4.1 個體的認知結構 (Human Cognitive Architecture) ..22
2.4.2 認知負載的種類 (Categories of Cognitive Load) ..23
2.4.3 認知負載的評估方式 (Measuring Cognitive Load) ..26
2.5 學習成效 (Learning Effectiveness)..29
2.6 小結..32
第三章 研究方法 (Research Method)..35
3.1 研究架構 (Research Framework)..35
3.2 研究假說 (Research Hypotheses)..37
3.2.1 遊戲品質與學習動機..37
3.2.2 遊戲品質與認知負載..40
3.2.3 學習動機與認知負載及學習成效..41
3.2.4 認知負載與學習成效..45
3.3 實驗設計 (Experiment Design)..48
3.3.1 變項說明..49
3.3.2 實驗對象..50
3.3.3 實驗流程..51
3.3.4 實驗儀器..53
3.4 系統介紹 (Introduction to MGBL Systems)..56
3.4.1 系統架構..56
3.4.2 系統介面..60
3.5 問卷設計 (Questionnaire Design)..63
3.6 衡量變項 (Questionnaire Items)..64
3.6.1 遊戲品質 ..65
3.6.2 學習動機 ..67
3.6.3 認知負載 ..70
3.6.4 學習成效 ..71
3.7 前測與資料蒐集 (Measurement Tools)..73
3.7.1 前測..73
3.7.2 資料蒐集方式..79
3.8 資料分析方法 (Methodology)..80
第四章 資料分析 (Data Analysis)..83
4.1 敘述性統計 (Descriptive Statistics)..83
4.1.1 問卷回收狀況..83
4.1.2 基本資料之敘述性統計..84
4.1.3 研究變項之敘述性統計..87
4.1.4 研究變項之常態性檢定..93
4.2 結構方程模式 (Structural Equation Modeling) ..98
4.2.1 信度分析..98
4.2.2 效度分析..99
4.2.3 共線性診斷..107
4.3 結構方程模式模型及假說檢定 (SEM Measurement Model) ..108
4.3.1 假說驗證..108
4.3.2 路徑分析..109
4.4 研究分析與討論 (Discussion and Implications) ..112
4.4.1 學習動機..113
4.4.2 認知負載..114
4.4.3 學習成效..115
4.4.4 操弄檢定結果..117
第五章 結論 (Conclusion)..119
5.1 學術貢獻 (Contribution)..119
5.2 實務貢獻 (Implication for Practice)..120
5.2.1 理論與實務結合..120
5.2.2 實務應用建議..121
5.3 研究限制與未來研究方向 (Limitation and Future Work) ..123
5.3.1 研究限制..123
5.3.2 未來研究方向..124
參考文獻 (Reference)..126
附錄A 先驗知識與最終驗收題目..137
附錄B 正式問卷..139
附錄C 系統操作情境..147
附錄D 研究相關建議..156
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