進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-1208201316483700
論文名稱(中文) 氣候變異對室內空氣品質的影響:台灣大氣環境中各指標與污染物及其相對室內濃度之15年變化趨勢
論文名稱(英文) Influence of Climate Variation on Indoor Air Quality: a 15-year Profile Analysis of Ambient and Indoor Pollutants
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 何宇琪
研究生(英文) Yuqi-He
學號 S76003014
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 112頁
口試委員 口試委員-蔡朋枝
口試委員-郭炤裕
指導教授-蘇慧貞
中文關鍵字 氣候變異  大氣環境  室內空氣品質  衝擊評估  溫度  汙染物 
英文關鍵字 climate variation  ambient environment  indoor air quality  impact assessment  temperature  pollutants 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近100年內臺灣平均溫度上升了0.8°C,同時間降雨強度和極端降雨事件發生頻率也呈現上升趨勢。建築物是人類在面對氣候變遷衝擊之下最佳的庇護所,然而持續攀升的高溫及各種極端天候事件,室內空氣品質受到室外影響甚劇是不容置疑,例如文獻指出極端降雨,使建築物處於潮濕甚至淹水狀態,室內空氣中的真菌、細菌濃度因而增加;另一方面,室內溫度的增加促使揮發性和半揮發性有機物(如甲醛、磷苯二甲酸酯類等)的逸散量劇增,進而引發室內人員的健康風險,易感族群尤其遭受威脅。目前雖已有眾多研究透過探討汙染物的室內外關係去推論或試想建築環境及人員可能遭受的衝擊與危害,但這些關係多是建構在單一的時間點上的結果,氣候變異是一種建構在長期觀測下的現象,而目前並無直接的暴露評估證據來表明長遠來看汙染物室內外關係是否有所改變?此外,若要探討氣候變異對室內環境的衝擊,利用長期性累積的數據資料庫來呈現汙染物室內外濃度趨勢變化是有必要的。有鑑於此,本研究利用前期所累積大量之不同室內環境評估資料,分析各種汙染物長時間的濃度增減和分佈趨勢,探討近年來氣候變異對室外大環境的衝擊,是否對於一般室內環境亦產生等距之影響;並考量在既有的建築形態及人員使用方式等因素影響下,室內環境受到室外環境變異的實際衝擊程度為何。
本團隊彙整自1998年以來,陸續在臺灣各地區的不同場址包括一般家戶住宅 (307棟)、學校 (154棟)、辦公大樓 (106棟) 以及其他公共場所 (197棟) 共764棟建築物進行室內空氣品質調查之數據資料,監測項目(樣本數)包含室內外溫度 (1668)、溼度 (1652)、二氧化碳 (CO2, 713)、一氧化碳 (CO, 674)、臭氧 (O3, 402)、空氣懸浮微粒PM2.5 (509)、PM10 (436)、空氣活性總真菌 (1726) 以及空氣活性總細菌 (1701)。研究整合與室內採樣點、採樣時間相對應之環保署大氣汙染物一般空氣測站的監測資料,及場所建築特徵和室內外潛在污染源之問卷調查資訊。統計分析部分,首先以差異性分析方法Mann-Whitney Test找出影響室內汙染物濃度分佈之影響因子,再以Multiple Linear Regression with Stepwise篩選出顯著因子,納入後續模式中進行校正。室內外汙染物相關性的模式建立上視數據資料的屬性選用Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) 或Generalized Linear Model (GLM) 進行估算,評估大氣汙染物和氣象因子的變異對室內空氣汙染物的影響程度。最後透過「調查年份」之時間類別變項的加入,探討室內溫溼度以及各種汙染物濃度的長期性分佈趨勢,以beta值來表示相較於基準年份,後續各式指標與汙染物濃度的增減程度,並與大氣之年平均分佈趨勢進行比較。
研究結果發現大氣汙染物濃度的變化對室內汙染物分佈情形均有顯著影響,若在模式中考量大氣溫度之影響,亦發現每單位溫度的增加會顯著影響汙染物室內外關係;在log範圍內,大氣濃度每單位的增加對室內汙染物濃度的影響程度以β (95%信賴區間)表現如下:CO2 3.47 (2.43-4.51)、CO 1.06 (0.41-1.72)、O3 0.40 (0.22-0.59)、PM2.5 0.53 (0.35-0.72)、細菌0.47 (0.40-0.55)、真菌0.54 (0.35-0.73)。進一步加入時間變項後,室內溫溼度和各種汙染物濃度並未與對應的大氣環境指標或汙染物有一致的趨勢,但整體而言,除CO2以外,各式室內汙染物濃度每年的beta值比起基準年份多呈負值,說明相較10年前,室內空氣品質較為理想;然而,近5年室內O3和真菌濃度的中位數相較於過去有顯著的增加,在時間模式中也發現,室內濃度的beta值有隨年份增加的趨勢,顯示室內環境有逐漸惡化的現象。
本研究利用學界罕見之寶貴資料,首次整合長達15年不同類型建築物之室內監測數據,釐清影響室內各式空氣汙染物濃度的因素,進而評估大氣汙染物變異對室內濃度的影響,定量出各自的影響程度。我們發現到,在實場環境中,不論是室內或室外溫度,皆顯著影響著汙染物於室外-室內之間的分佈關係,並透過本研究的整合分析,已定量出具體的影響程度。另外,長期綜觀來看,室內空氣品質在近5年內有逐步惡化的趨勢,且與室內外溫度的上升有關,顯現在未來氣候變化加劇或更多極端天候事件的衝擊下,室內環境恐面臨更為嚴峻的考驗。
英文摘要 The average temperature in Taiwan has rose 0.8°C in the past 100 years. Intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall event have enhanced accordingly as well. Buildings are supposed to be the best shelter for human beings from direct impacts of climate change. However, it is undoubtedly that indoor air quality (IAQ) might affect seriously by outdoor environment since the presence of rising temperature and extreme weather events are never ending. For example, indoor microbial concentrations in average may be increased due to higher prevalence of buildings have suffered from difference severity of flooding disaster during extreme rainfall. On the other hand, higher indoor temperature is thought to promote the emission of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (such as formaldehyde and phthalates). Further health threats, especially for susceptible groups, would be the great