||Functional polymer dielectrics applied in PTCDI-C13H27-based sensors, memory, and transistors
||Department of Photonics
functional dielectric layer
organic thin-film transistor
quantum chemical simulation
本研究分為兩個主要的課題，第一部份為功能型介電層在n型半導體N,N’-ditridecyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C13H27)的光電元件應用。第二部份是利用量子化學模擬的方法，計算分子間耦合能並對不同分子對的參數進行mapping，來快速分析五環素(pentacene)在單位晶格內載子傳輸的異向性及其n型或雙極型(ambipolar)的電特性成因。PTCDI-C13H27是一種具有高電子載子遷移率的有機半導體材料，常被用來作為n型光電元件的主動層。第一部份的研究被分為三個主要的方向，分別是研究(一) 在利用具強及弱電耦(dipole)的介電層材料所製作的PTCDI-C13H27有機薄膜電晶體中發現的時間相依的電流增益現象，(二) PTCDI-C13H27嵌入式元件光電特性及(三)使用酚類電駐極層製作具光致記憶效應的PTCDI-C13H27記憶體元件。
本論文第一部份的第一個課題是探討第一個在n型電晶體元件發現的時間相依電流增益效應。大部份有機電晶體元件在操作時受到偏壓應力(bias stress)影響，其工作電流會隨時間下降。但本研究發現一個以PI (polyimide)為介電層製作的n型電晶體在長時間操作時，不但沒有電滯效應還有產生電流增益之現象。這個現象主要由三個因素所造成，(一) 是在介電層與主動層之間的缺陷密度(trap state density)較低，(二) PI中的電偶產生閘極場增益及(三) 低缺陷生命期。這種PI介電層材料適合應用在要求穩定操作的電晶體元件上。
本論文第一部份的第二個課題是關於嵌入式光感測電晶體元件的應用。嵌入式光感測電晶體包含兩種相同製程的元件;一個作為光感測器，另一個作為開關電晶體。我們使用以交聯式聚(4-乙基苯酚) (cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol), C-PVP)為介電層及絕緣層材料，並以聚醚碸 (polyethersulfone, PES)基板製作可低壓操作的軟性PTCDI-C13H27嵌入式元件，研究其光電特性。研究發現當光感測器電晶體操作在臨界電壓附近時有最佳的操作電流比。此外，我們研究開關電晶體操作在不同彎曲曲率下的電性變化，並利用光激螢光光譜，時間解析光激螢光光譜和量子化學計算等方法，分析元件在彎曲狀態下造成電性變化的原因。
本論文第一部份的第三個課題是有關光致記憶體效應的研究。本研究使用C-PVP為電駐極層的PTCDI-C13H27記憶體元件，發現利用532 nm 雷射光源作為寫入光源照射元件兩分鐘後可產生長時間的記憶效應。這個效應主要來自兩個電偶極的貢獻，分別是強瞬時誘發電偶極及半永久誘發電偶極。強瞬時誘發電偶極是由於532 nm 雷射照射PTCDI-C8H17分子對(PTCDI家族之一)時，當分子對從基態跳到激發態的過程所產生，其強度根據量子化學模擬計算結果高達27.9 D。當強瞬時誘發電偶極發生時會對具有酚類或酚類官能基的電駐極層產生半永久誘發電偶極而達成記憶效果。我們使用4種相似的電駐極層材料poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and PS參入1 wt% 鄰苯二酚(1,2-dihydroxybenzene, catechol)，製作記憶體元件。驗証了只有具有酚類或酚類官能基的電駐極層可以發現光致記憶體效應。
本論文第二部份是使用量子化學模擬的方法，研究不同晶相的pentacene分子團中pentacene受外圍pentacene分子的空間限制及晶格外圍分子力場交互作用條件下的再組織能及耦合能，來了解pentacene的本質特性及載子傳輸的異向性及其n型或ambipolar的特性成因。我們發現pentacene晶相變化對於耦合能的影響遠大於再組織能，因此我們對pentacene分子對的傾斜角(tilt angle)及邊-面角(edge to face)進行mapping，做更全面的分析。mapping研究結果發現分子對的傾斜角及邊-面角主導pentacene n型或p型的載子遷移率。在一些已知的pentacene晶相中，其n型或p型的載子遷移率其實是匹配甚至n型超越p型載子遷移率。這解釋了在傳統上是p型半導體的pentacene可以呈現n型或ambipolar的特性。
This thesis focuses on the applications of N,N’-ditridecyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C13H27)-based optoelectronic devices and the evaluation of anisotropic charge transport capability in a pentacene cluster via electronic coupling energy mapping using quantum chemical calculation. PTCDI-C13H27 is a potential n-type organic semiconductor with high electron mobility. In this thesis, the applications of PTCDI-C13H27-based optoelectronic devices are grouped into three subjects, with particular focus on functional dielectric layers for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The three subjects are (a) the time-dependent current growth phenomenon of PTCDI-C13H27-based OTFTs using a dielectric buffer layer consisting of strong and weak dipole units, (b) the optoelectronic properties of PTCDI-C13H27-based OTFTs, which include a switch OTFT and a sensor OTFT, with potential for use in in-cell devices, and (c) a photoinduced memory effect in PTCDI-C13H27-based OTFTs through phenolic dielectric buffer layers. Besides, charge transport capability of pentacene in various crystal polymorphisms was also discussed in the thesis by quantum chemical calculation.
