進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-1306201123260600
論文名稱(中文) 東亞季風系統的時空異同性─中國東部的石筍記錄
論文名稱(英文) Similarities and Discrepancies in Monsoonal Climatic Systems Reflected by Speleothem d18O Records from Eastern China
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 萬乃容
研究生(英文) Nai-Jung Wan
學號 l4893103
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 157頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳銘志
共同指導教授-李紅春
口試委員-沈川洲
口試委員-羅尚德
召集委員-林慧玲
中文關鍵字 石筍d18O  東亞季風  中國東部  古氣候  太陽輻射  區域和全球氣候 
英文關鍵字 Speleothem d18O  East Asian Monsoon  Eastern China  Paleoclimate  Solar insolation  Regional and global climate 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文的研究主題是討論利用石筍d18O記錄重建古季風氣候變化的問題。來自中國東部的石筍d18O記錄在不同時間尺度上有著不同的氣候意義,本論文將分為兩部分進行論述:第一部份以中國貴州、湖北和江蘇東部的長跨度石筍d18O記錄比較過去40萬年間與其他全球氣候記錄間的異同;第二部分是以中國東部地區四個洞穴石筍d18O記錄為主,比較過去一千年中石筍和器測及歷史記錄。透過這樣的比對,我們將更清楚理解石筍d18O記錄與季風氣候間的關係,以及東亞夏季季風變遷和氣候變化在不同的時間尺度上的演化。
在論文第一部分的內容中,本研究對取自中國貴州東南部荔波縣龍泉(石筍 L12)和金獅洞(石筍JSD-01和JSD-02)的石筍,進行230Th年龄及石筍d18O記錄的討論。上述三塊石筍所組成的四段記錄的範圍分別為0.75-2千年(晚全新世)、9-9.6千年(全新世早期)以及87.9-88.2和93.8-95.2千年(晚更新世),這四段石筍d18O記錄與同一地區的董哥洞記錄吻合,說明石筍d18O記錄在長時間尺度上有很好的區域代表性,可以做為區域季風氣候變化的代用指標。之後,我們將前人已發表的中國南京葫蘆洞、湖北三寶洞和貴州董哥洞石筍d18O記錄與北半球太陽日照變化以及具有全球氣候變遷指標意義的海洋及陸地記錄(例如,深海沉積物,極地冰芯,非季風區石筍)進行對比。對比結果表明,石筍d18O記錄在千年或更長的時間尺度上,反映在太陽日照變化影響下的夏季風強度變化,這個變化與日照中的歲差週期(2.3萬年)明顯重合,而與米蘭科維奇軌道週期中有4.1萬年週期的傾角變化以及有10萬年週期的偏心率變化存在許多不對應的時段。然而,海洋及許多非季風區陸地記錄中,反而存在明顯的偏心率和傾角週期,一些時段與歲差週期相矛盾。因此,我們認為軌道週期中歲差變化主要控制著太陽輻射在南北半球的分佈,強烈影響間熱帶輻合帶的位置和低緯度夏季季風爆發時間與強度的變化,使得夏季風所帶來的降雨量、亦或季風/非季風降水比例、或者是降雨水汽來源產生變化,從而導致季風區石筍d18O值的變化。而海洋及許多非季風區陸地記錄則是反映全球冰體積變化,這一變化可能在更大程度上受到地球軌道的偏心率影響。因此,在對比季風區石筍d18O記錄和其他古氣候記錄時需要更為謹慎。
論文第二部分是討論高解析度季風氣候變化,在這部分我們選擇了中國季風區四個洞穴的石筍d18O記錄及其附近城市的器測降水、氣溫、夏季風強度記錄和歷史乾濕記錄,對它們之間的關係進行對比與討論。其中,北京石花洞石筍d18O記錄(1590個樣品)是本研究所重建的高解析度、精確定年的古氣候記錄。對比結果表明,這些地區的器測、歷史和石筍d18O記錄在年到數十年的時間尺度上表現出強烈的空間分布差異性,因此單一地點的氣候狀態不能作為整個中國東部的代表。在小於50年的時間尺度上,夏季風強度和降水量之間的相關性不僅隨地點也隨時間而改變,季風氣候不僅存在冷乾/暖濕也存在冷濕/暖乾的模式,不能將冰期/間冰期時間尺度冷乾/暖濕的古氣候模式套用在所有時間尺度上。在年-十年尺度上,即使是在中國東部,強夏季風可能會給一些地區帶來較多的降雨,但也會使得另一些地區變得乾旱。百年至千年尺度上,中國東部的石筍d18O與太陽輻射變化趨勢相似,較輕d18O值對應太陽輻射增加,反之亦然,由太陽輻射引起氣候反饋機制將造成夏季季風強度亦或季風環流形成類似的趨勢。季風環流和強度的變化將會使得石筍d18O值受到下列因素影響:(1)夏季降雨強度、(2)夏季/冬季降水量比例、(3)來自印度及太平洋地區的水團比例,或是綜合上述三項因素,因此石筍d18O記錄在什麼時間尺度上可以作為古降水量替代指標需要進一步研究。
從北京石花洞、甘肅萬象洞、湖北和尚洞、貴州董哥洞四個石筍過去兩千年的d18O記錄來看,西元200至西元500年以及西元1300至西元1600年(第一小冰期)兩段時間東亞夏季風的強度降低,西元1600西元1900年(第二的小冰期)東亞夏季風的強度增強,而西元1900年以來的東亞夏季風的強度則是減弱的狀態。然後,我們比較石筍記錄與其他中國獨立的陸地記錄,包括歷史記錄(Zhang et al., 2010),廣東瑪珥湖沉積記錄(Yancheva et al., 2007)和蒙古的樹輪記錄(Jacoby et al., 1996),萬象洞的記錄近似於蒙古的樹輪記錄其反映溫度的變化,與中國東部的歷史乾/濕指標顯著不同,這意味著,萬象洞記錄可能含有強烈的溫度信號,而降水的影響較弱。在過去的500年,中國北方石筍記錄和長江中下游的乾/濕指標呈正相關,但在中國南方並無此明顯現象,董哥洞記錄與中國南方的乾/濕指數並無明顯相關性,卻與廣東瑪珥湖記錄(冬季風指數)有良好的對應,當冬季季風強,董哥的d18O記錄偏重是反映夏季風弱,這可能表明董哥洞的石筍d18O記錄受到非季節性降雨的影響較低。
英文摘要 The dissertation contains two parts of speleothem studies: long-term d18O records from the caves in Guizhou, Hubei and Jiangsu of eastern China for the past ~400 ka and their comparison with other global climatic records; and short-term d18O records from four caves in eastern China during the last millennium and their comparison with instrumental and historic records. In so doing, we gain a better understanding of the relationship between speleothem d18O and monsoonal climates. The East Asian Summer Monsoon variations and climate changes have been discussed on different time scales.
