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系統識別號 U0026-1208201913030500
論文名稱(中文) 半監督式深度神經網路於穿戴式裝置之動作辨識
論文名稱(英文) Deep Semi-supervised Network in Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensor Data
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業與資訊管理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial and Information Management
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 陳佑鑫
研究生(英文) Yu-Hsin Chen
學號 R36061209
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 65頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉任修
口試委員-胡政宏
口試委員-張裕清
中文關鍵字 半監督式機率生成模型  行為辨識  穿戴式裝置  變分自動編碼器 
英文關鍵字 Semi-supervised Deep Generative Model  Activity Recognition  Wearable Device  Variational Autoencoder 
學科別分類
中文摘要 穿戴式裝置中的動作辨識主要透過萃取三軸加速度器和陀螺儀中的資料特徵進行動作分類。然而在資料蒐集過程中,傳統標籤方法多半透過影像資訊再經由人工進行比對標記,其所耗費的時間和成本皆非常地高。同時,感測器蒐集而來的訊息容易存在大量的雜訊,進而影響特徵工程的效能與效率。因此,本研究利用半監督式機率生成模型結合深度神經網路將資料進行動作分類;該方法可以使分類模型在有限的標籤資料下,仍然達到良好的分類水準。在特徵提取階段,深度神經網路中的變分自動編碼器(Variational Autoencoder, VAE)產生原始資料降維後之隱性特徵,並利用該隱性特徵來輔助深度神經網路模型的分類。對於未標籤資料,將隱性特徵與未知動作標籤視為兩組機率圖模型中的隱含變數;對於已標籤資料,將隱性特徵與動作標籤之先驗機率分配視為兩組機率圖模型中的隱含變數。接者利用變分推估(Variational Inference)來近似貝氏統計中的後驗機率,透過迭代逐步調升目標式的變分下界(Evidence of Lower Bound, ELBO)來達到期望值最大化(Expectation-Maximization)。本研究實驗三組公開資料集,實驗結果顯示20%以上的標籤樣本下,該方法即達到相當程度競爭性的分類水準。
英文摘要 Activity recognition in wearable devices is mainly classified by extracting data features from triaxial accelerometers and gyroscopes. However, during the process of data collection, the traditional labeling method is typically based on an observation of video-based information and manually corrected, which is very time-consuming and costly. At the same time, human-labeled results are prone to a large amount of noise, which might affect the performance and efficiency of the feature engineering. Therefore, this thesis uses a semi-supervised probabilistic generative model combined with a deep neural network to classify the sensor data into actions. This method can still make the classification model a reliable classifier under conditions with limited labeled data. In the feature extraction stage, the Variational Autoencoder (VAE) in the deep neural network generates the latent features of the original data after dimension reduction and uses the latent features to assist the classification of the deep neural network model. For unlabeled data, the latent features and the unknown action label are regarded as implicit variables in the two probabilistic models; for the labeled data, the prior probability distribution of the latent feature and the action label are regarded as two sets of probabilistic models. Then uses the Variational Inference to approximate the posterior probability in Bayesian statistics, and gradually increases the target's Evidence of Lower Bound (ELBO) to reach Expectation-Maximization. In this study, three groups of public datasets were assessed. The experimental results show that the accuracy of this study is competitive to that of other models using datasets with 20% of the label samples or more.
論文目次 摘要i
Abstract ii
誌謝iv
Content v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 Thesis Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 Related Works 7
2.1 Activity Recognition with Wearable Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1.1 Conventional Feature Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1.2 Feature Extraction by Deep Neural Network . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2 Semi-supervised Learning Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.1 Variational Inference of Latent Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.2 SSL with Variational Autoencoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3 Methodology 15
3.1 Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2 Data Pre-processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.3 Semi-supervised VAE in Activity Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3.1 Latent Feature Discriminative Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3.2 Generative Semi-supervised Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3.3 Training Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4 Experiment 27
4.1 Experimental Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.1.1 Dataset Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.1.2 Experimental Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1.3 Experimental Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2 Data Preprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2.1 Kalman Filter Denoise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.3 Deep Learning with SSLVAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.3.1 Evaluation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.3.2 Parameter Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.3.3 Robustness Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.4 The Comparison with Other Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.4.1 Comparison Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.4.2 Robustness Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.4.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5 Conclusion and Future Work 56
5.1 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.2 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
References 58
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