In the first part of this thesis, we describe an unusual phenomenon of time-dependent current growth that was first observed in OTFTs, particularly n-type transistors. We obtained the time-dependent growth of the drain current and nearly hysteresis-free electricity under DC bias stress for PTCDI-C13H27-based OTFTs with a polyimide (PI) dielectric layer. These phenomena are attributed to (a) a reduction in trap state density located at the interface between the PI layer and semiconductor, (b) the effective gate field enhanced by electric dipoles within the PI, and (c) a low interface trap lifetime. A polymer dielectric with moderate polar groups is suitable for application in stable organic devices.
In the second part, we demonstrated that the control of the operating voltage for OTFT-based photosensors (photo-OTFT) is an essential factor that can enhance the photocurrent/dark current ratio (P). This phenomenon is due to the reduction of the contribution of field-effect current to output current under dark state. In this study, we analyzed a highly sensitive, flexible, organic photosensor made from cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol) (C-PVP) as a polymer dielectric layer and PTCDI-C13H27 as an n-type active layer on a transparent polyethersulfone (PES) substrate, by tuning both source-drain and source-gate voltages to the neighbor of threshold voltage (Vt = 3.0 V). Interestingly, a maximum P was obtained when the operating voltage was reduced to around Vt. The time-response characteristics and sensitivity of the PTCDI-C13H27-based photosensor were clearly investigated. Considerable interest has been given to the flexible in-cell remote touch screen that comprises both photosensitive and switch OTFTs. In this work, both OTFT-based switch (switch-OTFT) and photo-OTFT were shown to form on the flexible PES substrate using the same fabrication process. The electrical characteristics of switch-OTFT under bending states were discussed in terms of photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, as well as quantum theory calculations.
In the third part, we discussed our discovery on the photoinduced phenomenon of current enhancement and memory effect, in which was discovered in a PTCDI-C13H27-based OTFT structure of non-volatile memory (NVM) devices. This phenomenon was observed after illumination with 532 nm laser for 2 min. The C-PVP electret layer, which consists of hydroxyphenyl group was assembled in NVM. The retention of photoinduced memory effect in C-PVP-based NVM was more than 1 day. Two kinds of dipoles, namely, instantaneously strong and quasi-permanent, caused the photoinduced memory effect in C-PVP-based NVM. An instantaneously strong dipole (27.9 D) was introduced by the excitation process of PTCDI-C8H17 dimer (a derivative of PTCDI family). The quasi-permanent dipole in C-PVP electret layer was generated and aligned by the instantaneously strong dipole. The accumulated charge varied with electric field, time-dependent capacitance measurement, and quantum chemical simulation, which were used to analyze the photoinduced memory effect. To further verify whether the hydroxyphenyl group is the key factor of photoinduced memory effect in NVM, we employed four types of electret layers [poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and PS doped with 1 wt% 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol)] to fabricate NVMs. Results indicated that only the electret of NVMs had hydroxyphenyl group or similar group, and the photoinduced memory effect could be observed. The results in this study could be used as reference in designing electret materials for photoinduced n-type NVMs.
In the fourth part, We proposed an approach for evaluating the charge transport capability of pentacene molecules in various crystal polymorphisms in the framework of Marcus theory of electron-transfer reactions. Crystal-induced reorganization energy (reg) and electronic coupling energy (J), which are the key factors that determine charge hopping mobility in various molecular configurations of crystal clusters, are calculated by using quantum chemical calculation. In particular, we examined the effects of the edge-to-face angle (ef) and tilt angles (tilt) of pentacene molecules in crystal clusters on charge mobility because the two parameters are difficult to determine experimentally. In addition to the effects of lattice constants, we found that tilt and ef exert a large impact on the charge mobility capability of pentacene in various crystal polymorphisms. Our mapping results provide a complete understanding of crystal-induced ambipolar transport capability of pentacene molecules. We highlight that the electron mobility of pentacene molecules are possibly as fast as hole mobility, i.e., balanced ambipolar transport, unlike the previous idea of hole-dominated transport.
