||Primary Teachers’ Practices of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Taiwan
||Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
本論文旨探討教師在學科內容和語言綜合學習(CLIL)課程裡的教學實踐狀況並針對 4Cs 架構的相關細節進行討論。透過文獻回顧，可以了解教師們會針對不同的教學重心，實施不同的教學活動。若教學實施者對CLIL教學重心並不夠徹底了解，在課程設計上較可能遇到更多的困難。本研究藉由課室觀察，檢視教師們在4Cs 架構下的教學實踐內容，並呈現CLIL教學特點。此外，本研究也進行教師面談，藉以檢視課室觀察所收集之資料。
The purpose of the present study aims to explore teachers’ actual practices of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and provide detailed discussions on the 4C (cognition, culture, content, communication, culture) framework. Through literature review, researchers have shown that different emphasis in teaching result from different teacher aims. Since there are still many researchers and practitioners who are not sure what CLIL is or how it could be included in their curricula. It will be difficult for CLIL teachers to implement CLIL lessons if their understanding of CLIL is limited. This study aims to collect and demonstrate possible features of CLIL implementation based on a thorough examination under the rationale of 4C framework. Moreover, interviews were employed to examine the collected data.
To achieve the purpose, three classes of different disciplines in the CLIL program of a primary school were observed for eight weeks. Moreover, interviews were employed to examine the collected data. The major findings of the study are listed as follows.
1)CLIL teachers are not familiar with the 4Cs framework (Coyle, 2007); therefore, they encountered some difficulties in implementing CLIL.
2)Teachers still focus a lot on linguistic features than communicative competence in language teaching. Nevertheless, interactive activities are much more than in traditional classrooms.
3)As CLIL’s aim is to use English to teach content, an effective way to make students learn content and language relied on the activity design. Especially, involving classroom English and transdisciplinary knowledge are a satisfactory idea.
The paper presents teachers’ focus on language and content learning and its implementation in real teaching condition. Moreover, the study provides difficulties in curriculum design and teaching condition for reference. It also provides relevant background knowledge for future teachers and researchers to better comprehend CLIL implementation.
Table of Contents V
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables IX
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Present Study 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 3
1.3 Research Questions 3
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Definitions of CLIL Terms 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 CLIL Curriculum 9
2.1.1 4C Framework 10
2.1.2 Integration of Content and Language 14
2.1.3 Curriculum of Hard and Soft-Driven Class 15
2.2 Pedagogy in CLIL 15
2.2.1 Implementation of Soft and Hard-Driven CLIL 16
2.2.2 Summary of the Focus in CLIL Teaching from Previous Studies 17
2.3 Reviews about CLIL Evaluation 29
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 32
3.1 Participants 34
3.1.1 Courses 35
3.1.2 Teachers’ Backgrounds 35
3.2 Research Instruments 36
3.2.1 Class Observation 36
3.2.2 Interviews 38
3.3 Data Collection 38
3.3.1 Observation Form 39
3.3.2 Interviews 40
CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS 41
4.1 Findings from Classroom Observations 41
4.1.1 Instruction Strategies 41
4.1.2 Activities or Exercises 47
4.1.3 4C Conditions 55
4.2 Findings from Interviews 58
4.2.1 Difficulties in Designing Lessons and Implementation 58
4.2.2 Assessment in CLIL 59
4.2.3 Percentage of Language and Content in Class 60
4.3 Summary of the Results 62
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS & CONCLUSIONS 63
5.1 Summary of the Findings 63
5.2 Discussions 64
5.2.1 Discussion for Research Questions 1 65
5.2.2 Discussion for Research Questions 2 70
5.2.3 Discussion for Research Questions 3 71
5.3 Conclusions 73
5.4 Limitations 73
5.5 Pedagogical Implications 74
APPENDIX I Interview with Teacher 1 85
APPENDIX II Interview with Teacher 2 91
APPENDIX III Interview with Teacher 3 97
APPENDIX IV 104
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