||Influence of Climate Variation on Indoor Air Quality: a 15-year Profile Analysis of Ambient and Indoor Pollutants
||Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
indoor air quality
本團隊彙整自1998年以來，陸續在臺灣各地區的不同場址包括一般家戶住宅 (307棟)、學校 (154棟)、辦公大樓 (106棟) 以及其他公共場所 (197棟) 共764棟建築物進行室內空氣品質調查之數據資料，監測項目（樣本數）包含室內外溫度 (1668)、溼度 (1652)、二氧化碳 (CO2, 713)、一氧化碳 (CO, 674)、臭氧 (O3, 402)、空氣懸浮微粒PM2.5 (509)、PM10 (436)、空氣活性總真菌 (1726) 以及空氣活性總細菌 (1701)。研究整合與室內採樣點、採樣時間相對應之環保署大氣汙染物一般空氣測站的監測資料，及場所建築特徵和室內外潛在污染源之問卷調查資訊。統計分析部分，首先以差異性分析方法Mann-Whitney Test找出影響室內汙染物濃度分佈之影響因子，再以Multiple Linear Regression with Stepwise篩選出顯著因子，納入後續模式中進行校正。室內外汙染物相關性的模式建立上視數據資料的屬性選用Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) 或Generalized Linear Model (GLM) 進行估算，評估大氣汙染物和氣象因子的變異對室內空氣汙染物的影響程度。最後透過「調查年份」之時間類別變項的加入，探討室內溫溼度以及各種汙染物濃度的長期性分佈趨勢，以beta值來表示相較於基準年份，後續各式指標與汙染物濃度的增減程度，並與大氣之年平均分佈趨勢進行比較。
研究結果發現大氣汙染物濃度的變化對室內汙染物分佈情形均有顯著影響，若在模式中考量大氣溫度之影響，亦發現每單位溫度的增加會顯著影響汙染物室內外關係；在log範圍內，大氣濃度每單位的增加對室內汙染物濃度的影響程度以β (95%信賴區間)表現如下：CO2 3.47 (2.43-4.51)、CO 1.06 (0.41-1.72)、O3 0.40 (0.22-0.59)、PM2.5 0.53 (0.35-0.72)、細菌0.47 (0.40-0.55)、真菌0.54 (0.35-0.73)。進一步加入時間變項後，室內溫溼度和各種汙染物濃度並未與對應的大氣環境指標或汙染物有一致的趨勢，但整體而言，除CO2以外，各式室內汙染物濃度每年的beta值比起基準年份多呈負值，說明相較10年前，室內空氣品質較為理想；然而，近5年室內O3和真菌濃度的中位數相較於過去有顯著的增加，在時間模式中也發現，室內濃度的beta值有隨年份增加的趨勢，顯示室內環境有逐漸惡化的現象。
The average temperature in Taiwan has rose 0.8°C in the past 100 years. Intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall event have enhanced accordingly as well. Buildings are supposed to be the best shelter for human beings from direct impacts of climate change. However, it is undoubtedly that indoor air quality (IAQ) might affect seriously by outdoor environment since the presence of rising temperature and extreme weather events are never ending. For example, indoor microbial concentrations in average may be increased due to higher prevalence of buildings have suffered from difference severity of flooding disaster during extreme rainfall. On the other hand, higher indoor temperature is thought to promote the emission of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (such as formaldehyde and phthalates). Further health threats, especially for susceptible groups, would be the great challenge for public health. Previous studies have built the relationship of pollutants between indoor and outdoor profile from short and fixed periods. However, climate variation is a phenomenon based on long-term observation. There is no direct evidence of exposure assessment to prove the hypothesis of in-outdoor relationships of pollutants changes or remains the same under a long-term perspective. In order to investigate the impact of climate variation on the indoor environment, the longitudinal distribution of in-outdoor profiles of pollutants should be accumulated over a long period of time. This study is therefore aimed to integrate the database of indoor air indicators and pollutants established by our research team over the past 15 years to evaluate the primary climatic impacts on IAQ in Taiwan.
Since 1998, we have continuously collected monitoring data of IAQ in a total amount of 764 buildings in different kinds of indoor environments, including 307 home 154 school, 106 office and 197 other public places. Indicators and pollutants (abbreviation, sample size) analyzed in this study includes temperature (1668), relative humidity (RH, 1652), carbon dioxide (CO2, 713), carbon monoxide (CO, 674), ozone (O3, 402) and particulate matter (PM2.5, 509, PM10, 436), airborne fungi (1726), bacteria (1701). We further integrated the profiles of ambient pollutants from EPA atmospheric stations according to the sampling area and specific time. Building characteristics and potential indoor and outdoor sources were summarized as well. Mann-Whitney Test was used to explore factors influencing indoor-outdoor relationship of pollutants. We first performed multiple linear regression analysis with stepwise to screen out the signiﬁcant predictors. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) or Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), depending on the distribution of data format, were selected to evaluate afterward the impacts of ambient pollutants and climate variations on IAQ. Finally, “the year of the sampling conducted” was added in models as a nominal variable to examine the longitudinal trend of temperature, relative humidity as well as concentration distributions in indoors compared with those in ambient environment. Value of beta coefficient was defined as the degree of changes for levels of indoor air pollutant in each year relative to the baseline year.
Results have shown that variations of ambient pollutants had significant impact on IAQ. Besides, these relationships are affected significantly by the change of ambient temperature. Overall, higher levels of ambient concentrations (log scale) associated with the increase of indoor concentrations (log scale) presented as the value of beta (95% CI): CO2 3.47 (2.43-4.51), CO 1.06 (0.41-1.72), O3 0.40 (0.22-0.59), PM2.5 0.53 (0.35-0.72), bacteria 0.47 (0.40-0.55), fungi 0.54 (0.35-0.73). Furthermore, after considering the factor of “sampling year” in the examining models, there was no consistent trend between indoor and ambient levels. It seems that current IAQ is better than a decade ago since lower values of beta coefficients in each year were found compared to that in the year of baseline, except the pollutant of CO2. However, higher median value and beta of indoor O3 and fungi were found after the year of 2005 compared to the levels before 2004, demonstrating a worse situation of IAQ starts to occur.
In conclusion, our study is the first to evidence a series of impacts of ambient pollutants and climate variations on indoor air pollutants by using a 15-years dataset of field investigations. We have clarified the factors contributing to the change of levels of indoor air pollutants and quantified the degrees of these impacts. Regardless of indoors or ambient temperature, it is the major predictor associated with indoor-ambient relationships of air pollutants, and we have further quantified their degrees of contributions. Moreover, as to the longitudinal profile of IAQ, it is found to be gradually deteriorating in the past five years, and is correlated with the increase of temperature. In view of this situation, IAQ would be suffered from more challenges under the rising frequency of extreme climate variations in the near future.
List of Table .......ix
List of Figures .......xi
1. Introduction .......1
1.1 Background .......1
1.1.1 The linkages between climate variation, indoor environment and health issue .......1
1.1.2 How climate variation influence indoor environmental quality .......2
1.2 Objectives .......5
1.3 Implications .......6
2. Literature review .......7
2.1 Climate variations .......7
2.2 The impact of climate variations on ambient air quality .......10
2.3 Climate variations, air pollutants and related health effects .......15
2.4 Indoor air quality .......18
2.4.1 Time spent in the indoor environment .......18
2.4.2 Indoor air pollutants and sources .......19
2.4.3 Indoor-outdoor relationship and covariant factors .......20
3. Materials and methods .......25
3.1 Study design .......25
3.2 Study subjects .......26
3.3 Sampling and analysis of indoor & outdoor environment .......26
3.4 Ambient Measurement .......28
3.5 Questionnaire .......29
3.6 Statistical methods .......29
4. Results .......31
4.1 Representative of study buildings .......31
4.2 Profile of indoor, outdoor and ambient air pollutant concentrations .......34
4.2.1 Descriptive Statistics .......34
4.2.2 Relationships between levels of indoor air pollutants .......38
4.2.3 Relationships between indoor and ambient levels of air pollutants .......38
4.3 Factors contributing to distributions of indoor air pollutants .......39
4.3.1 Physical indicators-temperature & RH. .......39
4.3.2 Physical pollutants-CO2 & PM2.5 .......40
4.3.3 Chemical pollutants-CO & O3 .......43
4.3.4 Biological pollutants-bacteria & fungi .......45
4.4 Changes of ambient air pollutant in association with indoor air quality .......51
4.4.1 Impacts of ambient variations on indoor air pollutants .......51
4.4.2 Influence of climatic factors on indoor-ambient relationship of air pollutants .......61
4.4.3 Longitudinal distribution of indoor air pollutants .......65
4.5 Difference of indoor-ambient relationships between periods before and after the year of 2005 .......75
5. Discussions .......82
5.1 Profile of indoor air pollutants in Taiwan .......82
5.2 Relationships between levels of indoor air pollutants .......84
5.3 Factors contributing to distribution of indoor air pollutants .......85
5.4 Impacts of ambient pollutant levels on those in indoors .......87
5.5 Levels of indoor air pollutants in the past 5 years .......89
5.6 Study limitations .......92
6. Conclusion .......93
7. References .......95
8. Appendix .......105
I. Indoor Investigations Included in the Database .......105
II. Questionnaire of Indoor air quality modified from Taiwan EPA .......107
III. Investigation of sampling site .......112
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