||不同背景消費者線上購買過程的知覺風險之眼動研究 - 以二手商品拍賣為例
||Online Consumers’ Perceived Risk During Purchasing Process with Different Background on Second-hand Products: An Eye-Tracking Approach
||Institute of Information Management
Buying Decision Process
The Internet has become a modern shopping channel. The C2C (Consumer-to-Consumer) trading platform is one on which people conveniently sell and purchase new or second-hand goods. The C2C trading platform disrupted previous trading patterns because it not only increased the range of goods sold but also enhanced transaction efficiency. Online shopping is convenient, but it also brings more uncertainty and perceived risk to consumers because they can’t have direct contact with goods when they are engaged in online shopping. Perceived risk is affected by individual internal and external factors. Because everyone has a different living environment, past experience, and values, among other factors, these produce different degrees of risk perception. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in perceived risk between two different ethnic groups when they are engaged in online second-hand goods shopping activities. A buying decision process five stage model (Cognition need, information search, alternatives evaluation, purchase and post-purchase) was used as a basis.
In this study, demographic surveys, questionnaires, interviews, and an eye-tracking survey were used. Twenty students and twenty workers were invited to participate in the study experiments. In this study, the seven types and different degrees of perceived risk were aggregated to an eye-tracking experiment based on the past literature on this topic. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted to determine what types of perceived risk participants felt during eye-tracking after they finished the eye-tracking experiment. Finally, according to the quantitative and qualitative data from experiments, an analysis was conducted followed by a discussion of the results.
The final results showed that there are significant differences in the purchasing process in regard to perceived risk between the two groups under consideration. The two online consumer groups exhibited significant differences in the information search stage, where the students exhibited more perception of performance risk, and the workers exhibited more perception of psychological and privacy risks. This study found that the total fixation duration and total fixation count showed significant differences between different perceived risks in the three consumer buying decision stages. Finally, through post-experiment interviews, the reasons why these two online consumer groups pay attention to specific perceived risks were elucidated.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Purposes and Questions 6
1.3 Research Scope and Limitations 7
1.4 Research Procedures 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review 9
2.1 Online Auction 9
2.1.1 New Products Online Auction 10
2.1.2 Second-hand Online Auction 11
2.1.3 Barter 13
2.2 Consumer Behavior 14
2.2.1 Consumer Behavior and Decision 14
2.2.2 Online Consumer 18
2.3 Perceived Risks 21
2.3.1 Consumer Perceived Risk Related Research 23
2.3.2 Dimensions of Perceived Risk 25
2.4 Eye Movements and Eye Tracking 31
2.4.1 Eye Movement Measures 32
2.4.2 Risk Related Studies of Eye Movement 35
Chapter 3 Research Methodology 38
3.1 Research Framework and Process 38
3.2 Study Participants 41
3.3 Eye-tracking Experiment 41
3.3.1 Experiment Environment 42
3.3.2 Experimental Scenarios 45
3.3.3 Experiment Procedures 51
3.4 Questionnaires 53
3.5 Semi-structured Interviews 55
3.6 Data Collection and Analysis Methods 56
3.6.1 Data Collection Methods 56
3.6.2 Data Analysis Methods 59
Chapter 4 Data Analysis 62
4.1 Characteristics of the Study Participants 62
4.2 Eye-tracking Data Analysis 63
4.2.1 Differences between the Two Groups for the Three Buying Decision Stages 63
4.2.2 Differences between the Two Groups for the Five Perceived Risks in the Three Buying Decision Stages 67
4.2.3 Differences of the Five Perceived risks for the Two Groups in the Three Buying Decision Stages 111
4.2.4 Differences in the Three Types of Products for the Two Groups in the Real Buying Decision Process Scenarios 121
4.3 Eye-tracking Behavior data 138
4.4 Attitude and Perceived Risk Survey Analysis Result 143
4.4.1 Attitude Survey Analysis Result 143
4.4.2 Perceived Risk Analysis Result 145
4.5 Interview Results 149
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion 154
5.1 Discussion 154
5.1.1 Eye Movements of the Two Groups 154
5.1.2 Perceived Risks in the Consumer Purchase Process 158
5.1.3 Perceived Risks and Online Shopping Attitude of the Two Groups 160
5.2 Contributions 161
5.2.1 Academic Contributions 161
5.2.2 Practical Contributions 165
5.3 Limitations and Future Research 168
Appendix 1 Basic informantion Survey 179
Appendix 2 Online Shopping attitude Survey 180
Appendix 3 Perceived Risk Survey 181
Appendix 4 Experimental Scenarios 1 183
Appendix 5 Experimental Scenarios 2 184
Appendix 6 Experimental Scenarios 3 185
Appendix 7 Interview Participants’ Demographics 186
Appendix 8 Experimental AOI Area 188
Appendix 9 Variation of Normality for Students 189
Appendix 10 Variation of Normality for Workers 190
Appendix 11 Chi-Square Analysis of Fixation Count between the Two Groups for the Three Buying stages 191
Appendix 12 Chi-Square Analysis of Fixation Count between the Two Groups for the Five Perceived Risks in the Three Buying stages 192
Appendix 13 Chi-Square Analysis of Fixation Count for the Two Groups for the Five Perceived Risks in the Three Buying stages 196
Appendix 14 Chi-Square Analysis of Fixation Count between the Three Types of Products for the Two Groups in the Real Buying Decision Process Scenarios 199
Appendix 15 Residual Analysis of Variance 201
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