Part I: Four 230Th-dated d18O records in three speleothems: one from Dragon Spring (speleothem L12) and two from Golden Lion Caves (speleothems JSD-01 and JSD-02) located in Libo County, southeast Guizhou, China, are presented. These records cover age ranges of 0.75-2 ka (late Holocene), 9-9.6 ka (early Holocene), 87.9-88.2 ka and 93.8-95.2 ka (late Pleistocene). They fit well with the published Dongge Cave record from the same area, where the climate has been much influenced by the East Asian Monsoon. The agreement reinforces the role of speleothem d18O as a proxy for regional precipitation or monsoon strength. On millennial or longer time scales, the d18O record of Dongge Cave resembles those of Sanbao Cave in Hubei and Hulu Cave in Jiangsu of China. The matching of these records with the northern hemisphere solar-insolation variations points to the importance of insolation in affecting the East Asian Summer Monsoon strength on 103-104-yr scales. While the monsoon variations as depicted by these Chinese speleothem d18O records show a strong coupling to insolation’s precession component (23-kyr period), other climate records of global significance extracted from oceanic and terrestrial deposits (e.g., deep-sea sediments, polar ice cores, cave deposits from non-monsoonal regions) do not. Although the latter records were thought to be also influenced by the large changes in global ice volume, they show variations modulated chiefly by insolation due to earth’s eccentricity change (100-kyr period). It is hypothesized that precession variations control the distribution of solar insolation between the northern and southern hemispheres, the ITCZ position and the modulation of low-latitude summer monsoon variability. Increasing rainfall and/or summer/winter precipitation ratio brought about by strong summer monsoons leads to d18O depletion in speleothems grown in monsoonal regions. One should use caution to compare speleothem d18O records with other paleoclimate records reflecting Pleistocene ice ages on 104-105-yr timescales.
Part II: We select four caves and their nearby cities in the monsoonal region of China for studying the relationships among precipitation, temperature, summer monsoon intensity and stalagmite d18O. The instrumental, historic and stalagmite d18O records from these areas show strong spatial disparities on annual to decadal scales, so that climatic conditions in a single location cannot represent these of the entire eastern China. On time scales <500 yrs, stronger summer monsoon may lead to higher rainfall in some locations but not over eastern China. Correlation between the summer monsoon strength and precipitation is not only location-dependent but also change with time. One may not use the paleoclimatic pattern of cold-dry and warm-wet on glacial/interglacial ages throughout all time scales for climatic conditions in the monsoonal region. On centennial to millennial scales, stalagmite d18O variation trend from eastern China resemble solar irradiance with lighter d18O corresponding to increased solar irradiance, and vice versa. The similar trends may reflect climatic feedbacks link to solar forcing to cause changes in the summer monsoon intensity and/or in monsoonal circulation. Changes in monsoonal circulation and intensity affect (1) summer rainfall intensity, (2) summer/winter precipitation ratio, or (3) ratio of moisture from Indian/Pacific oceans, or a combination of the three. Thus, a speleothem d18O record may not be proper to be used as a proxy of paleo-precipitation amount, especially on short time scales. Based on the four stalagmite d18O records during the last 2000 years, EASM strength decreased from AD 200 to AD 500, and from AD 1300 to AD 1600 (the 1st half of the Little Ice Age), whereas EASM strength increased from AD 1600 to AD 1900 (the 2nd half of the Little Ice Age). The EASM strength has weakened since early 1900’s. Then, we compare the speleothem records with other independent terrestrial records in China, including history records (Zhang et al., 2010), Huguang Maar lake sediment record (Yancheva et al., 2007) and Mongolia tree ring record (Jacoby et al., 1996). The Wanxiang record resembles the Mongolia tree-ring record which reflects temperature change, but quite different from dry/wet history indexes in eastern China. This observation implies that Wanxiang record might contain strong temperature signal but weak rainfall influence. During the past 500 years, speleothem records in north China and L-M Yangtze River are positively correlated with dry/wet indexes in these regions, respectively, but not with that in south China. No correlation between Dongge record and dry/wet index of south China exists, but the Dongge record shows some good correlation with Huguang Maar Lake record (a winter monsoon index). When winter monsoon was stronger, the d18O of Dongge record was heavier which reflecting weaker summer monsoon. This later comparison may indicate that the speleothem d18O of Dongge record has less influence from d18O change in non-monsoonal rainfall.