Index of Tables XII
Index of Figures XIII
Chapter1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.1.1 History of Organic semiconductors 1
1.1.2 Development of n-type organic thin-film transistors 1
1.2 Research motivation and thesis organization 5
1.3 Principles of OTFT operation and charge transfer mechanism 9
1.3.1 Typical organic field-effect transistors 9
1.3.2 Operation of OTFT devices 9
1.4 Sensitivity and Responsivity of photosensor. 11
1.5 Charge transfer mechanism of organic semiconductors 12
1.5.1 Hopping mobility 12
1.5.2 Reorganized energy 15
1.5.3 Electronic coupling energy 17
Chapter2 Experimental section 19
2.1 Initial Time-dependent Current Growth Phenomenon in n-Type Organic Transistors Induced by Interfacial Dipole Effects 19
2.1.1 PI Synthesis: 19
2.1.2 Quantum chemical calculations: 20
2.1.3 Device fabrication and analyses: 20
2.1.4 PTCDI-C13H27 synthesis 21
2.2 Light sensing in photosensitive, flexible n-type organic thin-film transistors 23
2.2.1 Thin-film formation and device fabrication. 23
2.2.2 Photo-OTFT characteristics measurement 24
2.2.3 Switch-OTFT characteristics measurement 24
2.2.4 Optical property analyses of PTCDI-C13H27 thin films at bending states 24
2.2.5 Quantum chemical calculations 25
2.3 Photoinduced Memory Effect in Organic Non-Volatile Organic Memory Devices 26
2.3.1 Electret layer preparation 26
2.3.2 Quantum chemical calculation 27
2.3.3 Device fabrication and measurement 27
2.4 Systematic mapping of crystal-induced anisotropic charge transfer properties in pentacene 28
2.4.1 Crystal-induced reorganized energy of pentacene 28
2.4.2 Electronic coupling energy mapping 28
2.4.3 Mapping Jobs 29
Chapter3 Initial Time-dependent Current Growth Phenomenon in n-Type Organic Transistors Induced by Interfacial Dipole Effects 31
3.1 Introduction 31
3.2 Results and discussion 33
3.2.1 Electrical characteristics of OTFTs with different dielectric materials 33
3.2.2 Interface traps density and surface free energy 36
3.2.3 Dipole effect in dielectric buffer layer 39
3.3 Summary 42
Chapter4 Light sensing in photosensitive, flexible n-type organic thin-film transistors 43
4.1 Introduction 43
4.2 Results and Discussion 45
4.2.1 In-cell flexible device 45
4.2.2 Electrical characteristic of photo-OTFT 46
4.2.3 Time-dependent analysis for photo-OTFT 49
4.2.4 Threshold voltage shift and maximum photocurrent/dark current ratio of photo-OTFT 51
4.2.5 Electrical characteristic of switch-OTFT in bending states 52
4.2.6 Observation of intermolecular distant changed in bending states by PL and TR-PL 54
4.3 Summary 58
Chapter5 Photoinduced Memory Effect in Organic Non-Volatile Organic Memory Devices 59
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 Results and discussion 60
5.2.1 Electrical characteristic of the photo-writable NVM 60
5.2.2 Dipoles for photoinduced memory effect 63
5.2.3 Quantum chemical calculation for photoinduced dipole 65
5.2.4 Photo-writing efficiency for C-PVP-based NVM 67
5.2.5 NVMs fabricated by different polymer of electrets 68
5.3 Summary 71
Chapter6 Systematic mapping of crystal-induced anisotropic charge transport capability in pentacene 73
6.1 Introduction 73
6.2 Result and discussion 74
6.2.1 Crystal-induced reorganized energy of pentacene calculated in a cluster 74
6.2.2 Electronic coupling energy of pentacene dimers in different crystal polymorphisms 74
6.2.3 Mapping results of electronic coupling energy 77
6.2.4 Anisotropic hopping mobility in different crystal polymorphisms of pentacene. 81
6.3 Summary 84
Chapter7 Conclusion and Outlook 85
List of abbreviations 99
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