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系統識別號 U0026-1202201910514700
論文名稱(中文) 淡水河口水動力研究
論文名稱(英文) Improvement on the Understandings of Hydrodynamics in Tamsui River
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 107
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 張智勝
研究生(英文) Chih-Sheng Chang
電子信箱 josmath40747@gmail.com
學號 N86051201
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 85頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳佳琳
口試委員-蘇仕峯
口試委員-陳沛宏
中文關鍵字 淡水河  水動力  參數圖  混合  分層  浮球 
英文關鍵字 hydrodynamic characteristics  Tamsui River  GPS drifters  Estuarine Parameter Space analysis 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在了解潮汐型河口的水動力特性並以淡水福祿數(Fresh Water Froude Number)與混合參數(Mixing Parameter)來判定與探討淡水河口之水動力及水質交換等特性。淡水福祿數隨著流速增高而變大,但隨著河口深度增加而變小。混合參數則隨潮流流速振幅增減,但隨著河口深度和潮汐頻率增加而變小。有別於以往使用流速計或是流速剖面儀來測量流速的方法,本研究使用浮球(內部具有GPS定位系統且浮在海面上與海流同步)測量流速,在淡水河口附近使用此系統得到一系列漲退潮的資料再加以分析,並搭配數值模式了解淡水河口之流場概況。其中第二次浮球實驗的流量超過當年之年平均,且當年之年平均值比前幾年的平均值高出一倍。根據實驗,在河口地區的流速約為1.3~1.5m/s,河水流量對河口地區流速影響不大,且河水在出海口處轉向時的流速皆降至0.5m/s。根據水文年報提供之流量及浮球實驗,本研究指出在大潮時候淡水河口可以達到充分混合的條件,而小潮時則表現部分混合的特性,並可推斷淡水河口有較強的潮汐混合能力,且在相同的上游淡水流量情況下漲潮時海水與淡水充分混合,而退潮時海水與淡水則會產生分層現象。
英文摘要 This research aims to understand the hydrodynamic characteristics in tide-driven estuaries. We use the Fresh Water Froude Number and Mixing Parameter to determine and discuss the characteristics of hydrodynamics and water quality in Tamsui estuary. The Fresh Water Froude Number becomes larger as the flow rate increases but smaller as the depth of river mouth increases. The Mixing Parameter changes according to the amplitude of the depth-averaged tide velocity, but becomes smaller when the depth of river mouth and the tidal frequency increases. Different from using flow meter or ADCP, this research uses the GPS drifters, which can synchronize with the ocean current to measure the flow rate. We gain a series of experimental data during flood and ebb tides in Tamsui River mouth for data analysis, so we can understand the overview of the flow field in Tamsui River mouth. In the observation part, the discharge during the second time of experiment exceeded the yearly averaged discharge. According to the experiments, the flow velocity at the river mouth is approximately 1.3~1.5m/s. The influence of discharge to the flow velocity was not obvious. Also, the flow velocity of the river descends to 0.5m/s while drifters turning to other direction near the river mouth. By combining the discharge data provided by the Hydrological year book and the GPS drifter observation, we learned that the freshwater and seawater can be fully mixed during spring tide. Yet during neap tides, they were partially mixed. Therefore, we can summarize that Tamsui River estuary has a better tidal mixing ability. Our observations also indicate that, in the general discharge situation, seawater and freshwater are fully mixed during flood and the estuarine water again becomes more stratified during ebb.
論文目次 摘要 i
Extended Abstract ii
誌謝 viii
表目錄 xi
圖目錄 xii
符號目錄 xv
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 河口類型介紹 1
1.3 淡水河地域介紹 3
1.4 前人研究 4
1.5 本文架構 8
第二章 研究方法 10
2.1 水文調查 11
2.1.1 研究場址—淡水河水位流量測站 11
2.1.2 流量分析 13
2.1.2.1 春季(3~5月) 13
2.1.2.2 夏季(6~9月) 15
2.1.2.3 冬季(10~2月) 19
2.1.3 雨量分析 21
2.1.3.1 春季(3~5月) 22
2.1.3.2 夏季(6~9月) 24
2.1.3.3 冬季(10~2月) 26
2.2 浮球觀測 27
2.2.1 浮球測量原理 28
2.2.2 觀測流程 30
2.2.3 浮球測量範圍與時間 31
2.3 參數圖分析 32
2.3.1 淡水福祿數 Frƒ (fresh water Froude number) 34
2.3.2 混合參數(Mixing parameter) 35
2.4 模式概論 35
第三章 結果與討論 41
3.1 水文調查分析結果 41
3.1.1 極端水文事件說明 41
3.1.2 水文資料分析小結 43
3.2 河口潮流觀測結果 52
3.2.1 第一次觀測 53
3.2.2 第二次觀測 56
3.2.3 河口段流速分析 59
3.3 參數圖分析結果 61
3.3.1 參數計算 61
3.3.2 參數圖分析 67
3.4 模式結果 67
3.4.1 地形水深資料 68
3.4.2 模式網格建構與內差計算 70
3.4.3 模式模擬結果 71
第四章 結論與建議 80
4.1 結論 80
4.2 建議 81
參考文獻 82
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