論文目次 1. Introductions 01
2. Background Information of the Study Area 09
2.1 East Asian Monsoon (EAM) 09
2.2 Golden Lion and Dragon Spring Caves 11
2.3 Shihua Cave 13
3. Samples and Analytical Methods 17
3.1 Speleothem L12, JSD-01 and JSD-02 17
3.2 Speleothem S312 (TS9501) 21
3.3 230Th Dating 23
3.4 Stable Isotope Analysis 26
4. Results and Discussions 27
4.1 Chronology of Speleothem L12, JSD-01 and JSD-02 27
4.2 The d13C and d18O Records of Speleothem L12, JSD-01 and JSD-02 30
4.3 Comparison of Speleothem d18O Records in Libo area 34
4.4 The d18O record of Speleothem S312 38
5. Information of Speleothem d18O Records during Orbital Scales 43
5.1 Comparison of Speleothem d18O Records with other Global Records 43
5.2 Comparison of Global Speleothem d18O Records 54
5.3 Influence of Solar Insolation on East Asian Summer Monsoon 62
6. East Asian Monsoon Changes in the Last Millennium 65
6.1 EASM and its comparison with instrumental and historic records 65
6.1.1 East Asian Monsoon index 65
6.1.2 Comparison with instrumental records 68
6.1.3 Comparison with historic records 75
6.2 Discrepancies in Speleothem d18O records 77
6.3 Comparisons of Climatic Proxies in Eastern China 86
7. Conclusions 91
8. References 95
Appendix-I (Stable isotope data of Speleothem L12) 107
Appendix-II (Stable isotope data of Speleothems JSD-01&JSD-02) 113
Appendix-III (Stable isotope data of Speleothem S312) 129
參考文獻 An, Z.S., Kukla, G., Porter, S.C., Xiao, J.L., 1991. Magnetic susceptibility evidence of monsoon variation on the Loess Plateau of central China during the last 130,000 years. Quaternary Research 36, 29-36.
An, Z., 2000. The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 171-187.
An, Z., Kutzbach, J.E., Prell, W.L., Porter, S.C., 2001. Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the Himalaya–Tibetan plateau since Late Miocene times. Nature 411, 62-66.
Asmerom, Y., Polyak, V., Burns, S., Rassmussen, J., 2007. Solar forcing of Holocene climate: new insights from a speleothem record, southwestern United States. Geology 35, 1-4.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Kaufman, A., Wasserburg, G.J., 1999. The eastern Mediterranean palaeoclimate as a reflection of regional events: Soreq Cave, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 166, 85-95.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Kaufman, A., 2000. Timing and hydrological conditions of sapropel events in the eastern Mediterranean, as evident from speleothems, Soreq Cave, Israel. Chemical Geology 169, 145-156.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Gilmour, M., Matthews, A., Hawkesworth, C.J., 2003. Sea–land oxygen isotopic relationships from planktonic foraminifera and speleothems in the Eastern Mediterranean region and their implication for paleorainfall during interglacial intervals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, 3181-3199.
Bard, E., Raisbeck, G., Yiou, F., Jouzel, J., 2000. Solar irradiance during the last 1200 years based on cosmogenic nuclides. TELLUS B 52, 985-992.
Beaufort, L., de Garidel-Thoron, T., Linsley, B., Oppo, D., Buchet, N., 2003. Biomass burning and oceanic primary production estimates in the Sulu Sea area over the last 380 kyr and the East Asian monsoon dynamics. Marine Geology 201, 53-65.
Beer, J., Mende, W., Stellmacher, R., 2000, The role of the sun in climate forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 403-415.
Berger, A., and Loutre, M.F., 1991. Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quaternary Sciences Review 10, 297-317.
Broecker, W.S., 1994a. Is earth climate poised to jump again? Geotimes 39(11), 16-18.
Broecker, W.S., 1994b. Massive iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature 372, 421-424.
Burns, S.J., Matter, A., Frank, N., Mangini, A., 1998. Speleothem-based palaeoclimate record from northern Oman. Geology 266, 499-502.
Burns, S.J., Fleitmann, D., Matter, A., Neff, U., Mangini, A., 2001. Speleothem evidence from Oman for continental pluvial events during interglacial periods. Geology 297, 623-626.
Burns, S.J., Fleitmann, D., Matter, A., Kramers, J., Al-Subbary, A.A., 2003. Indian Ocean climate and an absolute chronology over Dansgaard/Oeschger events 9 to 13. Science 301, 1365-1367.
Chang, Y.P., Wu, S.M., Wei, K.Y., Murayama, M., Kawahata, H., Chen, M.T., 2005. Foraminiferal oxygen isotope stratigraphy and high-resolution organic carbon, carbonate records from the Okinawa Trough (IMAGES MD012404 and ODP site 1202). Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 16, 57-73.
Chang, C.-P., and Krishnamurti, T.N., 1987. Monsoon Meteorology. Oxford University Press, New York, 530p.
Chen, C.W., Wei, K.Y., Mii, H.S., Yang, T.N., 2008. A late Quaternary planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope record of the Banda Sea: chronostratigraphy, orbital forcing, and paleoceanographic implications. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 19, 331-339.
Chen, F.H., Bloemendal, J., Wang, J.M., Li, J.J., Oldfield, F., 1997. High resolution multi-proxy climatic changes over the last 75 kyr. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 130, 323-335.