challenge for public health. Previous studies have built the relationship of pollutants between indoor and outdoor profile from short and fixed periods. However, climate variation is a phenomenon based on long-term observation. There is no direct evidence of exposure assessment to prove the hypothesis of in-outdoor relationships of pollutants changes or remains the same under a long-term perspective. In order to investigate the impact of climate variation on the indoor environment, the longitudinal distribution of in-outdoor profiles of pollutants should be accumulated over a long period of time. This study is therefore aimed to integrate the database of indoor air indicators and pollutants established by our research team over the past 15 years to evaluate the primary climatic impacts on IAQ in Taiwan.
Since 1998, we have continuously collected monitoring data of IAQ in a total amount of 764 buildings in different kinds of indoor environments, including 307 home 154 school, 106 office and 197 other public places. Indicators and pollutants (abbreviation, sample size) analyzed in this study includes temperature (1668), relative humidity (RH, 1652), carbon dioxide (CO2, 713), carbon monoxide (CO, 674), ozone (O3, 402) and particulate matter (PM2.5, 509, PM10, 436), airborne fungi (1726), bacteria (1701). We further integrated the profiles of ambient pollutants from EPA atmospheric stations according to the sampling area and specific time. Building characteristics and potential indoor and outdoor sources were summarized as well. Mann-Whitney Test was used to explore factors influencing indoor-outdoor relationship of pollutants. We first performed multiple linear regression analysis with stepwise to screen out the significant predictors. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) or Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), depending on the distribution of data format, were selected to evaluate afterward the impacts of ambient pollutants and climate variations on IAQ. Finally, “the year of the sampling conducted” was added in models as a nominal variable to examine the longitudinal trend of temperature, relative humidity as well as concentration distributions in indoors compared with those in ambient environment. Value of beta coefficient was defined as the degree of changes for levels of indoor air pollutant in each year relative to the baseline year.
Results have shown that variations of ambient pollutants had significant impact on IAQ. Besides, these relationships are affected significantly by the change of ambient temperature. Overall, higher levels of ambient concentrations (log scale) associated with the increase of indoor concentrations (log scale) presented as the value of beta (95% CI): CO2 3.47 (2.43-4.51), CO 1.06 (0.41-1.72), O3 0.40 (0.22-0.59), PM2.5 0.53 (0.35-0.72), bacteria 0.47 (0.40-0.55), fungi 0.54 (0.35-0.73). Furthermore, after considering the factor of “sampling year” in the examining models, there was no consistent trend between indoor and ambient levels. It seems that current IAQ is better than a decade ago since lower values of beta coefficients in each year were found compared to that in the year of baseline, except the pollutant of CO2. However, higher median value and beta of indoor O3 and fungi were found after the year of 2005 compared to the levels before 2004, demonstrating a worse situation of IAQ starts to occur.
