||Synergistic photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of nanocomposites ZnSnO3/polymer (PVDF/PMMA)
||Department of Materials Science and Engineering
two-step hydrothermal synthesis
In this research, we propose a novel way of fabricating ZTO/polymer nanocomposites by simple two-step hydrothermal and spin coating method. This research emphasized on the synergistic properties of the ZTO/polymer nanocomposites.
XRD and SEM were used to characterize the ZTO nanocomosites. The results from the XRD confirmed the presence of ZTO. SEM analysis showed the morphologies of the ZTO nanowires, PMMA, and PVDF. And piezotronic analysis was conducted on PMMA/ZTO and PVDF/ZTO nanocomposites, exhibiting higher current density at -5V when the pressure was higher. The evolution of the Schottky barrier height was also calculated. Under UV light illumination, the output current density obtained were five and seven times higher for PMMA/ZTO and PVDF/ZTO, respectively. These confirmed the synergistic piezophototronic property of the material.
In a piezophotocatalytic experiment, the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) was also investigated. The ZTO/polymer nanocomposites exhibited better degradation property than pure ZTO.
PEC and IPCE measurements were also done to test the potential for water splitting. Under UV light illumination at constant bias supply of 0.5V, the photoelectrochemical current measured was approximately 4A/cm2 for the PMMA/ZTO nanocomposite. The IPCE of the pure ZTO, PMMA/ZTO/, PVDF/ZTO nanocomposites were 15, 18 and 20%, respectively. The IPCE variation as a function of wavelength was in good agreement with the UV-VIS results.
Figure content VII
Table content XIIII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
A. OBJECTIVE 1
B. BACKGROUND 2
I. PHOTOCATALYSIS 2
II. PIEZOELECTRICITY 18
III. PIEZOTRONIC AND PIEZOPHOTOTRONIC EFFECTS 27
IV. PIEZOPHOTOCATALYSIS 33
C. LITERATURE REVIEW 38
I. MATERIAL CHOICE: ZnSnO3 (ZTO) 38
II. POLY(VINYLIDENE DIFLUORIDE) (PVDF) 49
III. POLUMETHYLMETHACRYLATE (PMMA) 54
D. FABRICATION STRATEGIES 57
I. FABRICATION OF ZnSnO3 57
II. FABRICATION OF OXIDES-POYMER NANOCOMPOSITE 63
E. NOVELTY AND SIGNIFICANCE 67
CHAPTER 2 68
F. MATERIALS 68
G. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 69
I. THE FIRST-STEP HYDROTEHRMAL SYNTHESIS 69
II. THE SECOND-STEP HYDROTEHRMAL SYNTHESIS 70
III. SPIN COATING METHOD 71
H. CHARACTERIZATION METHODS 72
I. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) ANALYSIS 72
II. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) 73
III. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (TEM) 73
IV. BAND GAP AND PHOTODEGRADATION 74
V. ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT 76
VI. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL (PEC) CELL 78
VII. INCIDENT PHOTO-TO-CURRENT EFFICIENCY (IPCE)79
CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 81
3.1 PREVIOUS RESEARCH [117, 166] 81
3.2 SOLVOTHERMAL METHOD TO FABRICATE ZnSnO3 82
3.2.1 THE EFFECT OF pH VALUE 83
3.2.2 THE EFFECT OF SOLVENT 83
3.2.3 THE EFFECT OF REACTION TEMPERATURE 84
3.2.4 ZTO NANOWIRES ARRAYS 85
3.3 SEM RESULTS 86
3.3.1 WITHOUT POLYMER (ZnSnO3) 86
3.3.2 ZTO-PVDF NANOCOMPOSITES 88
3.3.3 ZTO-PMMA NANOCOMPOSITES 90
3.4 PIEZOTRONIC EFFECT 92
3.5 PIEZOPHOTOTRONIC EFFECT 99
3.6 PHOTOCATALYTIC AND PIEZOPHOTOCATALYTIC MEASUREMENT 103
3.7 PEC (PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL) MEASUREMENT 107
3.8 IPCE (INCIDENT PHOTON TO CURRENT EFFICIENCY) MEASUREMENT 108
CHPATER 4 CONCULSIONS 110
4.1 SEM ANALYSIS 110
4.2 PIEZOTRONIC ANALYSIS 110
4.3 PIEZOPHOTOTRONIC ANALYSIS 110
4.4 PHOTOCATALYTIC AND PIEZOPHOTOCATALYTIC ANALYSIS 111
4.5 PEC ANALYSIS 111
4.6 IPCE ANALYSIS 111
 C. Xia, Q. Zhao, Z. Ye, and W. Zhu, "Removal of organic pollutants from mononitrotoluene (MNT) wastewater by reduced pressure distillation," Separation And Purification Technology 120, 1–5 (2013).
 Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Z. Cheng, "Removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solution using agricultural wastes: a review," Journal of Molecular Liquids 212, 739–762 (2015).
 J. Santiago-Morales, M. J. Gomez, S. Herrera-Lopez, A. R. Fernandez-Alba, E. Garcia-Calvo, and R. Rosal, "Energy efficiency for the removal of non-polar pollutants during ultraviolet irradiation, visible light photocatalysis and ozonation of a wastewater effluent," Water Research 47, 5546–5556 (2013).
 J. Qiu, G. Zeng, P. Pavaskar, Z. Li, and S. B. Cronin, "Plasmon-enhanced water splitting on TiO2-passivated gap photocatalysts," Physical chemistry chemical physics: PCCP 16, 3115–21 (2014).
 S. H. Hong, H. Isii, M. Touge, and J. Watanabe, "Investigation of chemical mechanical polishing of GaAs wafer by the effect of a photocatalyst," Key Engineering Materials 292, 2005–2005 (2005).
 S. Chakrabarti and B. K. Dutta, "Photocatalytic degradation of model textile dyes in wastewater using ZnO as semiconductor catalyst," Journal of Hazardous Materials 112, 269–278 (2004).
 L. Wu, J. C. Yu, and X. Fu, "Characterization and photocatalytic mechanism of nanosized CdS coupled TiO2 nanocrystals under visible light irradiation," Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 244, 25–32 (2006).
 J. Guo, Y. Li, S. Zhu, Z. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Zhang, W. J. Moon, and D. M. Song, "Synthesis of WO3@graphene composite for enhanced photocatalytic oxygen evolution from water," RSC Adv. 2, 1356–1363 (2012).
 N. Daneshvar, D. Salari, and A. R. Khataee, "Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye acid red 14 in water on ZnO as an alternative catalyst to TiO2," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 162, 317–322 (2004).
 I. T. Peternel, N. Koprivanac, A. M. L. Božić, and H. M. Kušić, "Comparative study of UV/TiO2, UV/ZnO and photo-fenton processes for the organic reactive dye degradation in aqueous solution," Journal of Hazardous Materials 148, 477–484 (2007).
 C. Wu and C. Chang, "Decolorization of reactive red 2 by advanced oxidation processes: comparative studies of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems," Journal of Hazardous Materials 128, 265–272 (2006).
 A. L. Linsebigler, A. L. Linsebigler, J. T. Yates Jr, G. Lu, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, "Photocatalysis on TiO2 surfaces: principles, mechanisms, and selected results," Chemical Reviews 95, 735–758 (1995).
 M. J. Hernandez Rodriguez, E. Pulido Melian, O. Gonzalez Diaz, J. Arana, M. Macias, A. Gonzalez Orive, and J. M. Doma Rodriguez, "Comparison of supported TiO2 catalysts in the photocatalytic degradation of NOx," Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 413, 56–66 (2016).
 J. Ma, H. He, and F. Liu, "Effect of fe on the photocatalytic removal of NOx over visible light responsive Fe/TiO2 catalysts," Applied Catalysis B, Environmental 179, 21–28 (2015).
 D. J. Kim, A. Nasonova, J. H. Park, J. Y. Kang, and K. S. Kim, "NOx and SOx removal by low temperature plasma-photocatalysts hybrid system," Materials Science Forum 544, 91–94 (2007).
 P. Krishnan, M. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. T. Riang, and L. E. Yu, "Photocatalytic degradation of SO2 using TiO2-containing silicate as a building coating material," Construction and Building Materials 43, 197–202 (2013).
