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系統識別號 U0026-1307201718404500
論文名稱(中文) 兒童數位畫筆之直覺操作設計與評估
論文名稱(英文) Design and Evaluation of Intuitive Operation of Digital Brushes for Children
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 李岱樺
研究生(英文) Tai-Hua Lee
學號 P38971068
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 114頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳豐光
口試委員-宋同正
口試委員-林彥呈
口試委員-唐硯漁
口試委員-陳潔瑩
口試委員-蔡登傳
口試委員-洪郁修
口試委員-陳建旭
口試委員-賴新喜
中文關鍵字 兒童  繪圖  直覺操作  數位畫筆 
英文關鍵字 Children  Drawing  Intuitive Operation  Digital Brush 
學科別分類
中文摘要 電腦繪圖因能輕易的變化和修改,並有繪圖工具可嘗試許多特殊效果,因可提供不同的創意空間、幫助缺乏藝術創作信心的學童,可提升兒童的學習動機。
本研究的研究目的旨在運用直覺操作概念,進行數位畫筆的操作動作設計,提升兒童對於數位繪圖的使用意願與有趣性。透過傳統繪圖行為特徵,發展屬於兒童認知的直覺動作,讓兒童能更容易並更樂於使用電腦繪圖。
本研究探討族群為兒童(小學高年級),本研究先經過前期實驗,確定轉換後的直覺動作,設計在數位畫筆用以控制繪圖功能的可行性。接著有關直覺操作動作部分本研究進行兒童傳統繪圖工具使用觀察結果與設計師針對使用筆的動作腦力激盪結果,兩相結合歸納,由兒童繪圖老師調整修正為可使用的方案。針對繪圖功能與直覺動作之間的連結,請設計師進行問卷調查,產生所需使用的直覺式動作組合。接著本研究邀請13位兒童,進行數位畫筆直覺操作動作與觸控筆點選動作,績效評估與主觀評量。
實驗結果顯示1. 操作時間以粗細功能的傾斜和顏色功能的滑動具有較快的速度。2. 輸入績效部分,筆刷功能(按壓)-顏色功能(滑動),可讓兒童在繪圖過程中,達到較高的使用績效,其次則是筆刷功能(按壓)-粗細功能(角度傾斜)-顏色功能(旋轉)。3. 直覺式操作數位畫筆,在提升繪圖豐富度部分,優於觸控筆。4.兒童使用者主觀滿意度認為直覺式操作數位畫筆,在有趣性與持續使用意願部分,高於觸控筆。其中又以按壓、角度傾斜、旋轉,兒童使用者願意持續使用度較高。
根據研究結果,本研究發現 (1) 要減少功能控制時間可運用傾斜動作和滑動動作。(2)欲達到較佳直覺操控輸入績效可使用按壓動作、滑動動作。(3) 運用較大的姿勢特徵在直覺動作設計中,可大幅提高兒童在繪圖過程中的有趣性與持續使用意願。
英文摘要 Computer graphics allow easy changes and modifications and feature drawing tools with special effects. Because they provide various platforms of creative space, they can also help children who lack confidence in artistic creation to increase their learning motivation.
This study adopted the concept of intuitive operation to design the operational actions of a digital brush and so as to enhance the willingness and fun of using digital drawing by children. Based on the behavioral characteristics of traditional drawing, it developed intuitive actions exclusive for the cognition of children so that they would find it easier and happier to use a computer for drawing.
This study considered children (in the final grade of elementary school) as its subjects. First, it conducted a preliminary experiment to confirm the intuitive actions after conversion and designed the feasibility of using a digital brush to control the drawing function. In terms of the intuitive operation, it combined the observational results from the usage of traditional drawing tools for children and the brainstorming results of designers on the actions of brushes and discussed with the children’s art teachers and then corrected the combination results into a practical scheme. With respect to the connection between drawing functions and intuitive actions, designers were asked to fill out the questionnaire to conclude the desired intuitive action portfolio. Next, the study invited 13 children to use the digital brushes for intuitive operations and to click the touch pens and lastly conducted performance evaluation and subjective assessment.
The study found the following results. 1) In the part of operation time performance, the “thickness” function showed significance, and the tilt action was better than turning. As for the “color” function, sliding was better than rotation. 2) In the part of input performance, the brush function (pressing), color function (sliding) can make children achieve relatively high usage performance in the process of drawing, followed by the performance of brush function (pressing), thickness function (angle tilting), color function (rotating); 3) In the aspect of raising drawing richness, the digital brush’s intuitive operation was better than an icon click stylus; 4) The subjective satisfaction of children showed that the interestingness and continuance intention of the intuitive operation of the digital brush were higher than that of icon click stylus.
This study further discovered the following. 1) The tilt and sliding action can be applied to reduce the function control time; 2) The pressing and sliding action can be used to achieve better input performance of intuitive operation; and 3) Larger gesture features in the design can greatly improve the joy in the drawing process.
論文目次 摘要 ii
SUMMARY iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES xi
LIST OF PROPER NOUNS xii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xiii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Purpose 3
1.2 Research Scope 4
1.3 Research Process 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Psychology and Drawing by Children 6
2.1.1 Cognitive Development 6
2.1.2 Drawing Behavior 8
2.1.3 Computer Graphics 10
2.1.4 Summary 11
2.2 Studies on Creative Digital Drawing 13
2.2.1 Studies on Drawing Systems 13
2.2.2 Studies on Digital Brush 15
2.2.3 Summary 17
2.3 Intuitive Operation Concept 18
2.4 Ergonomic Evaluation Method 19
2.5 Summary 21
CHAPTER 3 METHOD AND PROCEDURE 24
3.1 Observation of Preliminary Experiment 24
3.1.1 Observation of Integrated Drawing Tools 24
3.1.1.1 Observation of Using Behavior 24
3.1.1.2 Results of Preliminary Observation 25
3.1.1.3 Summary 26
3.1.2 Design of Tools for the Preliminary Experiment 27
3.1.3 Preliminary Experiment Method 28
3.1.4 Discussion of the Results of the Preliminary Experiment 29
3.1.5 Definition of Follow-Up Experimental Objectives 30
3.2 Drawing System Functions 31
3.2.1 Expert Questionnaire Survey 32
3.2.2 Behavioral Observation of Computer-Aided Drawing 36
3.2.3 Summary 37
3.3 Design of Intuitive Actions 39
3.3.1 The Action Characteristics of Traditional Drawing Behavior 40
3.3.2 Design and Adjustment of Intuitive Actions 43
3.3.3 Evaluation of Intuitive Actions 46
3.4 Definition of Drawing Function and Intuitive Action 48
3.5 Experimental Design and Analysis 50
3.5.1 Participants 51
3.5.2 Environment and Equipment 51
3.5.3 Experimental Variables 52
3.5.4 Experimental Procedures 54
3.5.5 Measurements and Observations 59
3.6 Experimental System and Instrument 60
3.6.1 Experimental System 60
3.6.2 Experimental Instrument 61
3.6.2.1 Software Program 63
3.6.2.2 Operation Mode 64
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 66
4.1 Operation Time Performance 66
4.2 Input Performance 68
4.3 Drawing Richness 71
4.4 Subjective Evaluations 74
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 77
5.1 Operation Time Performance 77
5.2 Input Performance 78
5.3 Drawing Richness 79
5.4 Subjective Evaluations 81
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS 83
REFERENCES 85
APPENDIX 95
Preliminary Experiment - Subjective Assessment 95
Preliminary Experiment - Paired Sample T Test 96
The Expert Questionnaire Survey 97
Drawing Functions and Intuitive Actions - Questionnaire 99
Subjective Evaluations - Questionnaire 100
Operation Time Performance 101
Error Rate of Single Function 106
Completion Time of Integrated Function 108
Drawing Richness 110
Subjective Evaluations 112
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