In conclusion, our study is the first to evidence a series of impacts of ambient pollutants and climate variations on indoor air pollutants by using a 15-years dataset of field investigations. We have clarified the factors contributing to the change of levels of indoor air pollutants and quantified the degrees of these impacts. Regardless of indoors or ambient temperature, it is the major predictor associated with indoor-ambient relationships of air pollutants, and we have further quantified their degrees of contributions. Moreover, as to the longitudinal profile of IAQ, it is found to be gradually deteriorating in the past five years, and is correlated with the increase of temperature. In view of this situation, IAQ would be suffered from more challenges under the rising frequency of extreme climate variations in the near future.
論文目次 中文摘要....... i
Abstract........iii
誌 謝.......v
Content .......vii
List of Table .......ix
List of Figures .......xi
1. Introduction .......1
1.1 Background .......1
1.1.1 The linkages between climate variation, indoor environment and health issue .......1
1.1.2 How climate variation influence indoor environmental quality .......2
1.2 Objectives .......5
1.3 Implications .......6
2. Literature review .......7
2.1 Climate variations .......7
2.2 The impact of climate variations on ambient air quality .......10
2.3 Climate variations, air pollutants and related health effects .......15
2.4 Indoor air quality .......18
2.4.1 Time spent in the indoor environment .......18
2.4.2 Indoor air pollutants and sources .......19
2.4.3 Indoor-outdoor relationship and covariant factors .......20
3. Materials and methods .......25
3.1 Study design .......25
3.2 Study subjects .......26
3.3 Sampling and analysis of indoor & outdoor environment .......26
3.4 Ambient Measurement .......28
3.5 Questionnaire .......29
3.6 Statistical methods .......29
4. Results .......31
4.1 Representative of study buildings .......31
4.2 Profile of indoor, outdoor and ambient air pollutant concentrations .......34
4.2.1 Descriptive Statistics .......34
4.2.2 Relationships between levels of indoor air pollutants .......38
4.2.3 Relationships between indoor and ambient levels of air pollutants .......38
4.3 Factors contributing to distributions of indoor air pollutants .......39
4.3.1 Physical indicators-temperature & RH. .......39
4.3.2 Physical pollutants-CO2 & PM2.5 .......40
4.3.3 Chemical pollutants-CO & O3 .......43
4.3.4 Biological pollutants-bacteria & fungi .......45
4.4 Changes of ambient air pollutant in association with indoor air quality .......51
4.4.1 Impacts of ambient variations on indoor air pollutants .......51
4.4.2 Influence of climatic factors on indoor-ambient relationship of air pollutants .......61
4.4.3 Longitudinal distribution of indoor air pollutants .......65
4.5 Difference of indoor-ambient relationships between periods before and after the year of 2005 .......75
5. Discussions .......82
5.1 Profile of indoor air pollutants in Taiwan .......82
5.2 Relationships between levels of indoor air pollutants .......84
5.3 Factors contributing to distribution of indoor air pollutants .......85
5.4 Impacts of ambient pollutant levels on those in indoors .......87
5.5 Levels of indoor air pollutants in the past 5 years .......89
5.6 Study limitations .......92
6. Conclusion .......93
7. References .......95
8. Appendix .......105
I. Indoor Investigations Included in the Database .......105
II. Questionnaire of Indoor air quality modified from Taiwan EPA .......107
III. Investigation of sampling site .......112
參考文獻 Abt E, Suh HH, Catalano P, Koutrakis P. 2000. Relative contribution of outdoor and indoor particle sources to indoor concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology 34: 3579-87.
Adhikari A, Reponen T, Grinshpun SA, Martuzevicius D, LeMasters G. 2006. Correlation of ambient inhalable bioaerosols with particulate matter and ozone: A two-year study. Environmental Pollution 140: 16-28.
Ariano R, Canonica GW, Passalacqua G. 2010. Possible role of climate changes in variations in pollen seasons and allergic sensitizations during 27 years. Annals of Allergy Asthma & Immunology 104: 215-22.
Asadi E, da Silva MCG, Costa JJ. 2013. A systematic indoor air quality audit approach for public buildings. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185: 865-75.
ASHRAE (American Society of Heating R, and Air-Conditioning Engineers),. 2010. Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality (Standard 62.1). In: Atlanta.
Aydogdu H, Asan A. 2008. Airborne fungi in child day care centers in Edirne City, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 147: 423-44.
Aydogdu H, Asan A, Otkun MT. 2010. Indoor and outdoor airborne bacteria in child day-care centers in Edirne City (Turkey), seasonal distribution and influence of meteorological factors. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 164: 53-66.
Baek SO, Kim YS, Perry R. 1997. Indoor air quality in homes, offices and restaurants in Korean urban areas - Indoor/outdoor relationships. Atmospheric Environment 31: 529-44.
Bates DV. 2005. Ambient ozone and mortality. Epidemiology 16: 427-9.