Chen, L.X., Zhu, Q.G., Luo, H.B., He, J.H., Dong, M., Feng, Z.Q., 1991. The East Asian Monsoon. Meteorological Press, Beijing, 304-346 (in Chinese).
Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Kong, X., Ming, Y., Kelly, M. J., Wang, X., Gallup, C. D., 2006. A penultimate glacial monsoon record from Hulu Cave and two-phase glacial terminations. Geology 34, 217-220.
Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Broecker, W. S., Denton, G. H., Kong, X., Wang, Y., Zhang, R., Wang, X., 2009. Ice Age Terminations. Science 326, 248-252.
Chiang, J.C.H., and Bitz, C.M., 2005. The influence of high latitude ice on the position of the marine Intertropical Convergence Zone. Climate Dynamics 25, 477-496.
Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, 1981. Yearly Charts of Dryness/Wetness in China for the Last 500-Year Period, Beijing. SinoMap Cartogr. Publ. House, Beijing. (In Chinese)
Chung, W. L., 2009. The Late Quaternary Climate and Environmental Changes of the Southwest China:Stalagmite Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Records from Libo, Guizhou. M.Sc. Thesis, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan, 76p.
Clemens, S.C., 2007. Extending the historical record by proxy. P. 615-630. In: Wang, B. (ed.), Springer Praxis Publishing, Chichester, UK, ISBN 3-540-40610-7, 787p.
Clemens, S.C., Prell, W.L., Murray, D., Shimmield, G., Weedon, G., 1991. Forcing mechanisms of the Indian Ocean monsoon. Nature 353, 720-725.
Clemens, S.C., Prell, W.L., 2007. The timing of orbital-scale Indian monsoon changes. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 275-278.
Cosford, J., Qing, H., Yuan, D., Zhang, M., Holmden, C., Patterson, W., Cheng, H., 2008. Millennial-scale variability in the Asian monsoon: evidence from oxygen isotope records from stalagmites in southeastern China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266, 3-12.
Cruz Jr., F. W., Burns S. J., Karmann I., Sharp W. D., Vuille M., Cardoso A. O., Ferrari J. A., Silva Dias P. L., and Viana, Jr., O., 2005. Insolation-driven changes in atmospheric circulation over the past 116 ky in subtropical Brazil. Nature 434, 63–66.
Cruz Jr., F. W., Burns S. J., Karmann I., Sharp W. D., and Vuille M., 2006. Reconstruction of regional atmospheric circulation features during the Late Pleistocene in subtropical Brazil from oxygen isotope composition of speleothems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 248, 494–506.
Cruz Jr., F. W., Vuille, M., Burns, S. J., Wang, X. F., Cheng, H., Werner, M., Edwards, R. L., Karmann, I., Auler, A. S., Nguyen, H., 2009. Orbitally driven east–west antiphasing of South American precipitation. Nature Geoscience 2, 210-214.
Ding, Y.H., and Ren, G.Y., (Eds), 2008. Scientific Introduction of Climate Change of China. Meteorological Press, Beijing, ISBN 978-7-5029-4364-6. 281p. (in Chinese)
Ding, Z.L., Liu, T.S., Rutter, N.W., Yu, Z., Guo, Z., Zhu, R., 1995. Ice-volume forcing of east Asian winter monsoon variations in the past 800,000 years. Quaternary Research, 44, 149-159.
Ding, Z.L., Derbysgier, E., Yang, S.L., Yu, Z.W., Xiong, S.F., Liu, T.S., 2002. Stacked 2.6-Ma grain size record from the Chinese loess based on five sections and correlation with the deep-sea 18O record. Paleoceanography 17, 5-1 to 5-21.
Domros, M., and Peng, G.B., 1988. The Climate of China. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 360p.
Dorale, J.A., Edwards, L.R., Ito, E., Gonzalez, L.A., 1998. Climate and vegetation history of the midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka: a speleothem record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA. Science 282, 1871-1874.
Dykoski, C.A., Edwards, L.R., Cheng, H., Yuan, D., Cai, Y., Zhang, M., Lin, Y., Qing, J., An, Z., Revenaugh, J., 2005. A high-resolution, absolute-dated Holocene and deglacial Asian monsoon record from Dongge Cave, China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 233, 71-86.
Edwards, R.L., Chen, J.H., Ku, T.L., Wasserburg, G.J., 1987. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric analysis of Th-230 in corals, Science 236, 175–192.
Edwards, R.L., 1988. High precision thorium-230 ages of corals and the timing of sea level fluctuation in the late Quaternary. PhD thesis, California Institute of Technology.
Fairchild, I. J., Smith, C. L., Baker, A., Fuller, L., Spötl, C., Mattey, D., McDermott, F., E.I.M.F., 2006. Modification and preservation of environmental signals in speleothems. Earth-Science Reviews 75, 105-153.
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Kramers, J., Mangini, A., Matter, A., 2003. Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science 300, 1737-1739.
Frohlich, C., Hornbach, M.J., Taylor, F.W., Shen, C.-C., Moala, A., Morton, A.E., Kruger, J., 2009. Huge erratic boulders in Tonga deposited by a prehistoric tsunami. Geology 37, 131-134.
Gan, M.A., Kousky, V.E., Ropelewski, C.F., 2004. The South American monsoon circulation and its relationship to rainfall over West-Central Brazil. J. Clim. 17, 47-66.
Gao, Y.X., Xu, S.Y., 1962. Some problems of East Asian Monsoon. Science Press, Beijing, 1-49 (in Chinese).
Gasse, F., Fontes, J. Ch., Van Campo, E., Wei, K., 1996. Holocene environmental changes in Bangong Co Basin (Western Tibet). Part 4: Discussion and conclusions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 120, 79-92.
Ge, J.X., 2005. Population History of China. Fudan University Press, Shanghai, six volumes, 3946p. (In Chinese)
Genty, D., Blamart, D., Ouahdi, R., Gilmour, M., Baker, A., Jouzel, J., Van-Exter, S., 2003. Precise dating of Dansgaard–Oeschger climatic oscillations in western Europe from stalagmite data. Nature 421, 833-837.
Gildor, H., Tziperman, E., 2000. Sea ice as the glacial cycles' climate switch: role of seasonal and orbital forcing. Paleoceanography 15, 605-615.
Guo, Q.-Y., Cai, J.-N., Shao, X.-M., Sha, W.-Y., 2003. Interdecadal variability of East-Asian summer monsoon and its impact on the climate of China. Acta Geographica Sinica 4, 569-576. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Hays, J., Imbrie, J., Shackleton, N., 1976. Variations in the earth's orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages. Science 194, 1121-1132.
Hendy, C.H., 1971. The isotope geochemistry of speleothem: I. The calculation of the effects of different modes of formation on the isotopic composition of speleothems and their applicability as paleoclimatic indicators. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 35, 801-824.
Herbert, T.D., Schuffert, J.D., Andreasen, D., Heusser, L., Lyle, M., Mix, A., Ravelo, A.C., Stott, L.D., Herguera, J.C., 2001. Collapse of the California Current during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land. Science 293, 71–76.
Heusser, L., Morley, J., 1997. Monsoon fluctuations over the past 350 kyr: High resolution evidence from Northeast Asia/Northwest Pacific climate proxies (marine pollen and radiolarians). Quaternary Science Reviews 16, 565-581.
Hu, C., Henderson, G.M., Huang, J., Xie, S., Sun, Y., Johnson, K.R., 2008. Quantification of Holocene Asian monsoon rainfall from spatially separated cave records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 266, 221-232.
Huang, C.-Y., Liew, P.-M., Zhao, M.-X., Chang, T.-C., Kuo, C.-M., Chen, M.-T., Wang, C.-H., Zheng, L.-F., 1997. Deep sea and lake records of the Southeast Asian paleomonsoons for the last 25 thousand years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 146, 59-72.
Hughes, M.K., Wu, X.-D., Shao, X.-M., Garfin, G.M., 1994. A preliminary reconstruction of rainfall in North-Central China since A.D. 1600 from tree-ring density and width. Quaternary Research 42, 88-99.
Huybers, P., Wunsch, C., 2005. Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminations. Nature 434, 491–494.
Huybers, P., 2006. Early Pleistocene glacial cycles and the integrated summer insolation forcing. Science 313, 508-511.
Imbrie, J., Imbrie, J., 1980. Modeling the climatic response to orbital variations. Science 207, 943-953.
Imbrie, J., Berger, A., Boyle, E.A., Clemens, S.C., Duffy, A., Howard, W.R., Kukla G., Kutzbach, J., Martinson, D.G., McIntyre, A., et al., 1993, On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles. Part 2: The 100,000-year cycle. Paleoceanography 8, 699-735.
IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007 – The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, p. 299.
Jacoby, G. C., D'Arrigo, R. D., Davaajamts, T., 1996. Mongolian Tree Rings and 20th-Century Warming. Science 273, 771-773.
Johnson, K.R., Ingram, B.L., 2004. Spatial and temporal variability in the stable isotope systematics of modern precipitation in China: implications for paleoclimate reconstructions. Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters 220, 365-377.
Kelly, M.J., Edwards, R.L., Cheng, H., Yuan, D., Cai, Y., Zhang, M., Lin, Y., An, Z., 2006. High resolution characterization of Asian monsoon between 146,000 and 99,000 years B.P. from Dongge Cave, China and global correlation of events surrounding Termination II. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 236, 20-38.
Koster, R.D., de Valpine, D.P., Jouzel, J., 1993. Continental water recycling and H218O concentrations. Geophysical Research Letters 20, 2212-2218.
Ku, T.-L. Li, H.-C., 1998. Speleothems as high-resolution paleoenvironment archives: Records from northeastern China. Journal of Earth System Science 107, 321-330.
Kukla, G.J., Cilek, V., 1996. Plio-Pleistocene megacycles: record of climate and tectonics. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 120, 171-194.
Kuo, T.S., Liu, Z.-Q., Li, H.-C., Wan, N., Shen, C.-C., Ku, T.-K., Climate and environmental changes during the past millennium in central western Guizhou, China as recorded by Stalagmite ZJD-21, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences (this issue).
Kutzbach, J. E., Liu, X., Liu, Z., Chen, G., 2008. Simulation of the evolutionary response of global summer monsoons to orbital forcing over the past 280,000 years. Clim. Dyn. 30, 567-579.
Lea, D.W., Pak, D.K., Spero, H.J., 2000. Climate impact of late Quaternary equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature variations. Science 289, 1719–1724.
Lee, J.-E., Johnson, K., Fung, I. 2009. Precipitation over South America during the Last Glacial Maximum: An analysis of the ‘‘amount effect’’ with a water isotope-enabled general circulation model. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L19701, doi:10.1029/2009GL039265.
LeGrande, A.N., Schmidt, G.A. 2009. Sources of Holocene Variability of Oxygen Isotopes in Paleoclimate Archives. Climate of the Past 5(3), 441-455.
Li, H.C., Ku, T.L., Zhao, S., Liu, T., Jiao, W., Yin, J., Li, T., Lu, J., 1996a. Isotope Studies of Shihua Cave – I: D, 18O and Tritium Activity of Shihua Cave, Beijing. Seismology and Geology 18, 325 – 328.
Li, H.C., Ku, T.L., 1996b. sotope Studies of Shihua Cave – II: Radiocarbon Dating and Age Correction of Stalagmite. Seismology and Geology 18, 329 – 338.
Li, H.C., Ku, T.L., Stott, L.D., Yuan, D., Chen, W., Li, T., 1997. Interannual-resolution 13C record of stalagmite as proxy for the change in precipitation and atmosphere CO2 in Shihua Cave, Beijing, Carsologica Sinica 16, 285-295 (in Chinese).
Li, H.-C., Ku, T.-L., Stott, L.D., Chen, W.J., 1998. Applications of interannual -resolution stable isotope records of speleothem: Climatic changes in Beijing and Tianjin, China during the past 500 years - the δ18O record. Science in China 28, 181-186.
Li, H.-C., Ku, T.-L., You, C.F., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Ma, Z.B., Tsai, W.S., Li, M.D., 2005. 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca in speleothems for paleoclimate reconstruction in central China between 70 and 280 kyr ago. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, 3933-3947.
Li, H.-C., Yuan, D.-X., Ku, T.-L., Wan, N.-J., Ma, Z.-B., Zhang, P.-Z., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. Liu, Z.-H., Zhang, M.-L., Zhu, Z.-Y., Wang, R.-M., 2007. Stable isotopic compositions of waters in the karst environments of China: Climatic implications. Applied Geochemistry 22, 1748-1763.
Lister, G.S., Kelts, K., Chen, K.Z., Yu, J.Q., Niessen, F., 1991. Lake Qinghai, China: closed-basin lake levels and the oxygen isotope record for ostracoda since the latest Pleistocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 84, 141-162.
Liu, H., 1999. Insolation changes caused by combination of amplitude and frequency modulation of the obliquity. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 25197-25206.
Liu, T.S., Ding, Z. Rutter, N., 1999. Comparison of Milankovitch periods between continental loess and deep sea records over the last 2.5 Ma. Quaternary Science Reviews 18, 1205-1212.
Liu, Z., Cleaveland, L.C., Herbert, T.D., 2008, Early onset and origin of 100-kyr cycles in Pleistocene tropical SST records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 265, 703-715.
Martinson, D.G., Pisias, N.G., Hays, J.D., Imbrie, J., Moore, T.C., Shackleton, N. J, 1987. Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice ages: development of a high-resolution 0 to 300,000-year chronostratigraphy.. Quaternary Research 27, 1-29.
McDermott, F., Mattey, D.P., Hawkesworth, C.J., 2001. Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem δ18O record from S.W. Ireland. Science 294, 1328-1331.
McDermott, F., 2004. Palaeo-climate reconstruction from stable isotope variations in speleothems: a review. Quaternary Science Reviews 23, 901-918.
Milankovitch, M.M., 1941. Canon of insolation and the ice age problem. Koniglich Serbische Akademie, Beograd. (English translation by the Israel Program for Science Translations). Published for the U.S. Department of Commerce and the National Science foundation, Washington, DC.
North Greenland Ice-Core Project (NorthGRIP) Members, 2004. High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431, 147-151.
Paillard, D., 1998. The timing of Pleistocene glaciations from a simple multiple-state climate model. Nature 391, 378-391.
Paulsen, D.E., Li, H.C., Ku, T.L, 2003. Climate variability in central China over the last 1270 years revealed by high-resolution stalagmite records. Quaternary Science Review 22, 691-701.
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., McMahon, T. A., 2007. Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11, 1633-1644.
Petit, J.R., Jouzel, J., Raynaud, D., Barkov, N. I, Barnola, J.-M., Basile, I., Bender, M., Chappellaz, J., Davis, M., Delaygue, G., Delmotte, M., Kotlyakov, V.M., Legrand, M. Lipenkov, V.Y., Lorius, C., Pepin, L., Ritz, C., Saltzman, E., Stievenard, M., 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core. Antarctica, Nature 399, 429-436.
Porter, S.C., An, Z.S., 1995. Correlation between climate events in the North Atlantic and China during the last glaciation. Nature 375, 305 308.
Prell, W.L., Kutzbach, J.E., 1987, Monsoon variability over the past 150,000 years. Journal of Geophysical Research 92, 8411-8425.
Prell, W.L., Kutzbach, J.E., 1992, Sensitivity of the Indian monsoon to forcing parameters and implications for its evolution. Nature 360, 647-652.
Qian, W.-H., Lin, X. 2005. Regional trends in recent precipitation indices in China. Meteorological and Atmospheric Physics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00703- 004 -0101-2. (In Chinese)
Qian, W.-H., Lin, X., Zhu, Y.-F., Xu, Y., Fu, J.-I., 2007. Climatic regime shift and decadal anomalous events in China. Climatic Change 84 (2), 167-189. doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9234.
Rao, V. B., Cavalcanti, I. F. A., Hada, K., 1996. Annual variation of rainfall over Brazil and water vapor characteristics over South America. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 26539-26551.
Rindsberger, M., Magaritz, M., Carmi, I., Gilad, D., 1983. The relation between air mass trajectories and the water isotope composition of rain in the Mediterranean Sea area. Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 43-46.
Rutter, N., Ding, Z., 1993. Paleoclimates and monsoon variations interpreted from micromorphogenic features of the Baoji paleosols, China. Quaternary Science Reviews 12, 853-862.
Shakun, J.D., Burns, S.J., Fleitmann, D., Kramers, J., Matter, A., Al-Subary, A., 2007. A high-resolution, absolute-dated deglacial speleothem record of Indian Ocean climate from Socotra Island, Yemen. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 259, pp.442-456.
Shiau, L.J., Yu, P.S., Wei, K.Y., Yamamoto, M., Lee, T.Q., Yu, E.F., Fang, T.H., Chen, M.T., 2008. Sea surface temperature, profuctivity, and terrestrial flux variations of the southeastern South China Sea over the past 800000 years (IMAGES MD972142). Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 19, 363-376.
Shen, C.C., Edwards, R. L., Cheng, H., Dorale, J.A., Thomas, R.B., Moran, S.B., Weinstein, S.E., Edmonds, H.N., 2002. Uranium and thorium isotopic and concentration measurements by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chemical Geology 185, 165-178.
Shen, C.-C., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Moran, S.B., Edmonds, H.N., Hoff, J.A., Thomas, R.B., 2003. Measurement of attogram quantities of 231Pa in dissolved and particulate fractions of seawater by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry 75, 1075-1079.
Shen, C.-C., Li, K.-S., Sieh, K., Natawidjaja, D., Cheng, H., Wang, X, Edwards, R.L., Lam, D.D., Hsieh, Y.-T., Fan, T.-Y., Meltzner, A.J., Taylor, F.W., Quinn, T.M., Chiang, H.-W., Kilbourne, K.H., 2008. Variation of initial 230Th/232Th and limits of high precision U–Th dating of shallow-water corals. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 4201-4223.
Solanki, S.K., 2002, Solar variability and climate change: is there a link? Adytonomy & Geophysics 43, 5.09-5.13.
Solanki, S.K., Usoskin, I.G., Kromer, B., Schüssler, M., Beer, J., 2004. An unusually active Sun during recent decades compared to the previous 11,000 years. Nature 431, 1084-1087.
Soon, W., Posmentier, E., Baliunas, S., 2000, Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing? Annales Geophysicae 18, 583-588.
Spötl, C., Mangini, A., Frank, N., Eichstädter, R., Burns, S., 2002. Start of the last interglacial period at 135 ka: evidence from a high Alpine speleothem. Geology 309, 815-818.
Stott, L., Cannariato, K., Thunell, R., Hang, G.H., Koutavas, A., Lund, S., Decline of surface temperature and salinity in the western tropical Pacific Ocean in the Holocene epoch. Nature 431, 56-59.
Tan, M., Liu, D., Qin, X., Zhong, H., Li, T., Zhao, S., Li, H.-C., Lu, J., Lu, X., 1997, Preliminary Study on the Data from Microbanding and Stable Isotopes of Stalagmites of Beijing Shihua Cave. Carsologica Sinica 16, 1-10 (in Chinese).
Tan, M., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Hou, J., Liu, T., 2000. TIMS-230Th dating for very young annually laminated stalagmites. Quaternary Sciences 20, 391(in Chinese).
Tan, M., Hou, J., Cheng, H., 2002, Methodology of quantitatively reconstructing paleoclimate from laminated stalagmites. Quaternary Sciences 22, 209 – 219 (in Chinese).
Tan, M., Liu, T., Hou, J., Qin, X., Zhang, H., Li, T., 2003, Cyclic Rapid Warming on Centennial-scale Revealed by a 2650-year Stalagmite Record of Warm Season Temperature. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 19-1 – 19-4.
Tan, M., 2009. Circulation effect: Climatic significance of the short term variability of the oxygen isotopes in stalagmites from monsoonal China—Dialogue between paleoclimate records and modern climate research. Quaternary Sciences 29(5): 851-862. (In Chinese)
Tao, S., and Chen, L., 1987. A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. pp. 60-92. In: C.-P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti (eds.), Monsoon Meteorology.
Tao, S.Y., and Chen, L.X., 1988. A review of recent research on the East Asian Summer monsoon in China. In: Tao, S.Y. (Ed.), Monsoon Meteorology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 60-92.
Tao, S.Y., Fu, C.B., Zeng, Z.M., Zhang Q.Y., 1997. Two Long-Term Instrumental Climatic Data Bases of the People's Republic of China (1997). Environmental Sciences Division, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Publication No. 4699.
Thompson, L.G., Thompson, E.M., Davis, M.E., Bolzan, J.F., Dai, J., Yao, T., Gundestrup, N., Wu, X., Klein, L., Xie, Z., 1989. Holocene-Late Pleistocene climatic ice core records from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Science 246, 474-479.
Thompson, L.G., Yao, T.D., Davis, M.E., Henderson, K.A., Thompson, E.M., Lin, P.N., Beer, J., Synal, H.A., Dai, J.C., Bolzan, J.F., 1997. Tropical climate instability: the Last Glacial cycle from a Qinghai- Tibetan ice core. Science 276, 1821-1825.
Thompson, L. G., Davis, M. E., Mosley-Thompson, E., Lin, P.-N., Henderson, K. A., Mashiotta, T. A., 2005. Tropical ice core records: Evidence for asynchronous glaciation on Milankovitch timescales. J. Quat. Sci. 20, 723-733.
Vellinga, M., Wood, R.A., 2002. Global climatic impacts of a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Climatic Change 54, 251–267.
Vera, C.S., Vigliarolo, P.K., Berbery, E.H., 2002. Cold season synoptic-scale waves over subtropical South America. Mon. Weather Rev. 130, 684-699.
Waelbroeck, C., Frank, N., Jouzel, J., Parrenin, F., Masson-Delmotte, V., Genty, D., 2008. Transferring radiometric dating of the last interglacial sea level high stand to marine and ice core records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 265, 183-194.
Wan, N., Chung, W., Li, H., Lin, H., Ku, T., Shen, C., Yuan, D., Zhang, M., Lin, Y., Comparison of Speleothem 18O Records from Eastern China with Solar Insolation, Ice Core and Marine Records: Similarities and Discrepancies on Different Time Scales. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, in summit.
Wang, B., 2007. The Asian Monsoon. Springer Praxis Publishing, Chichester, UK, ISBN 3-540-40610-7, 787p.
Wang, X., Auler, A.S., Edwards, R.L., Cheng, H., Cristalli, P.S., Smart, P.L., Richards, D.A., Shen, C.-C., 2004. Wet periods in northeastern Brazil over the past 210 kyr linked to distant climate anomalies, Nature 432, 740-743.
Wang, X., Auler, A. S., Edwards, R. L., Cheng, H., Ito, E., Solheid, M., 2006. Interhemispheric anti-phasing of rainfall during the last glacial period. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 3391-3403.
Wang, X., Edwards, R. L., Auler, A. S., Cheng, H., Ito, E., 2007. Millennial-scale interhemispheric asymmetry of low-latitude precipitation: Speleothem evidence and possible high-latitude forcing. Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 173, 279-293.
Wang, Y.J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., An, Z.S., Wu, J.Y., Shen, C.-C., Dorale, J. A., 2001. A high-resolution absolute-dated late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294, 2345-2348.
Wang, Y.J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., He, Y., Kong, X., An, Z., Wu, J., Kelly, M.J., Dykoski, C.A., Li, X., 2005. The Holocene Asian monsoon: links to solar changes and north Atlantic climate. Science 308, 854-857.
Wang, Y.J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Kong, X., Shao, X., Chen. S., Wu, J., Jiang, X., Wang, X., An, Z., 2008. Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the east Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years. Nature 451, 1090-1093.
Wei, K.Y., Chiu, T.C., Chen, Y.G., 2003. Toward establishing a maritime proxy record of the East Asian summer monsoons for the late Quaternary. Marine Geology 201, 67-79.
Wei, K.Y., Mii, H.S., Huang, C.Y., 2005. Age model and oxygen isotope stratigraphy of site ODP1202 in the Southern Okinawa Trough, northwestern Pacific. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 16, 1-17.
Winogard, I.J., Coplen, T.B., Landwehr, J.M., Riggs, A.C., Ludwig, K.R., Szabo, B.J., Kolesar, P.T., Revesz, K.M., 1992. Continuous 500,000-year climate record from vein calcite in Devils Hole. Nevada, Science 258, 255- 260.
Winogard, I.J., Landwehr, J.M., A.C., Ludwig, Coplen, T.B., Riggs, A.C., 1997. Duration and structure of the pas four interglaciations. Quaternary Research 48, 141-154.
Winogard, I.J., 2002. The California current, Devils Hole, and Pleistocene climate. Science 296, 7.
Winogard, I.J., Landwehr, J.M., Coplen, T.B., Sharp, W.D., Riggs, A.C., Ludwig, K.R., Kolesar, P.T., 2006. Devils Hole, Nevada, 18O record extended to the mid-Holocene. Quaternary Research 66, 202-212.
Yancheva, G., Nowaczyk, N. R., Mingram, J., Dulski, P., Schettler, G., Negendank, Jorg F. W., Liu, J., Sigman, D. M., Peterson, L. C., Haug, G. H., 2007, . Influence of the intertropical convergence zone on the East Asian monsoon. Nature 445, 74-77.
Yuan, D., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Dykoski, C.A., Kelly, M.J., Zhang, M., Qing, J., Lin, Y., Wang, Y., Wu, J., Dorale, J.A., An, Z., Cai, Y., 2004. Timing, duration, and transition of the last interglacial Asian monsoon. Science 304, 575-578.
Zhang, D.E., 1999. Climate variation of wetness in east China (960-1992AD). Bulletin of National Museum of Japanese 81, 31-39.
Zhang, D.E., Li, X.Q., Liang, Y.Y., 2003. Continuation (1992-2000) of the yearly charts of dryness/wetness in China for the last 500 years period. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science 14, 379-388. (in Chinese)
Zhang, D.E., Li, H.-C., Ku, T.-L., Lu, L.H., 2010. On Linking Climate to Chinese Dynastic Change: Spatial and Temporal Variations of Monsoonal Rain. Chinese Science Bulletin 55, 77-83.
Zhang, J.C., Liu, Z.G., 1992. Climate of China. Wiley, New York, p.376.
Zhang, P., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Chen, F., Wang, Y., Yang, X., Liu, J., Tan, M., Wang, X., Liu, J., An, C., Dai, Z., Zhou, J., Zhang, D., Jia, J., Jin, L., Johnson, K.R., 2008, A test of climate, sun, and culture relationships from an 1810-year Chinese cave record. Science 322, 940-942.
Zhao, Z.C., Wang, S.W., 1979. Interaction between the circulation and climate in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Acta Meteorologica Sinica 37, 59-68 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhou, J., Lau, K.M., 1998. Does a monsoon climate exist over South America? J. Clim. 11, 1020-1040.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2011-06-24起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2011-06-24起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw