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系統識別號 U0026-1202201407005400
論文名稱(中文) 自閉症兒童中文組字覺識發展之探究
論文名稱(英文) Explorations on The Development of The Orthographic Awareness of Chinese Characters in Autism Children
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系認知科學碩士班
系所名稱(英) MS in Cognitive Science
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 葉香君
研究生(英文) Shiang-Chun Yeh
學號 u76004038
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 121頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡中凡
口試委員-陳學志
口試委員-陳紹慶
中文關鍵字 自閉症  組字覺識  發展  部件位置規則  部件訊息知識  部件頻率 
英文關鍵字 autism children  orthographic awareness  radical position knowledge  radical information knowledge  radical frequency 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在探究以中文為母語自閉症兒童組字覺識之部件位置知識與部件訊息知識發展。
語文學習障礙一直都是自閉症兒童的核心障礙之一(美國精神醫學學會,2000),包括口語文障礙以及文字學習障礙等,其中又以文字學習障礙最為影響自閉症兒童在校學習,因此為釐清這群兒童文字學習問題,本研究以組字覺識能力之部件位置知識與部件訊息知識 (Ho, Yau 及 Au ,2003) 之發展切入,利用兩個實驗進行探討:實驗一「部件位置規則合理性判斷作業」是透過自閉症兒童對假字、非字、半非字兩兩相較,並且進行二擇一的判別,從中選擇較符合文字部件位置規則性的選項,試圖在相對比較下了解這類兒童對成字與否判斷的類型,並進一步檢視部件位置知識與部件訊息知識各自對於文字成字判斷上的影響,並比對識字量或年齡上發展的變化,以瞭解這類學生與正常兒童之組字覺識能力發展差異及趨勢。實驗二,延續實驗一的發現,更進一步確認自閉症兒童部件位置知識與部件訊息之相互影響性質,並針對對分字左右側空間位置之訊息處理進行探究,以全面性了解自閉症兒童的文字訊息處理機制。本論文之受測對象是一至六年級的在學之自閉症兒童及三、六年級一般發展兒童,並以識字量能力再各自分為對應的四個識字量類別,此外,為配合自閉症兒童操作特性,特將紙本一頁中含有數題的紙筆操作改成電腦一次一題的按鍵操作,期以降低自閉症兒童因大量的作業而產生焦慮或是拒絕完成作業的情緒反應。
研究結果發現,(1)自閉症兒童的組字知識之部件位置知識發展較正常兒童慢(2)自閉症兒童較擅於以耗能的外顯歷程來處理文字訊息,較無法僅透過節能的隱式歷程便完成整字處理(3)自閉症兒童較不擅於處理常見文字訊息(高頻文字訊息) (4)自閉症兒童較偏好處理聲旁部件,且對部首部件的訊息反應相對較差(5)自閉症兒童對於聲旁位置訊息較為敏感。由此可知,雖然自閉症兒童的中文文字訊息處理模式與正常發展兒童不甚相同,尤其對於部件位置與部件特性的處理表現出顯著的差異。但並非無法發展,日後應可基於本研究進一步探究自閉症兒童的文字學習特質在不同文字教學策略的學習成效,並且設計有利於學習之教材,減少自閉症兒童語文學習或閱讀的障礙。
英文摘要 The goal of this present study is to explore the development of the Chinese orthographic awareness in autism children.
The language impairments were the main disabilities in autism children (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), including verbal dysfunctions and related word learning dysfunction that impact the learning and development during school age. In order to investigate these dysfunctions in autism children, two experiments of the study were conducted. The first experiments is the ‘Component Position Judgment Task’, and the second experiments is the ‘Left /Right Position of Chinese Radical Judgment Task. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to select one from the two choices in a question according to Chinese orthographic rules. As a result, different developmental patterns of orthographic awareness between autism children and typical development children were observed. Experiment 2 was designed to follow Experiment 1 for a advanced examination on the related issues. One part of Experiment 2 tested the ability of autism children for judging legitimacy of semantic radical and phonic radical position. Another part of Experiment 2 tested the knowledge of judging the relativity of left /right positional radicals. And the main effects of the different developmental patterns between the two kinds of radicals were also observed. The participants consisted of 40 autism children and 112 typical development children. Moreover, all participants were grouped into four literacy levels. In addition, computerized experimental task and response recording were used for a more suitable facility for autism children in Experiment 2.
The major results were as follow: (a) the development of the orthographic awareness delayed initially in autism children compared to typical development children, (b) autism children performed better while judging with explicit mechanisms but not implicit mechisms, (c) autism children appeared inferior at processing the radicals with high frequency, (d) autism children preferred to process phonic radicals instead of semantic radicals, and (e) autism children were sensitive to the information of right position in a character. According to the results of the study, although, the development of orthographic awareness in autism children is different to the development in typical development children, it is not missing and never stops developing. Therefore, the findings of the present study can be applied to the explorations of creating different teaching strategies for autism children and to the future investigations for the causes of reading disability in autism children.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
一、 自閉症兒童文字學習特質 2
二、 自閉症兒童神經生理特質對於文字學習之影響 3
三、 自閉症兒童認知行為特質對於文字學習之影響 4
第二節 文獻探討 7
一、 文字辨識處理機制: 7
二、 組字知識發展及時程 14
三、 小結 23
第三節 研究目的 24
第四節 研究問題與研究假設 25
第五節 研究方法與研究架構 27
第二章 實驗一:自閉症兒童與一般兒童於組字覺識部件位置知識的差異 29
第一節 研究目的與假設 29
第二節 研究方法 29
一、 受試者 29
二、 研究工具 30
三、 研究設計與研究材料 31
四、 實驗設備 32
五、 實驗程序 32
第三節 結果 34
一、 自閉症與一般兒童整體比較 37
二、 同識字量的兩群兒童比較 57
三、 發展趨勢 66
第四節 討論 74
第三章 實驗二:自閉症兒童之部件位置知識、表義偏旁與不表義偏旁之部件訊息交互影響分析 80
第一節 研究目的與假設 80
第二節 研究方法 81
一、 受試者 81
二、 研究工具 81
三、 實驗設計與實驗材料 81
四、 實驗設備 83
五、 實驗程序 83
第三節 結果 86
一、 實驗二(A)單一部件之合法位置判斷 86
二、 實驗二(B)對分字左右側位置之部件判斷測驗 91
第四節 討論 96
第四章 綜合討論 100
第一節 研究發現 100
一、 部件位置知識的建構與文字訊息處理機制 100
二、 部件頻率與部件位置訊息 101
三、 部件訊息知識 103
四、 對分字左右側位置訊息處理 107
第二節 結論 109
第三節 研究限制與未來研究方向建議 112
一、 研究限制與建議 112
二、 未來研究方向建議 113
參考文獻 114
附錄一 119
附錄二 120
附錄三 121
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