Beggs PJ. 2004. Impacts of climate change on aeroallergens: past and future. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 34: 1507-13.
Bernard SM, Samet JM, Grambsch A, Ebi KL, Romieu I. 2001. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 199-209.
Boeniger MF. 1995. Use of Ozone Generating Devices to Improve Indoor Air-Quality. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 56: 590-8.
Breysse PN, Buckley TJ, Williams D, Beck CM, Jo SJ, Merriman B, et al. 2005. Indoor exposures to air pollutants and allergens in the homes of asthmatic children in inner-city Baltimore. Environmental Research 98: 167-76.
Britigan N, Alshawa A, Nizkorodov SA. 2006. Quantification of ozone levels in indoor environments generated by ionization and ozonolysis air purifiers. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 56: 601-10.
Bu Z, Kato S, Ishida Y, Huang H. 2009. New criteria for assessing local wind environment at pedestrian level based on exceedance probability analysis. Building and Environment 44: 1501-8.
Buccolieri R, Sandberg M, Di Sabatino S. 2010. City breathability and its link to pollutant concentration distribution within urban-like geometries. Atmospheric Environment 44: 1894-903.
Bureau CW. 2011. Monthly Report on Climate System Central Weather Bureau, Ministry of Transportation and Communications.
Chan AT. 2002. Indoor-outdoor relationships of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides under different outdoor meteorological conditions. Atmospheric Environment 36: 1543-51.
Chang HH, Zhou JW, Fuentes M. 2010. Impact of Climate Change on Ambient Ozone Level and Mortality in Southeastern United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7: 2866-80.
Chao HJ, Schwartz J, Milton DK, Burge HA. 2002. Populations and determinants of airborne fungi in large office buildings. Environmental Health Perspectives 110: 777-82.
Chen C, Zhao B. 2011. Review of relationship between indoor and outdoor particles: I/O ratio, infiltration factor and penetration factor. Atmospheric Environment 45: 275-88.
Chen QY. 2009. Ventilation performance prediction for buildings: A method overview and recent applications. Building and Environment 44: 848-58.
Chou CCK, Lee CT, Chen WN, Chang SY, Chen TK, Lin CY, et al. 2007. Lidar observations of the diurnal variations in the depth of urban mixing layer: A case study on the air quality deterioration in Taipei, Taiwan. Science of the Total Environment 374: 156-66.
Civerolo KL, Hogrefe C, Lynn B, Rosenzweig C, Goldberg R, Rosenthal J, et al. 2008. Simulated effects of climate change on summertime nitrogen deposition in the eastern US. Atmospheric Environment 42: 2074-82.
Cofala J, Amann M, Klimont Z, Kupiainen K, Hoglund-Isaksson L. 2007. Scenarios of global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and methane until 2030. Atmospheric Environment 41: 8486-99.
Confalonieri UB MR, Akhtar KL, Ebi M, Hauengue RS, Kovats B, et al. 2007. Human Health In Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: 40.
Council) NNR. 2010. Informing an effective response to climate change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
D'Amato G, Cecchi L, Bonini S, Nunes C, Annesi-Maesano I, Behrendt H, et al. 2007a. Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe. Allergy 62: 976-90.
D'Amato G, Liccardi G, Frenguelli G. 2007b. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy. Allergy 62: 11-6.
Dales R, Liu L, Wheeler AJ, Gilbert NL. 2008. Quality of indoor residential air and health. Canadian Medical Association Journal 179: 147-52.
de Bruin YB, Koistinen K, Kephalopoulos S, Geiss O, Tirendi S, Kotzias D. 2008. Characterisation of urban inhalation exposures to benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the European Union. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 15: 417-30.
Denman KL BG, Chidthaisong A. 2007. Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press: Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Destaillats H, Maddalena RL, Singer BC, Hodgson AT, McKone TE. 2008. Indoor pollutants emitted by office equipment: A review of reported data and information needs. Atmospheric Environment 42: 1371-88.
Di Giulio M, Grande R, Di Campli E, Di Bartolomeo S, Cellini L. 2010. Indoor air quality in university environments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 170: 509-17.
DiGiorgio C, Krempff A, Guiraud H, Binder P, Tiret C, Dumenil G. 1996. Atmospheric pollution by airborne microorganisms in the city of Marseilles. Atmospheric Environment 30: 155-60.
DOE. 2009. Buildings energy data book. Washington, DC: DOE (Department of Energy).
DOE. 2010. Workforce guildelines ofr home energy upgrades.
Easterling DR, Meehl GA, Parmesan C, Changnon SA, Karl TR, Mearns LO. 2000. Climate extremes: Observations, modeling, and impacts. Science 289: 2068-74.
