||Design of Software-Defined Radio Based Satellite Communication and Navigation Systems
||Department of Electrical Engineering
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
衛星通訊及導航已是現代社會中基礎且重要的一部分。隨著愈來愈多的衛星發射進入運作，有限之頻譜資源致使衛星通訊與導航必須朝向多方面發展。因此，在未來一個理想的衛星通訊系統應該具備極大頻寬接收能力，並能處理各種訊號。有鑒於此，本研究針對微衛星通訊發展可重配置之遙測、追蹤與命令系統。更進一步地，本研究應用軟體無線電架構整合氣象衛星HRPT與APT兩種訊號之接收於一個平台，進行多通道、多種調變訊號之即時處理，並將難以於硬體實現之功能以軟體實現。在衛星導航訊號處理方面，由於新型導航衛星不斷發射以展開定位訊號播送，如北斗衛星導航系統，其效能及衝擊令人感到興趣。因此，極有必要針對此些系統快速發展接收平台，對其新型訊號加以分析探討，以評估其定位效能。本研究基於軟體無線電架構，發展北斗衛星導航訊號接收平台於個人電腦。除用以評估北斗衛星導航系統之性能，亦因應其系統規格之公佈而快速調整接收系統。而由於衛星導航應用日益重要，其欺騙訊號技術進步且實際案例日漸發生。本研究提出一訊號認證機制，實現於兩台軟體無線電之架構，並針對GPS L1、BDS B1及B2三種訊號進行測試，確認此訊號認證架構之可行性。相較於已存在之方法，本認證機制更具彈性，不須強制兩台接收機之取樣率相同，且降低資料傳輸量及搜尋空間。
Satellite communication and navigation play essential roles in modern society. As more and more satellites being deployed into operation, the limitation of spectral resource makes the satellite communication development toward versatile trends. In the future, the ideal satellite communication system should have extensive bandwidth and be able to cope with any kinds of signals. Therefore, this dissertation develops a reconfigurable TT&C system for microsatellites. Further, this dissertation utilizes SDR technique to integrate the weather satellite HRPT and APT signal receptions on a platform. This platform is able to perform multi-channel and multi-modulation real-time signal processing, and implement functions which are easy by software but complicated by hardware. As the launch of new satellite navigation systems, such as BeiDou satellite navigation system, the impact from these systems is significantly interesting. Therefore, it is necessary to rapidly implement reception platform to analyze these new signals and assess the performance. This dissertation realizes a PC-based BeiDou signal reception platform to investigate the navigation performance. This platform is rapidly modified in response to the signal specification released in different phases. As the applications of GNSS become important, the spoofing techniques advance and actual cases happen frequently. This dissertation proposes a GNSS signal authentication scheme with two SDRs and demonstrates to detect GPS L1, BDS B1 and B2 signal spoofing attacks. The proposed method relaxes the requirement in the control of the sampling rate and decreases the search space in the cross-correlation operation.
List of Tables IX
List of Figures X
List of Abbreviations XIV
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Software-Defined Radio 2
1.3 Literature Survey 4
1.4 Contributions 5
1.5 Organization 7
Chapter 2 Reconfigurable Microsatellite Communication System 9
2.1 System Overview 10
2.2 Ground Station 12
2.3 Design and Implementation 13
2.3.1 Beacon Transmitter 13
2.3.2 Telemetry Transmitter 16
2.3.3 Telecommand Receiver 19
2.3.4 Antenna 23
2.4 Development of Software 24
2.5 Experiments and Results 25
2.5.1 Test Setup 25
2.5.2 Test Results 28
2.6 Summary 32
Chapter 3 A Software-Defined Radio Based HRPT/APT Signal Receiver 33
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Receiver Architecture 34
3.3 Implementation and Experimental Results 39
3.4 Summary 42
Chapter 4 PC-Based Software Receiver for the Reception of BeiDou Navigation Satellite Signals 43
4.1 Introduction 43
4.2 SDR Development for GNSS 46
4.3 Software Receiver for the Reception of BeiDou Signals 50
4.3.1 GNSS Software Receiver 50
4.3.2 Software Correlator 54
4.3.3 Acquisition/Tracking Procedure 56
4.3.4 Navigation Procedure 58
4.4 Reception of BeiDou Signals 59
4.4.1 Experiment 1 60
4.4.2 Experiment 2 69
4.5 Summary 71
Chapter 5 Application of SDR Technique to GNSS Signal Authentication 73
5.1 Existing methods of GNSS Signal Authentication 73
5.2 Signal Model and Processing 77
5.2.1 GPS L1 Signal Model 77
5.2.2 BDS B1 and B2 Signal Model 78
5.3 Architecture of Reception System 80
5.4 Authentication Methodology 81
5.5 Experiments 85
5.5.1 Detection of the L1 Real Signal and L1 Spoofing Signal 86
5.5.2 Comparison with the Existing Method 89
5.5.3 Authentication by Two Receivers with Different Sampling Rate 91
5.5.4 The Demonstration on BDS B1 and B2 signals 93
5.6 Summary 103
Chapter 6 Conclusion 104
6.1 Conclusions 104
6.2 Future Research 107
Publication List 115
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