 M. Tabatabaee and S. A. Mirrahimi, "Photodegradation of dye pollutant on Ag/ZnO nanocatalyst under uv-irradiation," Oriental Journal of Chemistry 27, 65–70 (2011).
 J. Herrmann, "Heterogeneous photocatalysis: fundamentals and applications to the removal of various types of aqueous pollutants," Catalysis Today 53, 115–129 (1999).
 R. Andreozzi and R. Marotta, "Removal of benzoic acid in aqueous solution by Fe(III) homogeneous photocatalysis," Water Research 38, 1225–1236 (2004).
 K. Nakata and A. Fujishima, "TiO2 photocatalysis: design and applications," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews 13, 169–189, 2012.
 X. Zhao, T. Xu, W. Yao, and Y. Zhu, "Photodegradation of dye pollutants catalyzed byγ-Bi2MoO6 nanoplate under visible light irradiation," Applied Surface Science 255, 8036–8040 (2009).
 A. Phuruangrat, S. Putdum, and P. Dumrongrojthanath, "Materials science in semiconductor processing enhanced properties for visible-light-driven photocatalysis of ag nanoparticle modified Bi2MoO6 nanoplates," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 34, 175–181 (2015).
 X. Fan, L. Zang, M. Zhang, H. Qiu, Z. Wang, J. Yin, H. Jia, S. Pan, and C. Wang, "A bulk boron-based photocatalyst for efficient dechlorination: K3B6O10Br," Chemistry of Materials 26, 3169–3174 (2014).
 J. Luan, M. Chen, and W. Hu, "Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of new photocatalyst ZnBiSbO4 under visible light irradiation," International Journal of Molecular Sciences 15, 9459–9480 (2014).
 M. Joshi, S. P. Kamble, N. K. Labhsetwar, D. V Parwate, and S. S. Rayalu, "Chlorophyll-based photocatalysts and their evaluations for methyl orange photoreduction," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 204, 83–89 (2009).
 Y. Abdollahi and A. Halim, "Photodegradation of p-cresol by zinc oxide under visible light," International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 1, 99–105 (2011).
 V. Nguyen, J. C. S. Wu, and H. Bai, "Temperature effect on the photo-epoxidation of propylene over V–Ti/MCM-41 photocatalyst," CATCOM 33, 57–60 (2013).
 C. Z. Ye and P. A. Ariya, "S ScienceDirect m-xylene ( BTEX ) and SO2 on recyclable Fe3O4 nanoparticles at 0–101 % relative humidities," JES 31, 164–174 (2015).
 M. V. Dozzi and E. Selli, "Effects of phase composition and surface area on the photocatalytic paths on fluorinated titania," Catalysis Today 206, 26–31 (2013).
 X. Wang, L. Sø, R. Su, S. Wendt, P. Hald, A. Mamakhel, C. Yang, Y. Huang, B. B. Iversen, and F. Besenbacher, "The influence of crystallite size and crystallinity of anatase nanoparticles on the photo-degradation of phenol," Journal of Catalysis 310, 100–108 (2014).
 B. C. Daglen and D. R. Tyler, "The effect of morphology changes on polymer photodegradation efficiencies: a study of time-dependent morphology and stress-induced crystallinity," Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials 19, 91–97 (2009).
 Y. Yu, Y. Ding, S. Zuo, and J. Liu, "Photocatalytic activity of nanosized cadmium sulfides synthesized by complex compound thermolysis," International Journal of Photoenergy 2011, 1–5 (2011).
 H. Lin, C. P. Huang, W. Li, C. Ni, S. I. Shah, and Y. H. Tseng, "Size dependency of nanocrystalline TiO2 on its optical property and photocatalytic reactivity exemplified by 2-chlorophenol," Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 68, 1–11 (2006).
 Z. Xie, X. Liu, P. Zhan, W. Wang, and Z. Zhang, "Tuning the optical bandgap of TiO2-tin composite films as photocatalyst in the visible light," AIP Advances 3, 062129-1-062129-7 (2013).
 H. Pan, "Bandgap engineering of oxygen-rich TiO2+x for photocatalyst with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic ability," Journal of Materials Science 50, 4324–4329 (2015).