Eliasson I, Thorsson S, Andersson-Skold Y. 2003. Summer nocturnal ozone maxima in Goteborg, Sweden. Atmospheric Environment 37: 2615-27.
Elsner JB, Kossin JP, Jagger TH. 2008. The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature 455: 92-5.
EPA. 2009a. Child-specific exposure factors handbook. Washington, DC.
EPA. 2010. Our nation's air status and trends through 2010. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
EPA EPA. 1996. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) Data. Washington, DC.
EPA NCfEAOoRaD. 2009b. Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality: A synthesis of climate change impacts on ground-level ozone. An Interim Report of the U.S. EPA Global Change Research Program.
EPA. US. 2007. Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Policy Assessment of Scientific and Technical Information. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Field RW. 2010. Climate Change and Indoor Air Quality.
Fisk WJ RA. 1997. Estimates of improved productivity and health from better indoor environments. Indoor Air 7: 158-72.
Frankel M, Beko G, Timm M, Gustavsen S, Hansen EW, Madsen AM. 2012. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate. Appl Environ Microbiol 78: 8289-97.
2005. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION.
George K, Ziska LH, Bunce JA, Quebedeaux B. 2007. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature across an urban-rural transect. Atmospheric Environment 41: 7654-65.
Girman CG. 2010. To Address the Impacts of Climate Change on Indoor Air Quality Research Needed. Washington, DC: The Indoor Environments Division Office of Radiation and Indoor Air U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Goh I, Obbard JP, Viswanathan S, Huang Y. 2000. Airborne bacteria and fungal spores in the indoor environment - A case study in Singapore. Acta Biotechnologica 20: 67-73.
Gratani L, Varone L. 2005. Daily and seasonal variation of CO2 in the city of Rome in relationship with the traffic volume. Atmospheric Environment 39: 2619-24.
Harrison RM, Jones AM, Biggins PDE, Pomeroy N, Cox CS, Kidd SP, et al. 2005. Climate factors influencing bacterial count in background air samples. International Journal of Biometeorology 49: 167-78.
He C, Morawska L, Taplin L. 2007. Particle emission characteristics of office printers. Environmental Science & Technology 41: 6039-45.
Herbarth O, Matysik S. 2010. Decreasing concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted following home renovations. Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 20: 141-6.
HHS. 2010. How tobacco smoke causes disease: The biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease. A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Office of the Surgeon General.
Holdren J, Tao S, Carpenter DO. 2008. Environment and Health in the Twenty-First Century Challenges and Solutions. Environmental Challenges in the Pacific Basin 1140: 1-21.
Hsu DJ, Huang HL. 2009. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter in buses on highways in Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment 43: 5723-30.
Hsu YC, Kung PY, Wu TN, Shen YH. 2012. Characterization of Indoor-Air Bioaerosols in Southern Taiwan. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 12: 651-61.
IOM IoM. 2011. Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Synthesis Report. In: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Jones AM, Harrison RM. 2004. The effects of meteorological factors on atmospheric bioaerosol concentrations - a review. Science of the Total Environment 326: 151-80.
Kadiyala A, Kumar A. 2013. Quantification of in-vehicle gaseous contaminants of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide under varying climatic conditions. Air Quality Atmosphere and Health 6: 215-24.
Kalogerakis N, Paschali D, Lekaditis V, Pantidou A, Eleftheriadis K, Lazaridis M. 2005. Indoor air quality - bioaerosol measurements in domestic and office premises. Journal of Aerosol Science 36: 751-61.
Kamens R, Lee CT, Wiener R, Leith D. 1991. A Study to Characterize Indoor Particles in 3 Nonsmoking Homes. Atmospheric Environment Part a-General Topics 25: 939-48.
Karbowska-Berent J, Gorny RL, Strzelczyk AB, Wlazlo A. 2011. Airborne and dust borne microorganisms in selected Polish libraries and archives. Building and Environment 46: 1872-9.
Karunasena E, Markham N, Brasel T, Cooley JD, Straus DC. 2001. Evaluation of fungal growth on cellulose-containing and inorganic ceiling tile. Mycopathologia 150: 91-5.
Kato S, Ito K, Murakami S. 2003. Analysis of visitation frequency through particle tracking method based on LES and model experiment. Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 13: 182-93.
Kim D, Sass-Kortsak A, Purdham JP, Dales RE, Brook JR. 2005. Sources of personal exposure to fine particles in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 55: 1134-46.
Kim JL, Elfman L, Norback D. 2007. Respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergen levels in schools - comparison between Korea and Sweden. Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 17: 122-9.
Klepeis NE, Nelson WC, Ott WR, Robinson JP, Tsang AM, Switzer P, et al. 2001. The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 11: 231-52.
Kulkarni PS, Bortoli D, Silva AM. 2013. Nocturnal surface ozone enhancement and trend over urban and suburban sites in Portugal. Atmospheric Environment 71: 251-9.
Kuo CY, Chen PT, Lin YC, Lin CY, Chen HH, Shih JF. 2008. Factors affecting the concentrations of PM10 in central Taiwan. Chemosphere 70: 1273-9.
Lee JH, Jo WK. 2006. Characteristics of indoor and outdoor bioaerosols at Korean high-rise apartment buildings. Environmental Research 101: 11-7.
Lee SC, Chan LY, Chiu MY. 1999a. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at 14 public places in Hong Kong. Environment International 25: 443-50.
Lee SC, Chang M. 2000. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at schools in Hong Kong. Chemosphere 41: 109-13.
Lee SC, Chang M, Chan KY. 1999b. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at six residential buildings in Hong Kong. Environment International 25: 489-96.
Lee T, Grinshpun SA, Martuzevicius D, Adhikari A, Crawford CM, Luo J, et al. 2006. Relationship between indoor and outdoor bioaerosols collected with a button inhalable aerosol sampler in urban homes. Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 16: 37-47.
Leech JA, Nelson WC, Burnett RT, Aaron S, Raizenne ME. 2002. It's about time: A comparison of Canadian and American time-activity patterns. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 12: 427-32.
Leovic KW, Sheldon LS, Whitaker DA, Hetes RG, Calcagni JA, Baskir JN. 1996. Measurement of indoor air emissions from dry-process photocopy machines. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 46: 821-9.
Lighthart B. 1997. The ecology of bacteria in the alfresco atmosphere. Fems Microbiology Ecology 23: 263-74.
Lin CY, Liu SC, Chou CCK, Huang SJ, Liu CM, Kuo CH, et al. 2005. Long-range transport of aerosols and their impact on the air quality of Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment 39: 6066-76.
Lin CY, Liu SC, Chou CCK, Liu TH, Lee CT, Yuan CS, et al. 2004. Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants to Taiwan. Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 15: 759-84.
Lin CY, Wang Z, Chen WN, Chang SY, Chou CCK, Sugimoto N, et al. 2007. Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants to Taiwan: observed evidence and model simulation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7: 423-34.
Liu DL, Nazaroff WW. 2001. Modeling pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Atmospheric Environment 35: 4451-62.
Liu DL, Nazaroff WW. 2003. Particle penetration through building cracks. Aerosol Science and Technology 37: 565-73.
Liu SC, Fu CB, Shiu CJ, Chen JP, Wu FT. 2009. Temperature dependence of global precipitation extremes. Geophysical Research Letters 36.
Long CM, Suh HH, Catalano PJ, Koutrakis P. 2001. Using time- and size-resolved particulate data to quantify indoor penetration and deposition behavior. Environmental Science & Technology 35: 2089-99.
Mancinelli RL, Shulls WA. 1978. Airborne Bacteria in an Urban-Environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 35: 1095-101.
Martinez PA, Caba FM, Alvarado SA, Caceres DD. 2012. Indoor and Personal Carbon Monoxide Exposure Risk Assessment in Sample of Apartment Buildings in Santiago, Chile. Indoor and Built Environment 21: 474-80.
Martuzevicius D, Grinshpun SA, Reponen T, Gorny RL, Shukla R, Lockey J, et al. 2004. Spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 concentration and composition throughout an urban area with high freeway density - the Greater Cincinnati study. Atmospheric Environment 38: 1091-105.
Meklin T HT, Vepsalainen A, Vahteristo M, Koivisto J, Halla-Aho J, Hyvarinen A, Moschandreas D, Nevalainen A. 2002. Indoor air microbe and respiratory symptoms of children in moisture damaged and reference schools. Indoor Air 12: 8.
Mendell MJ HG. 2005. Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence student performance? A critical review of the literature. Indoor Air 15: 27-52.
Meng QY, Turpin BJ, Korn L, Weisel CP, Morandi M, Colome S, et al. 2005. Influence of ambient (outdoor) sources on residential indoor and personal PM2.5 concentrations: Analyses of RIOPA data. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 15: 17-28.
MMWR. 2006. Heat-Related Deaths - United States, 1999-2003. In: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
Monks PS, Granier C, Fuzzi S, Stohl A, Williams ML, Akimoto H, et al. 2009. Atmospheric composition change - global and regional air quality. Atmospheric Environment 43: 5268-350.
Morawska L, He CR, Hitchins J, Gilbert D, Parappukkaran S. 2001. The relationship between indoor and outdoor airborne particles in the residential environment. Atmospheric Environment 35: 3463-73.
Mott JA, Mannino DM, Alverson CJ, Kiyu A, Hashim J, Lee T, et al. 2005. Cardiorespiratory hospitalizations associated with smoke exposure during the 1997 Southeast Asian forest fires. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 208: 75-85.
NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 2004. Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. National Academies, Washington, DC.
Nazaroff WW. 2013. Exploring the consequences of climate change for indoor air quality. Environmental Research Letters 8.
Ng LC, Musser A, Persily AK, Emmerich SJ. 2012. Indoor air quality analyses of commercial reference buildings. Building and Environment 58: 179-87.
Niachou K, Hassid S, Santamouris M, Livada I. 2008. Experimental performance investigation of natural, mechanical and hybrid ventilation in urban environment. Building and Environment 43: 1373-82.
NIEHS. 2010. A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change. In: A Report Outlining the Research Needs on the Human Health Effects of Climate Change. Environmental Health Perspectives and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: The Interagency Working Group on Climate Change and Health (IWGCCH).
Nilsson ED, Barr S. 2001. Effects of synoptic patterns on atmospheric chemistry and aerosols during the Arctic Ocean Expedition 1996. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 106: 32069-86.
Nilsson ED, Paatero J, Boy M. 2001. Effects of air masses and synoptic weather on aerosol formation in the continental boundary layer. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology 53: 462-78.
Norback D. 1995. Subjective indoor air quality in schools - The influence of high room temperature, carpeting, fleecy wall materials and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 5: 237-46.
Norback D, Nordstrom K, Zhao ZH. 2013. Carbon dioxide (CO2) demand-controlled ventilation in university computer classrooms and possible effects on headache, fatigue and perceived indoor environment: an intervention study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 86: 199-209.
NRC (National Research Council). 2006. Green schools: Attributes for health and learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Ochieng CA, Vardoulakis S, Tonne C. 2013. Are rocket mud stoves associated with lower indoor carbon monoxide and personal exposure in rural Kenya? Indoor Air 23: 14-24.
Ohara T, Akimoto H, Kurokawa J, Horii N, Yamaji K, Yan X, et al. 2007. An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980-2020. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7: 4419-44.
Polidori A, Arhami M, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Allen R. 2007. Indoor/outdoor relationships, trends, and carbonaceous content of fine particulate matter in retirement homes of the Los Angeles basin. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 57: 366-79.
Racherla PN, Adams PJ. 2006. Sensitivity of global tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations to climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 111.
Rajsic SF, Tasic MD, Novakovic VT, Tomasevic MN. 2004. First assessment of the PM10 and PM2.5 particulate level in the ambient air of Belgrade city. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11: 158-64.
Ren H WX, Zhao J, Ke H, Lin X. 2010. Investigation of indoor formaldehyde in residential apartments in beijing. 2010 4th Internaional Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering.
Richter A, Burrows JP, Nuss H, Granier C, Niemeier U. 2005. Increase in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over China observed from space. Nature 437: 129-32.
Ross MA, Persky VW, Chung J, Curtis L, Ramakrishnan V, Wadden RA, et al. 2002. Effect of ozone and aeroallergens on the respiratory health of asthmatics. Arch Environ Health 57: 568-78.
Sartor F, Demuth C, Snacken R, Walckiers D. 1997. Mortality in the elderly and ambient ozone concentration during the hot summer, 1994, in Belgium. Environmental Research 72: 109-17.
Schenck AKA, Anne Bracker, Robert DeBernardo. 2010. Climate Change, Indoor Air Quality and Health. University of Connecticut Health Center, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health
Schiermerier Q. 2011. Climate and weather: Extreme measures. Nature 477 2.
Schmier JK, Ebi KL. 2009. The impact of climate change and aeroallergens on children's health. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 30: 229-37.
Schweizer C, Edwards RD, Bayer-Oglesby L, Gauderman WJ, Ilacqua V, Jantunen MJ, et al. 2007. Indoor time-microenvironment-activity patterns in seven regions of Europe. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 17: 170-81.
Semple S, Garden C, Coggins M, Galea KS, Whelan P, Cowie H, et al. 2012. Contribution of solid fuel, gas combustion, or tobacco smoke to indoor air pollutant concentrations in Irish and Scottish homes. Indoor Air 22: 212-23.
Seppänen OA FW. 2004. Summary of human responses to ventilation. Indoor Air 14(Suppl 7): 102-18.
Seppanen O, Fisk WJ, Lei QH. 2006. Ventilation and performance in office work. Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 16: 28-36.
Shair FH, Heitner KL. 1974. Theoretical Model for Relating Indoor Pollutant Concentrations to Those Outside. Environmental Science & Technology 8: 444-51.
Singh U, Reponen T, Cho KJ, Grinshpun SA, Adhikari A, Levin L, et al. 2011. Airborne Endotoxin and beta-D-glucan in PM1 in Agricultural and Home Environments. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 11: 376-86.
Takatori K, Saito A, Yasueda H, Akiyama K. 2001. The effect of house design and environment on fungal movement in homes of bronchial asthma patients. Mycopathologia 152: 41-9.
Thatcher TL, Layton DW. 1995. Deposition, Resuspension, and Penetration of Particles within a Residence. Atmospheric Environment 29: 1487-97.
Tseng CH, Wang HC, Xiao NY, Chang YM. 2011. Examining the feasibility of prediction models by monitoring data and management data for bioaerosols inside office buildings. Building and Environment 46: 2578-89.
Tsigaridis K, Kanakidou M. 2007. Secondary organic aerosol importance in the future atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment 41: 4682-92.
US Department of Health and Human Services. 2005. Workshop on healthy indoor environments. A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: Office of the Surgeon General.
Wallace L. 1996. Indoor particles: A review. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 46: 98-126.
Wang CC, Fang GC, Kuo CH. 2010a. Bioaerosols as contributors to poor air quality in Taichung City, Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 166: 1-9.
Wang YG, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. 2010b. Long-Term Characterization of Indoor and Outdoor Ultrafine Particles at a Commercial Building. Environmental Science & Technology 44: 5775-80.
Wargocki P, Sundell J, Bischof W, Brundrett G, Fanger PO, Gyntelberg F, et al. 2002. Ventilation and health in non-industrial indoor environments: report from a European Multidisciplinary Scientific Consensus Meeting (EUROVEN). Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 12: 113-28.
Weschler CJ. 2000. Ozone in indoor environments: Concentration and chemistry. Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 10: 269-88.
Weschler CJ. 2004. Chemical reactions among indoor pollutants: what we've learned in the new millennium. Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 14: 184-94.
Weschler CJ. 2006. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry. Environmental Health Perspectives 114: 1489-96.
Weschler CJ. 2009. Changes in indoor pollutants since the 1950s. Atmospheric Environment 43: 153-69.
Weschler CJ, Shields HC. 1997. Potential reactions among indoor pollutants. Atmospheric Environment 31: 3487-95.
Willett KM, Gillett NP, Jones PD, Thorne PW. 2007. Attribution of observed surface humidity changes to human influence. Nature 449: 710-U6.
Wolkoff P, Clausen PA, Jensen B, Nielsen GD, Wilkins CK. 1997. Are we measuring the relevant indoor pollutants? Indoor Air-International Journal of Indoor Air Quality and Climate 7: 92-106.
Wu F, Biksey T, Karol MH. 2007. Can mold contamination of homes be regulated? Lessons learned from radon and lead policies. Environmental Science & Technology 41: 4861-7.
Wu PC, Tsai JC, Li FC, Lung SC, Su HJ. 2004. Increased levels of ambient fungal spores in Taiwan are associated with dust events from China. Atmospheric Environment 38: 4879-86.
Wu YH, Chan CC, Chew GL, Shih PW, Lee CT, Chao HJ. 2012. Meteorological factors and ambient bacterial levels in a subtropical urban environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 56: 1001-9.
Yocom JE. 1982. Indoor-Outdoor Air-Quality Relationships - a Critical-Review. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 32: 500-20.
Yu TY, Chang IC. 2006. Spatioternporal features of severe air pollution in Northern Taiwan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 13: 268-75.
Zeng N, Ding YH, Pan JH, Wang HJ, Gregg J. 2008. Sustainable development - Climate change - the Chinese challenge. Science 319: 730-1.
許晃雄 吳, 周佳, 陳正達, 陳永明, 盧孟明. 2011. Taiwan Climate Change Science Report. 臺灣氣候變遷推估與資訊平台建置計畫計畫辦公室 , 國家災害防救科技中心.
紀碧芳. 2003. 受黴菌污染建材上之黴菌種類研究 [Master]. In: 國立成功大學醫學院環境醫學研究所. National Cheng Kung University.
趙坤郁 蘇, 廖素敏,湯大同,翁愫慎,宏萍,賴明陽,薛琴,方淑慧,韓柏檉,林嘉明,王根樹,郭育良,黃伯超,周晉澄,蕭水銀,毛義方,李俊璋,黃玉立,潘文涵,謝顯堂,王淑麗,吳焜裕,溫啟邦. 2008. 台灣一般民眾暴露參數彙編. 國立台灣大學公共衛生學院健康風險及政策評估中心.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-08-30起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-08-30起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw