||歐盟與東協投資關係的政治經濟學分析: <歐盟 - 東協自由貿易協定>中外來直接投資(FDI)的自由化
||The Political Economy of EU Investment Relations with ASEAN: FDI Liberalization in the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement
||Graduate Institute of Political Economy
||Ignacio Jose Minambres Garcia
Foreign Direct Investment
Free Trade Agreement
This dissertation presents a puzzle with respect to the high numbers of bilateral agreements that liberalize foreign direct investment between developed and developing countries. This is the reasons why so many agreements are signed when their effects are far from clear. As it happens, FDI has surged in recent times and keeps rising in the aftermath of the 2007 global financial crisis. The huge amounts of capital being invested worldwide have been accompanied by a discourse that considers FDI as a successful recipe for development, and that considers liberalization of investment an ideal way to increase the amounts of FDI received and their industrializing capacity.
A study of academic research on the topic however paints a very different picture. Neither is FDI always guaranteed to provide with its desired effects, nor is liberalization a strong drive of FDI into an economy. Furthermore, both can have pernicious effects and signing agreements is certain to reduce the policy space of developing countries. Then why do the sign into these agreements with such abandon?
To find the answer to this question we take a study case in the ongoing negotiations of a free trade agreement between the European Union and Community of Southeast Asian Nations. A look at relations between the two blocks shows how the EU has been very interested to open markets in ASEAN to its multinational enterprises, as part of a general trend to liberalize both trade and investment at a global level. This policy is in line with the interests of certain corporate groups in the EU as well as ASEAN. Opposed to this groups are found other stakeholders grouped under the denomination of civil society, that advocate in the opposite direction. We find out that decisions of investment liberalization and bilateral agreements are the result of a complex interplay of social interests competing to influence policymakers and the strength of their ideas and allies within official institutions.
Index i Abstract v
Figures and Tables ix
PREFACE: Theoretical Background of FDI 13
I. Research objectives and structure 15
II. Definition and main theories of foreign direct nvestment 16
II.1 Definition 18
II.2 First studies on investment across borders 21
II.3 Theories of the multinational enterprise 26
II.3.1 Internalization and product cycle 26
II.3.2 The OLI paradigm 27
II.3.3 New trade theory 29
II.3.4 The institutional approach 31
III. Historical perspective of FDI 33
III.1 FDI flows 33
III.1.1 FDI as outflows 34
III.1.2 FDI as inflows 40
III.1.3 Mergers and acquisitions 44
III.2 FDI as stocks 46
III.2.1 Global FDI stocks 47
III.2.2 European Union FDI stocks 48
Development, FDI and investment liberalization 51
CHAPTER 1: Impact of FDI on Development 53
1.1 FDI attraction and development 54
1.2 Factors that determine the attraction of FDI. 56
1.2.1 Size of the destination market. 57
1.2.2 Cost of labor and natural resources 57
1.2.3 Human capital 58
1.2.4 Political stability and democratization 58
1.2.5 Infrastructures 59
1.2.6 Economic openness 59
1.3 Transmission effects of FDI on development 60
1.3.1 Increase in productivity 61
1.3 2 Stimulating investment 63
1.3.3 Stability of Balance of Payments 65
1.3.4 Increase in exports 66
1.3.5 Employment generation and higher wages 67
1.3.6 Environmental effects 69
CHAPTER 2: International Liberalization of Foreign Direct Investment 73
2.1 Multilateral investment liberalization 74
2.1.1 FDI liberalization and the WTO 76
2.1.2 The OECD and the MAI 79
2.1.3 The Doha Round and the end of multilateralism 80
2.2 Bilateral and regional liberalization of investment 82
2.2.1 The boom in BITs 85
2.2.2 The ISDS and the looming crisis of the BIT system 88
The European Union, ASEAN and North-South FDI 95
CHAPTER 3: The EU, North-South FDI and Liberalization 97
3.1 European investment in developing countries 97
3.1.1 European FDI in the ACP countries:The Lomé Agreement 99
3.1.2 The post-Lomé Era: The Cotonou Agreement 100
3.1.3 Analysis of FDI in EPAs: The EU-CARIFORUM agreement 103
3.1.4 EU investment liberalization in non-ACP developing countries 105
3.2 The EU and FDI liberalization 108
3.2.1 From BITs to the Doha Round of WTO 108
3.2.2 Failure of multilateralism: new European strategy
towards developing countries 110
3.2.3 EU FTA negotiations after Global Europe 112
3.2.4 The regulatory framework of the EU before the Lisbon Treaty 115
3.2.5 The Lisbon Treaty era 116
CHAPTER 4: FDI in ASEAN 119
4.1 FDI into ASEAN: distribution and main actors 120
4.1.1 Development of ASEAN inward FDI until 2007 123
4.1.2 New developments in ASEAN FDI since 2007 125
4.2 Japan, the presence in ASEAN of the Asian regional leader 127
4.2.1 Japanese FDI and Southeast Asia 130
4.2.2 Japanese government’s promotion of investment in Asia 144
ASEAN the EU and the liberalization of FDI 155
CHAPTER 5: The EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement and Investment 157
5.1 EU-ASEAN Relations over time 157
5.2 The negotiations on the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement 167
5.2.1 Preliminary studies and reports 168
5.2.2 The EU Strategy in the FTA Negotiations with ASEAN 172
5.3 Investment in the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement 177
5.4 The EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement 180
CHAPTER 6: Agents and Networks in the EU-ASEAN FTA 187
6.1 A framework to study agency in investment liberalization 187
6.1.1 Theories of social agency 187
6.1.2 From interest groups to transnational interest networks 190
6.2 The initiators 193
6.2.1 Interest groups in the European Union 196
6.2.2 Lobbies and liberalization of trade and investment
in the EU 205
6.2.3 Transnational interest networks in the European Union 211
6.3 The modifiers 213
6.3.1 Public interest groups and networks across EU and ASEAN 215
6.3.2 Transnational networks and the EU-ASEAN FTA 226
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