 J. Shen, Y. N. Wu, L. Fu, B. Zhang, and F. Li, "Preparation of doped TiO2 nanofiber membranes through electrospinning and their application for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green," Journal of Materials Science 49, 2303–2314 (2014).
 X. Chen, H. Cai, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, and B. He, "Solar photocatalysts from Gd-La codoped TiO2 nanoparticles," Journal of Materials Science 49, 3371–3378 (2014).
 Y. Xin, H. Liu, and L. Han, "Study on mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic performance of n-doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrodes by theoretical and experimental methods," Journal of Materials Science 46, 7822–7829 (2011).
 R. Su, R. Bechstein, J. Kibsgaard, R. T. Vang, and F. Besenbacher, "High-quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with superior visible-light performance," Journal of Materials Chemistry 22, 23755 (2012).
 A. R. Albuquerque, A. Bruix, I. M. G. Dos Santos, J. R. Sambrano, and F. Illas, "DFY study on Ce-doped anatase TiO2: nature of Ce3+ and Ti3+ centers triggered by oxygen vacancy formation," Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, 9677–9689 (2014).
 C. Di Valentin, G. Pacchioni, and A. Selloni, "Reduced and n-type doped TiO2: nature of Ti3+ species," The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, 20543–20552 (2009).
 M. Liu, L. He, X. Liu, C. Liu, and S. Luo, "Reduced graphene oxide and CdTe nanoparticles co-decorated TiO2 nanotube array as a visible light photocatalyst," Journal of Materials Science 49, 2263–2269 (2014).
 M. Liu, R. Chen, G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, E. J. Sie, T. C. Sum, N. I. Zheludev, H. Sun, and H. J. Fan, "Tuning the influence of metal nanoparticles on ZnO photoluminescence by atomic-layer-deposited dielectric spacer," Nanophotonics 2, 153–160 (2013).
 S. Kitano, N. Murakami, T. Ohno, Y. Mitani, Y. Nosaka, H. Asakura, K. Teramura, T. Tanaka, H. Tada, K. Hashimoto, and H. Kominami, " Bifunctionality of Rh3+ Modifier on TiO2 and Working Mechanism of Rh3+/TiO2 Photocatalyst under Irradiation of Visible Light," The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117, 11008–11016 (2013).
 J. Theerthagiri, R. A. Senthil, D. Thirumalai, and J. Madhavan, "Handbook of Ultrasonics and Sonochemistry," Singapore: Springer Singapore (2016).
 Y. Naruke, M. Goto, H. Tanaka, and H. Harada, "Sonophotocatalysis of malonic acid solution: possibility of a new contribution to organic reactions," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 49, 3–5 (2010).
 H. Li, Y. Sang, S. Chang, X. Huang, Y. Zhang, R. Yang, H. Jiang, H. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, "Enhanced ferroelectric-nanocrystal-based hybrid photocatalysis by ultrasonic-wave-generated piezophototronic effect," Nano Letters 15, 2372–2379 (2015).
 M. T. Uddin, Y. Nicolas, C. Olivier, T. Toupance, L. Servant, M. M. Müller, H. Kleebe, J. Ziegler, and W. Jaegermann, "Nanostructured SnO2-ZnO heterojunction photocatalysts showing enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic dyes," Inorganic chemistry 51, 7764–73 (2012).
 L. Xie, J. Ma, and G. Xu, "Preparation of a novel Bi2MoO6 flake-like nanophotocatalyst by molten salt method and evaluation for photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B," Materials Chemistry and Physics 110, 197–200 (2008).
 S. Ohzu, T. Ishizuka, Y. Hirai, S. Fukuzumi, and T. Kojima, "Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in water by using Ruthenium(II)-Pyridylamine complexes as catalysts with high efficiency and selectivity," Chemistry-A European Journal 19, 1563–1567 (2013).
 M. Hara, C. C. Waraksa, J. T. Lean, B. A. Lewis, T. E. Mallouk, T. Pennsyl, V. Uni, U. V Park, and V. Pennsyl, " Photocatalytic Water Oxidation in a Buffered Tris (2,2‘-bipyridyl) ruthenium Complex-Colloidal IrO2 System," The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 104, 5275–5280 (2000).
