進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-1206201922291900
論文名稱(中文) 接收正負面情緒文影響轉貼文意圖與行為的社群平台使用者之腦影像研究
論文名稱(英文) An fMRI Study of Receiving Positive and Negative Articles Influencing Sharing Intention and Behavior of Social Media Users
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業與資訊管理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial and Information Management
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 許嘉茵
研究生(英文) Jia-Yin Xu
學號 R36064231
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 95頁
口試委員 指導教授-謝佩璇
口試委員-呂執中
口試委員-蘇國瑋
口試委員-林明毅
中文關鍵字 社群媒體  情緒  刺激-機制-反應(S-O-R)  功能性磁振造影(fMRI) 
英文關鍵字 Social Media  Emotion  SOR Theory  fMRI 
學科別分類
中文摘要 情緒會因為環境中所出現的刺激、個人對內在認知想法的知覺或是生理出現變化而誘發情緒。擁有正面情緒的時候,當下產生的想法或決策,得到之成果或效益會較一般人來得理想,並淡化負面情緒;包括可進行更重大且持續性的任務,以及增強個人認知功能;反之,負面情緒表現出較高的風險規避偏好。過去許多文獻指出,不同個體處理正負面情緒有所不同,而且正負面情緒對個體決策行為有不同的影響力。近年來因社群媒體的發展以及行動裝置的開發,閱讀線上文字成了人類另一種主要的閱讀方式,然而有不同正負面情緒的文字或是知識性文章,引發讀者們線上轉發的意圖有何不同影響程度,對不同的個體變項是否影響程度也不同,值得本研究深入探討。
本研究以「刺激-機制-反應」(Stimulus-Organism-Response, S-O-R)作為理論基礎,熱門社群軟體Facebook為實驗場域,設計18篇正向情緒貼文以及18篇負向的情緒貼文(情緒貼文亦包括有無知識性,但不包含中性情緒貼文)共三十六篇,做為實驗的刺激材料,採用功能性磁振造影(functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, fMRI)工具,探討不同性別或不同教育背景者(在此研究分為文組與理組),對於正負向情緒貼文是否有不同腦區活化的情形與不同活化程度,以及高低不同的轉發意圖;本研究也進一步探討參與者面對不同類型的文章,其對應腦區相關神經元活化的情形與程度。
研究結果發現理組男性對於在正面與負面文章之中的選擇,以選擇正面文章的判斷比例最高,反之,文組女性對於選擇負面文章的判斷最高。由於性別的不同,男性在閱讀正面文章時,杏仁核(amygdala)有顯著活化。尤其是理科背景的男性,在閱讀含有知識性之正面文章時,其腹內側前額葉皮層(ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC)活化現象較一般情緒文章更顯著。而含有正面情緒文章與負面情緒文章相較之下,參與者在閱讀正面情緒文章時,其左前額皮質層(left prefrontal cortex)較負面情緒文章有較顯著活化;於教育背景的不同,尤其是理科背景的參與者,在閱讀含有知識性之正面文章時,頂葉皮質(parietal cortex)活化現象特別顯著。本研究期待能藉由社群媒體之正負向情緒貼文,對不同性別及不同教育背景的影響,提供社群媒體管理者與貼文者具體的貼文建議。
英文摘要 Emotions can be induced by stimuli in the environment, personal perception of inner cognitive thoughts, or physiological changes. In recent years, with the development of social media and mobile devices, online reading has become a major method for obtaining information. When people read an article—whether a positive or a negative one—their intention to share that article may be triggered. When people have positive emotions, the resulting ideas or decisions are better than otherwise, including greater task performance, persistence, and enhanced cognitive function. Negative emotions are associated with higher risk-aversion preference, and different emotions have different effects on decision-making.
This study is based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) theory, using one of the most popular social media—Facebook—as a field experiment. Eighteen positive and 18 negative emotional articles (including knowledge articles but not neutral articles) were designed as the experimental stimuli. This research utilized functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) tools to explore how positive and negative articles influence the sharing intentions of users from different gender and college major (liberal arts vs. science) groups. This study also observed the activity of different brain areas when readers are faced with different types of articles.
The results of this study indicate that males had the highest judgment score on the selection of positive articles. Conversely, females had the highest judgment score on the selection of negative articles. Due to gender differences, males showed significant activation of amygdala when reading positive articles. Moreover, the article-sharing intention was higher for knowledge emotional than for normal emotional articles. The activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in the brain was higher especially for men in the science group. In addition, positive articles were shared more often by the participants, and the left prefrontal cortex was more activated than when negative articles were being read. Furthermore, different college majors had different degrees of positive knowledge article sharing intention. The parietal cortex of the science group was more activated than that of the liberal arts group. Based on how positive versus negative social media articles impact readers in different gender and college major groups
論文目次 Table of Contents
摘要 I
Abstract III
Table of Contents V
List of Table VII
List of Figures VIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Purposes 7
1.3 Research Process 9
1.4 Research Scope and Limitation 10
Chapter 2 Literature Review 11
2.1 Positive and Negative Emotions and the Relevance of Decision Making 11
2.1.1 Emotion Induction Factors 12
2.1.2 The Influence of Positive Emotion on Decision Making 15
2.1.3 The Influence of Negative Emotion on Decision Making 17
2.2 Discussion on Brain Areas Related to Online Reading 19
2.2.1 Social Media Platforms’ Demographics and Emotion 21
2.2.2 The Brain Areas of Online Reading 23
2.2.3 Changes in Brain Areas of Emotion Affected by Reading Content 25
2.3 Brain Imaging Study of Emotion Influence Decision Making 27
2.3.1. Brain Imaging Study of Emotion Induction 28
2.3.2. Brain Imaging Study of Related Decision Making 33
2.3.3. Research Variables 36
Chapter 3 Research Methods 39
3.1 Research Model 39
3.2 Research Participants 41
3.3 Experimental Situation and Tools 42
3.4 Experimental Procedures 45
3.5 Data Collection Method 48
3.6 fMRI Analysis Method 49
3.7 Interview 49
Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Discussion 50
4.1 Demographic Background for the Formal Study Participants 50
4.2 fMRI Data Analysis 52
4.3 Interview Analysis 65
4.4 Discussion 69
4.4.1 Emotion Influence Decision Making 70
4.4.2 Degrees of Sharing Intention 71
4.4.3 Difference of Brain Area Activation 72
Chapter 5 Conclusions 75
5.1 Conclusions 75
5.2 Contribution 76
5.2.1 Academic Contribution 76
5.2.2 Practical Contribution 78
5.3 Recommendations and Future Research 80
Reference 82
Appendix 1 fMRI Safety Checklist 90
Appendix 2 fMRI Participates Consent 91
Appendix 3 Demographics Survey 95
參考文獻 伍建林、張清、張竟文、宋清傳、苗延魏(民95)。愉快及非愉快氣體激活相應
腦區的功能磁共振成像實驗研究。中國醫學影像技術,22(1),2-6。
Wu, J. L., Zhang, Q., Zhang, J, W., Song, Q. W., & Miao, Y. W. (2006). Functional
MRI study on regional brain responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors. Chin J
Med Imaging, 22(1), 2-6.
林仁和、黃永明(民99)。情緒管理。臺北市:心理出版社。
Lin, R. H., & Huang, Y. M. (2010). Emotion management. Taipei, Taiwan:
Psychological Publishing Co., Ltd.
林奇秀、張婕妤(民104)。愉悅閱讀過程中的正面情緒以台灣女性閱讀BL作品
所得之「療癒感」為例。碩士論文。國立臺灣大學圖書資訊學研究所,臺北市。
Lin, C. S., & Chang, C. Y. (2015). Positive emotions generated from pleasure
reading: Exploring the perception of “healing” for female boys’ love readers in
Taiwan (Master’s thesis). National Taiwan University, Taipei, TW.
吳錦波、彭善怡(民106)。以腦波量測探討文理組學生於不同量表之認知差異。
碩士論文。淡江大學資訊管理學系碩士班,臺北市。
Wu, J. P., & Peng, Y. S. (2017). The use of EEG to explore college students’
cognitive difference between Likert scales and semantic Differential scales
(Master’s thesis). Tamkang University, Taipei, TW.
顏乃欣(民99)。情緒對決策歷程的影響。心理學門熱門前瞻研究。11(4),113-
120。
Yen, N. S. (2010). The interaction of emotion and cognition in decision making
process. Prospective Research in Psychology, 11(4), 113-120.
Bala, H., Massey, A. P., & Seol, S. (2019). Social media in the workplace: Influence on employee agility and innovative behavior. Paper Presented at Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA. Retrieved from http://www2.mitre.org/public/jsmo/pdfs/03-01-internal-on-employee-engagement.pdf
Bertot, J. C. (2019). Social media, open platforms and democracy: Transparency enabler, slayer of democracy, both? Paper Presented at Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA. Retrieved from https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/61631/0782.pdf
Bettman, J R., Luse, M. F., & Payne, J. W. (1998). Constructive consumer choice process. The Construction of Preference, 323-341.
Beymer, D., Orton, P. Z., & Russel, D. M. (2008). An eye tracking study of how
front size and type influence online reading. Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Human-Computer, 456-460.
Brewer, D. & Doughtie, E. B., & Lubin, B. (1980). Introduction of mood and mood shift. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36(1), 215-226.
Brewer, W. F., & Lichtenstein, E. H. (1982). Stories are to entertain: A structural-affect theory of stories. Journal of Pragmatics, 6(5-6), 473-486.
Cahill, L., & Aswad, D. (2015). Sex influences on the brain: An issue whose time has come. Neuron, 88(6), 1084-1085.
Christov-Moore, L., Simpson, E. A., Coudé, G., Grigaityte, K., Iacoboni, M., & Ferrari, P. F. (2018). Empathy: Gender effects in brain and behavior. Neuroscience &Biobehavioral Reviews, 46(4), 604-627.
Catania, F., Nardo, N. D., Garzotto, F., & Occhiuto, D. (2019). Emoty: An emotionally sensitive conversational agent for people with neurodevelopment disorders. Paper Presented at Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA.
Retrieved from https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/59641/0201.pdf
Cattinelli, I., Borghese, N. A., Gallucci, M., & Paulesu, E. (2013). Reading the reading brain: A New meta-analysis of functional imaging data on reading. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 26(1), 214-238.
Chuang, S., & Lin, H. (2007). The effect of induced positive and negative emotion
and openness-to-feeling in student’s consumer decision making. Journal of
Business and Psychology, 22(1), 65-78.
Coiro, J. (2003). Reading comprehension on the Internet: Expanding our
understanding of reading comprehension to encompass new literacies. The Reading Teacher, 56(5), 458-464.
Deppe, M., Schwindt, W., Kugel, H., Plaßmann, H., & Kenning, P. (2005). Nonlinear
responses within the medial prefrontal cortex reveal when specific implicit
information influences economic decision making. Journal of Neuroimaging,
15(2), 171-182.
Desmond, J. E., & Glover, G. H. (2002). Estimating sample size in functional MRI
(fMRI) neuroimaging studies: Statistical power analyses. Journal of Neuroscience
Methods, 118(2), 115-128.
Dias, P., Gomes, M. J., & Correia, A. P. (1999). Disorientation in hypermedia environments: Mechanisms to support navigation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 20(2), 93-117.
Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Kuss, O., & Sa, E. (2002). Empirical studies assessing
the quality of health information for consumers on the world wide web: A
systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(20), 2691.
Feather, N. T. (2008). Perceived legitimacy of a promotion decision in relation to deservingness, entitlement, and resentment in the context of affirmative action and performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(5), 1230-1254.
Ferstl, E. C., Rinck, M., & Cramon, D. Y. (2005). Emotional and temporal aspects of situation model processing during text comprehension: An event-related fMRI Study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(5), 724-739.
Fugate, J. M., Ohare, A. J., & Emmanuel, W. S. (2018). Emotion words: Facing change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 79, 264-274.
Gilleece, L., & Eivers, E. (2018). Characteristics associated with paper-based and
online reading in Ireland: Findings from PIRLS and ePIRLS 2016. International
Journal of Educational Research, 91, 16-27.
Gillioz, C., Gygax, P., & Tapiero, I. (2012). Individual differences and emotional
inferences during reading comprehension. Canadian Journal of Experimental
Psychology, 66(4), 239-250.
Greene, J. D. (2001). An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral
judgment. Science, 293(5537), 2105-2108.
Greenberg, D. M., Warrier, V., Allison, C., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2018). Testing the
empathizing–systemizing theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain
theory of autism in half a million people. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, 115(48), 12152-12157.
Gygax, P., Tapiero, I., & Carruzzo, E. (2007). Emotion inferences during reading
comprehension: What evidence can the self-pace reading paradigm provide?
Discourse Processes, 44(1), 33-50.
Ham, C., Lee, J., Hayes, J. L., & Bae, Y. H. (2018). Exploring sharing behaviors
across social media platforms. International Journal of Market Research, 61(2),
157-177.
Han, D., Duhachek, A., & Agrawal, N. (2014). Emotions shape decisions through
construal level: The case of guilt and shame. Journal of Consumer Research,
41(4), 1047-1064.
Hsu, C., Jacob, A. M., Citron, F. M., & Conrad, M. (2015). The emotion potential of
words and passages in reading Harry Potter – an fMRI study. Brain & Language,
142, 96-114.
Izard, C. E., Kagan, J., & Zajonc, R. B. (1990). Emotion, cognition, and behavior: Based, in part, on workshops. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kahneman, D., Lovallo, D., & Sibony, O. (2011). Before you make that big decision.
Harvard Business Review, 89(6), 50-60.
Khan, U., Depaoli, A., & Maimaran, M. (2019). The unique role of anger among negative emotions in goal-directed decision making. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 4(1), 65-76.
Kida, T. E., Moreno, K. K., & Smith, J. F. (2001). The influence of effect on managers’ capital-budgeting decisions. Contemporary Accounting Research, 18(3), 477-494.
Kirk, U., Gu, X., Sharp, C., Hula, A., Fonagy, P., & Montague, P. R. (2016). Mindfulness training increases cooperative decision making in economic exchanges: Evidence from fMRI. NeuroImage, 138, 274-283.
Koenigs, M., & Tranel, D. (2007). prefrontal cortex damage abolishes brand-cued
changes in Cola preference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(1), 1-
6.
Kühn, S., Strelow, E., & Gallinat, J. (2016). Multiple “buy buttons” in the brain:
Forecasting chocolate sales at point-of-sale based on functional brain activation
using fMRI. Neuroimage, 136, 122-128.
Kumar, P., & Gruzd, A. (2019). Social media for informal learning: A case of
#Twitterstorians. Paper Presented at Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International
Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA.
Lacey, S., Stilla, R., & Sathian, K. (2012). Metaphorically feeling: Comprehending
textural metaphors activates somatosensory cortex: Brain and language. Brain
Language, 120(3), 416-421.
Lee, V. K., & Harris, L. T. (2013). How social cognition can inform social decision
making. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7.
Lin, H., Tov, W., & Qiu, L. (2014). Emotional disclosure on social networking sites:
The role of network structure and psychological needs. Computers in Human
Behavior, 41, 342-350.
Lin, C. S., & Chang, C. Y. (2015). Positive emotions generated from pleasure reading: Exploring the perception of “healing” for female boys’ love readers in Taiwan (Master’s thesis). National Taiwan University, Taipei, TW.
Lin, R. H., & Huang, Y. M. (2010). Emotion management. Taipei, Taiwan: Psychological Publishing Co., Ltd.
Littlefield, M. M., Dietz, M. J., Fitzgerald, D., Knudsen, K. J., & Tonks, J. (2015). Being asked to tell an unpleasant truth about another person activates anterior insula and medial prefrontal cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 553-563.
Liu, C., Chai, J. W., & Yu, R. (2016). Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 24892.
Liu, Z., Xie, Q., Wu, M., Cao, W., Mei, Y., & Mao, J. (2018). Speech emotion
recognition based on an improved brain emotion learning model.
Neurocomputing, 309, 145-156.
Logothetis, N. K., Pauls, J., Augath, M., Trinath, T., & Oeltermann, A. (2001).
Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI Signal. Nature,
412(6843), 150-157.
Malik, M., & Hussain, A. (2017). Helpfulness of product reviews as a function of
discrete positive and negative emotions. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 290-
302.
Malinda, J. M., Frederick, S. B., Monica, L. G., Patpong, J., & Charles, J. L. (2016).
Emotional intent modulates the neural substrates of creativity: An fMRI study of
emotionally targeted improvisation in jazz musicians. Scientific Report, 84(6).
Marston, A., Hart, J., Hileman, C., & Faunce, W. (1984). Toward the laboratory
study of sadness and crying. American Journal of Psychology, 97(1), 127-131.
Martin, M. (1990). On the Induction of Mood. Clinical Psychology Review, 10(6),
669-697.
May, F. (2017). The effect of future event markers on intertemporal choice is moderated by the reliance on emotions versus reason to make decisions. Journal of Consumer Research, 44(2) 313-331.
May, F., & Monga, A. (2014). When time has a will of its own, the powerless don’t have the will to Wait: Anthropomorphism of time can decrease patience. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(5), 924-942.
Muraskin, J., Brown, T. R., Walz, J. M., Tu, T., Conroy, B., Goldman, R. I., & Sajda, P. (2018). A multimodal encoding model applied to imaging decision-related neural cascades in the human brain. NeuroImage, 180, 211-222.
O’Connell, G., Hsu, C., Christakou, A., & Chakrabarti, B. (2017). Thinking about
others the future: Neural correlates of perspective taking relate to preference
for delayed rewards. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuronscience, 18(1), 35-
42.
Odoherty, J. P., Hampton, A., & Kim, H. (2007). Model-based fMRI and its
application to reward learning and decision making. New York Academy of
Sciences, 1104(1), 35-53.
Pajula, J., & Tohka, J. (2016). How many is enough? Effect of sample size in inter-subject correlation analysis of fMRI. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2016, 1-10.
Park, J., Park, D. C., & Polk, T. A. (2012). parietal functional connectivity in numerical cognition. Ceberal cortex, 23(9), 2127-2135.
Peng, J., Agarwal, A., Hosanagar, K., & Iyengar, R. (2018). Network overlap and content sharing on social media platforms. Journal of Marketing Research, 55(4), 571-585.
Plassmann, H., Kenning, P., Deppe, M., Kugel, H., & Schwindt,W. (2008). How
choice ambiguity modulates activity in brain areas representing brand preference:
evidence from consumer neuroscience. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 7(4-5),
360-367.
Preece, D. A., Becerra, R., Robinson, K., Dandy, J., & Allen, A. (2018). Measuring emotion regulation ability across negative and positive emotion: The Perth Emotion Regulation Competency Inventory (PERCI). Personality and Individual Difference, 135, 229-241.
Porcelli, A. J., & Delgado, M. R. (2009). Acute stress modulates risk taking in financial decision making. Psychological Science, 20(3), 278-283.
Raghunathan, R., & Pham, M. T. (1999). All negative moods are not equal:
Motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79(1), 56-77.
Romana, D. L., & Liana, M. M. (2016). Social media platform as a tool for sharing
emotion. A perspective upon the National Security Agencies. Management
Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 4(1), 141-152.
Reimann, M., Schilke, O., Weber, B., Neuhaus, C., & Zaichkowsky, J. (2011).
Functional magnetic resonance imaging in consumer research: A review and
application. Psychology & Marketing, 28(6), 608-637.
Rose, E. (2011). The phenomenology of on-screen reading: University students’ lived experience of digitized text. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(3), 515-526.
Schwarz, N., & Clore. G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 513-523.
Slovic, P., Finucane, M., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2007). The affect heuristic.
European Journal of Operational Research, 177 (3), 1333-1352.
Smith, C. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Appraisal components, core relational themes, and the emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 7(3-4), 233-269.
So, J., Achar, C., Han, D., Agrawal, N., Duhachek, A., & Maheswaran, D. (2015). The psychology of appraisal: Specific emotions and decision-making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25(3), 359-371.
Storrer, A. (2002). Coherence in text and hypertext. Document Design Journal of Research and Problem Solving in Organizational Communication, 3(2), 156-168.
Svedholm-Häkkinen, A. M., Ojala, S. J., & Lindeman, M. (2017). Male brain type woman and female brain type men: Gender atypical cognitive profiles and their correlates. Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 7-12.
Swaggert, E. A., & Broemmel, A.D. (2017). Authenticity, relevance, and connectedness: Graduate students’ learning preferences and experiences in an online reading education course. The Internet and Higher Education, 32, 80-86.
Tangney, J. P., Miller, R. S., Flicker, L., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Are shame, guilt, and embarrassment distinct emotions? Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 70(6), 1256–1269.
Velten, E. J. (1986). A laboratory task for induction of mood states. Behavior Research and Therapy, 6(4), 473-482.
Voorveld, H. A., Noort, G. V., Muntinga, D. G., & Bronner, F. (2018). Engagement
with social media and social media advertising: The differentiating role of
platform type. Journal of Advertising, 47(1), 38-54.
Wang, B., Escobari, D, & Wang, X, (2019). Social networks in online peer-to-peer lending: The case of event-type ties as pipes and primes. Paper Presented at Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA. Retrieved from https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/60099/0659.pdf
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective States: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(6), 1034-1048.
Westermann, R., Spies, K., Stahl, G., & Hesse, F. W. (1996). Relative effectiveness
and validity of mood induction procedures: A meta-analysis European. Journal of
Social Psychology, 26(4), 557-580.
Wright, J. & Mischel, W. (1982). Influence of effect on cognitive social learning
person variables. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(5), 901-914.
Wu, J. P., & Peng, Y. S. (2017). The use of EEG to explore college students’ cognitive difference between Likert scales and semantic differential scales (Master’s thesis). Tamkang University, Taipei, TW.
Yen, N. S. (2010). The interaction of emotion and cognition in decision making process. Prospective Research in Psychology, 11(4), 113-120.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2024-05-24起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2024-05-24起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw