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系統識別號 U0026-1306201608281000
論文名稱(中文) 歐盟與東協投資關係的政治經濟學分析: <歐盟 - 東協自由貿易協定>中外來直接投資(FDI)的自由化
論文名稱(英文) The Political Economy of EU Investment Relations with ASEAN: FDI Liberalization in the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 政治經濟研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Political Economy
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 閩納仇
研究生(英文) Ignacio Jose Minambres Garcia
學號 U18987036
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 288頁
口試委員 指導教授-宋鎮照
指導教授-顧長永
口試委員-蒙志成
召集委員-陳佩修
口試委員-戴萬平
口試委員-趙文志
中文關鍵字 外商直接投  自由貿易協定  地域性  遊說 
英文關鍵字 Foreign Direct Investment  Free Trade Agreement  Regionalism  Lobbying 
學科別分類
中文摘要 此論文針對大量已開發國家和發展中國家之間的外商直接投資的雙邊協定的一個難題進行討論。這也是為什麼是這麼多協議在簽署時,後續影響是很不明確的。因此,在2007年的全球金融危機的餘波後, 外商直接投資已經激增並且持續增加中。外商直接投資被認為投資自由化是一種理想的方式來增加外商直接投資的數量和收到的工業化生產能力,因而被視為是一個成功的配方發展,導致巨額的資金在正在全球範圍內流通。
但學術研究的專題研究描繪了一幅完全不同的景象。無論是外商直接投資始終保證提供其預期效果的情況,或是外商直接投資自由化為經濟體注入強心針,這兩者皆沒有達成。此外,更有可能產生有害的影響。簽訂協議,一定會減少發展中國家的政策空間。那麼為什麼這些協議的簽屬如此匆促呢?
為了找到這個問題的答案,我們在東南亞國家與歐盟之間正在進行的自由貿易協定的談判中,取了一個分析案例。雙方之間的關係顯示了歐盟ㄧ直有興趣打開東盟市場的跨國企業,成為一個趨勢在全球範圍放開貿易和投資的一部分。這一政策符合歐盟和東盟某些企業集團的利益。同時,當地社會反對這些利益相關者,並提倡反向思考。
我們發現,投資自由化和雙邊協定的決定是社會利益競爭去影響官方機構內政策制定者和他們的想法,以及和盟友之間複雜的相互作用的結果
英文摘要 This dissertation presents a puzzle with respect to the high numbers of bilateral agreements that liberalize foreign direct investment between developed and developing countries. This is the reasons why so many agreements are signed when their effects are far from clear. As it happens, FDI has surged in recent times and keeps rising in the aftermath of the 2007 global financial crisis. The huge amounts of capital being invested worldwide have been accompanied by a discourse that considers FDI as a successful recipe for development, and that considers liberalization of investment an ideal way to increase the amounts of FDI received and their industrializing capacity.
A study of academic research on the topic however paints a very different picture. Neither is FDI always guaranteed to provide with its desired effects, nor is liberalization a strong drive of FDI into an economy. Furthermore, both can have pernicious effects and signing agreements is certain to reduce the policy space of developing countries. Then why do the sign into these agreements with such abandon?
To find the answer to this question we take a study case in the ongoing negotiations of a free trade agreement between the European Union and Community of Southeast Asian Nations. A look at relations between the two blocks shows how the EU has been very interested to open markets in ASEAN to its multinational enterprises, as part of a general trend to liberalize both trade and investment at a global level. This policy is in line with the interests of certain corporate groups in the EU as well as ASEAN. Opposed to this groups are found other stakeholders grouped under the denomination of civil society, that advocate in the opposite direction. We find out that decisions of investment liberalization and bilateral agreements are the result of a complex interplay of social interests competing to influence policymakers and the strength of their ideas and allies within official institutions.
論文目次 Index i Abstract v
Acknowledgements vii
Figures and Tables ix
Acronyms xi
INTRODUCTION 1
PREFACE: Theoretical Background of FDI 13
I. Research objectives and structure 15
II. Definition and main theories of foreign direct nvestment 16
II.1 Definition 18
II.2 First studies on investment across borders 21
II.3 Theories of the multinational enterprise 26
II.3.1 Internalization and product cycle 26
II.3.2 The OLI paradigm 27
II.3.3 New trade theory 29
II.3.4 The institutional approach 31
III. Historical perspective of FDI 33
III.1 FDI flows 33
III.1.1 FDI as outflows 34
III.1.2 FDI as inflows 40
III.1.3 Mergers and acquisitions 44
III.2 FDI as stocks 46
III.2.1 Global FDI stocks 47
III.2.2 European Union FDI stocks 48
PART ONE
Development, FDI and investment liberalization 51
CHAPTER 1: Impact of FDI on Development 53
1.1 FDI attraction and development 54
1.2 Factors that determine the attraction of FDI. 56
1.2.1 Size of the destination market. 57
1.2.2 Cost of labor and natural resources 57
1.2.3 Human capital 58
1.2.4 Political stability and democratization 58
1.2.5 Infrastructures 59
1.2.6 Economic openness 59
1.3 Transmission effects of FDI on development 60
1.3.1 Increase in productivity 61
1.3 2 Stimulating investment 63
1.3.3 Stability of Balance of Payments 65
1.3.4 Increase in exports 66
1.3.5 Employment generation and higher wages 67
1.3.6 Environmental effects 69

CHAPTER 2: International Liberalization of Foreign Direct Investment 73
2.1 Multilateral investment liberalization 74
2.1.1 FDI liberalization and the WTO 76
2.1.2 The OECD and the MAI 79
2.1.3 The Doha Round and the end of multilateralism 80
2.2 Bilateral and regional liberalization of investment 82
2.2.1 The boom in BITs 85
2.2.2 The ISDS and the looming crisis of the BIT system 88

PART TWO
The European Union, ASEAN and North-South FDI 95
CHAPTER 3: The EU, North-South FDI and Liberalization 97
3.1 European investment in developing countries 97
3.1.1 European FDI in the ACP countries:The Lomé Agreement 99
3.1.2 The post-Lomé Era: The Cotonou Agreement 100
3.1.3 Analysis of FDI in EPAs: The EU-CARIFORUM agreement 103
3.1.4 EU investment liberalization in  non-ACP developing countries 105
3.2 The EU and FDI liberalization 108
3.2.1 From BITs to the Doha Round of WTO 108
3.2.2 Failure of multilateralism: new European strategy
towards developing countries 110
3.2.3 EU FTA negotiations after Global Europe 112
3.2.4 The regulatory framework of the EU before the Lisbon Treaty 115
3.2.5 The Lisbon Treaty era 116

CHAPTER 4: FDI in ASEAN 119
4.1 FDI into ASEAN: distribution and main actors 120
4.1.1 Development of ASEAN inward FDI until 2007 123
4.1.2 New developments in ASEAN FDI since 2007 125
4.2 Japan, the presence in ASEAN of the Asian regional leader 127
4.2.1 Japanese FDI and Southeast Asia 130
4.2.2 Japanese government’s promotion of investment in Asia 144

PART THREE
ASEAN the EU and the liberalization of FDI 155
CHAPTER 5: The EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement and Investment 157
5.1 EU-ASEAN Relations over time 157
5.2 The negotiations on the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement 167
5.2.1 Preliminary studies and reports 168
5.2.2 The EU Strategy in the FTA Negotiations with ASEAN 172
5.3 Investment in the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement 177
5.4 The EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement 180

CHAPTER 6: Agents and Networks in the EU-ASEAN FTA 187
6.1 A framework to study agency in investment liberalization 187
6.1.1 Theories of social agency 187
6.1.2 From interest groups to transnational interest networks 190
6.2 The initiators 193
6.2.1 Interest groups in the European Union 196
6.2.2 Lobbies and liberalization of trade and investment
in the EU 205
6.2.3 Transnational interest networks in the European Union 211
6.3 The modifiers 213
6.3.1 Public interest groups and networks across EU and ASEAN 215
6.3.2 Transnational networks and the EU-ASEAN FTA 226

CONCLUSIONS 239
BIBLIOGRAPHY 251
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