 J. Zhang, H. Yang, S. Xu, L. Yang, Y. Song, L. Jiang, and Y. Dan, "Environmental dramatic enhancement of visible light photocatalysis due to strong interaction between TiO2 and end-group functionalized P3HT," Applied Catalysis B, Environmental 174–175, 193–202 (2015).
 E. Filippo, C. Carlucci, A. L. Capodilupo, P. Perulli, F. Conciauro, G. A. Corrente, G. Gigli, and G. Ciccarella, "Facile preparation of TiO2-polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanoparticles with improved visible light photocatalytic activity," Applied Surface Science 331, 292–298 (2015).
 R. Qiu, D. Zhang, Y. Mo, L. Song, E. Brewer, X. Huang, and Y. Xiong, "Photocatalytic activity of polymer-modified ZnO under visible light irradiation," Journal of Hazardous Materials 156, 80–85 (2008).
 H. Fayaz, R. Saidur, N. Razali, F. S. Anuar, A. R. Saleman, and M. R. Islam, "An overview of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16, 5511–5528 (2012).
 F. Urbain, V. Smirnov, J. Becker, A. Lambertz, and U. Rau, "Solar energy materials & solar cells light-induced degradation of adapted quadruple junction thin film silicon solar cells for photoelectrochemical water splitting," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 145, 142–147 (2016).
 S. P. S. Badwal, S. Giddey, and C. Munnings, "Hydrogen production via solid electrolytic routes," Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment 2, 473–487 (2013).
 W. C. Chueh, "Solar fuels via high-temperature splitting of water and carbon dioxide," SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1201208.004440 (2012).
 P. V. Kamat, "Manipulation of charge transfer across semiconductor interface," J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 663–672 (2012).
 K. Maeda and K. Domen, "New non-oxide photocatalysts designed for overall water splitting under visible light," Journal of Physical Chemistry C 111, 7851–7861 (2007).
 T. Deutsch, M. Reimann, J. Head, P. Vallett, and R. Garland, "II.G.1 photoelectrochemical systems for hydrogen production approach," FY 2007 Annual Progress Report 140–144 (2007).
 S. Bell, G. Will, and J. Bell, "Light intensity effects on photocatalytic water splitting with a titania catalyst," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 38, 6938–6947 (2013).
 S. Licht, "Efficient solar generation of hydrogen fuel-a fundamental analysis," Electrochemistry Communications 4, 790–795 (2002).
 B. Modak, K. Srinivasu, and S. K. Ghosh, "Band gap engineering of NaTaO3 using density functional theory: a charge compensated codoping strategy.," Physical chemistry chemical physics: PCCP 17116–17124 (2014).
 W. Hou and S. B. Cronin, "A review of surface plasmon resonance-enhanced photocatalysis," Advanced Functional Materials 23, 1612–1619 (2013).
 J.-J. Chen, J. C. S. Wu, P. C. Wu, and D. P. Tsai, "Plasmonic photocatalyst for H2 evolution in photocatalytic water splitting," J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 210–216 (2011).
 H. Harada, C. Hosoki, and A. Kudo, "Overall water splitting by sonophotocatalytic reaction: the role of powdered photocatalyst and an attempt to decompose water using a visible-light sensitive photocatalyst," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 141, 219–224 (2001).
 A. Safari and E. Koray Akdogan, "Piezoelectric and Acoustic Materialsfor Transducer Applications," Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. New York, NY, USA (2008).
 A. L. Kholkin, N. A. Pertsev, and A. V. Goltsev, "Piezoelectricity and crystal symmetry," Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. New York, NY, USA (2008).
 Y. Guo, K. Kakimoto, and H. Ohsato, "Quantitative investigation of Raman selection rules and validation of the secular equation for trigonal LiNbO3," Applied Physics Letters 85, 4121 (2004).
 J. Xu, M. Yang, K. Gan, Y. Qu, and X. Zhang, " Enhanced piezoelectric properties of PZT ceramics prepared by direct coagulation casting via high valence counterions (DCC – HVCI)," Ceramics International 42, 2821–2828 (2016).
 C. Dagdeviren, Y. Su, P. Joe, R. Yona, Y. Liu, Y. Kim, Y. Huang, A. R. Damadoran, J. Xia, L. W. Martin, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, "Sensors with enhanced piezoelectric response for cutaneous pressure monitoring," Nature Communications 5, 1–10 (2014).
 V. Thery, A. Bayart, J. F. Blach, P. Roussel, and S. Saitzek, "Effective piezoelectric coefficient measurement of BaTiO3 thin films using the X-ray diffraction technique under electric field available in a standard laboratory," Applied Surface Science 351, 480–486 (2015).
 J. M. Wu, C. Xu, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Zhou, and Z. L. Wang, "Flexible and transparent nanogenerators based on a composite of lead-free ZnSnO3 triangular-belts," Advanced Materials 24, 6094–6099 (2012).
 M. T. Darestani, H. G. L. Coster, T. C. Chilcott, S. Fleming, V. Nagarajan, and H. An, "Piezoelectric membranes for separation processes: fabrication and piezoelectric properties," Journal of Membrane Science 434, 184–192 (2013).
 Z. L. Wang and W. Wu, "Piezotronics and piezo-phototronics: fundamentals and applications," National Science Review 1, 62–90 (2014).
 W. Long, C. Weit, T. Wut, and H. Lius, "Piezoelectric properties of modified PZT ceramics," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 7, 236–242 (1968).
 T. Fang, S. Jian, and D. Chuu, "Nanomechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films by nanoindentation," Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 15, 5253–5259 (2003).
 C. Hu, "Electrical characteristics og ferroelectric PZT thin films for dram applications," IEEE Transaction on ELectron Devices 39, 2044-2049 (1992).
 K. Kondo, K. Watanabe, Y. Abe, J. Haji, and M. Shimizu, "Effect of annealing and hydrogen on properties of electrodeposited platinum electrode and Lead-Zirconate-Titanate films for ferroelectric random access memory applications," Journal of The Electrochemical Society 152, C688 (2005).
 F. Dauchy and R. A. Dorey, "Patterned crack-free PZT thick films for micro-electromechanical system applications," International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 33, 86–94 (2007).
 M. B. Smith, K. Page, T. Siegrist, P. L. Redmond, E. C. Walter, R. Seshadri, L. E. Brus, and M. L. Steigerwald, "Crystal structure and the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition of nanoscale BaTiO3," Journal of the American Chemical Society 130, 6955–6963 (2008).
 L. Z. Kou, W. L. Guo, and C. Li, "Piezoelectricity of zno and its nanostructures," 2008 Symposium on Piezoelectricity, Acoustic Waves, and Device Applications, SPAWDA 354–359 (2008).
 Y. Zeng, Y. Zheng, J. Xin, and E. Shi, "First-principle study the piezoelectricity of a new quartz-type crystal BaZnO2," Computational Materials Science 56, 169–171 (2012).
 J. Wang, H. Zheng, Z. Ma, S. Prasertchoung, M. Wuttig, R. Droopad, J. Yu, K. Eisenbeiser, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films Heterostructures," Applied Physics Letters 85, 2574–2576 (2004).
 A. S. Carter, A. Ned, J. Chivers, and A. Bemis, "Selecting piezoresistive vs . piezoelectric pressure transducers," Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Industry/Kulite General Overview.
 J. Sirohi and I. Chopra, "Fundamental understanding of piezoelectric strain sensors," Journal of Intelligent Materials Systems and Structures 11, 246–257 (2000).
 J. Nuffer and T. Bein, "Application of piezoelectric materials in transportation industry," Global Symposium on Innovative Solutions for the Advancement of the Transport Industry 4, 1-11 (2006).
 J. M. Breguet, W. Driesen, F. Kaegi, and T. Cimprich, "Applications of piezo-actuated micro-robots in micro-biology and material science,"Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA 57–62 (2007).
 C. R. Bowen, A. I. T. Salo, R. Butler, E. Chang, and H. A. Kim, "Bi-stable composites with piezoelectric actuators for shape change," Key Engneering Materials 335, 1109–1112 (2007).
 A. Michael and C. Y. Kwok, "Piezoelectric micro-lens actuator," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 236, 116–129 (2015).
 L. Yang and J. Li, "Neurocomputing robust output feedback control with disturbance estimation for piezoelectric actuators," Neurocomputing 173, 2129–2135 (2016).
 J. Chen, L. Ding, X. Zhang, L. Chu, and N. Liu, "Photodetecting of ZnO nanowires on a Ni wire by coupling of piezotronics effect and pn junction," Optics express 22, 7090–7097 (2014).
 Y. Han, C. Gao, H. Zhu, S. Chen, Q. Jiang, T. Li, M. Willander, X. Cao, and N. Wang, "Piezotronic effect enhanced nanowire sensing of H2O2 released by cells," Nano Energy 13, 405–413 (2015).
 Z. L. Wang, "Progress in piezotronics and piezo-phototronics," Advanced Materials 24, 4632–4646 (2012).
 S. C. Rai, K. Wang, Y. Ding, J. K. Marmon, M. Bhatt, Y. Zhang, W. Zhou, and Z. L. Wang, "Piezo-phototronic effect enhanced uv/visible photodetector based on fully wide band gap type-ii ZnO/ZnS core/shell nanowire array," ACS Nano 9, 6419–6427 (2015).
 K. S. Hong, H. Xu, H. Konishi, and X. Li, "Direct water splitting through vibrating piezoelectric microfibers in water," Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1, 997–1002 (2010).
 K. S. Hong, H. Xu, H. Konishi, and X. Li, "Piezoelectrochemical Effect: A New Mechanism for Azo Dye Decolorization in Aqueous Solution through Vibrating Piezoelectric Microfibers," The Journal of Physical Chemistry 116, 13045-13051 (2012).
 X. Xue, W. Zang, P. Deng, Q. Wang, and L. Xing, "Piezo-potential enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic dye using ZnO nanowires," Nano Energy 13, 414–422 (2015).
 M. B. Starr, J. Shi, and X. Wang, "Piezopotential-driven redox reactions at the surface of piezoelectric materials," Angewandte Chemie International Edition 51, 5962–5966 (2012).
 M. B. Starr and X. Wang, "Fundamental analysis of piezocatalysis process on the surfaces of strained piezoelectric materials," Scientific reports 3, 2160–2168 (2013).
 T. Bora, M. H. Al-Hinai, A. T. Al-Hinai, and J. Dutta, "Phase transformation of metastable znsno 3 upon thermal decomposition by in-situ temperature-dependent raman spectroscopy," Journal of the American Ceramic Society 98, 4044–4049 (2015).
 H. Gou, J. Zhang, Z. Li, G. Wang, F. Gao, R. C. Ewing, and J. Lian, "Energetic stability, structural transition, and thermodynamic properties of ZnSnO3," Applied Physics Letters 98, 8–11 (2011).
 J. M. Wu, C. Xu, Y. Zhang, and Z. L. Wang, "Lead-free nanogenerator made from single ZnSnO3 microbelt," ACS nano 6, 4335–40 (2012).
 J. Huang, X. Xu, C. Gu, W. Wang, B. Geng, Y. Sun, and J. Liu, "Size-controlled synthesis of porous ZnSnO3 cubes and their gas-sensing and photocatalysis properties," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 171–172, 572–579 (2012).
 G. Wang, Y. Xi, H. Xuan, R. Liu, X. Chen, and L. Cheng, "Hybrid nanogenerators based on triboelectrification of a dielectric composite made of lead-free ZnSnO3 nanocubes," Nano Energy 18, 28–36 (2015).
 Z. Tian, C. Liang, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and L. Zhang, "Zinc stannate nanocubes and nanourchins with high photocatalytic activity for methyl orange and 2,5-DCP degradation," Journal of Materials Chemistry 22, 17210–17214 (2012).
 V. A. Online, J. M. Wu, K. Chen, Y. Zhang, and Z. L. Wang, "A self-powered piezotronic strain sensor based on single," RSC Advances 3, 25184–25189 (2013).
 Y. Chen, L. Yu, Q. Li, Y. Wu, Q. Li, and T. Wang, "An evolution from 3D face-centered-cubic ZnSnO3 nanocubes to 2D orthorhombic ZnSnO3 nanosheets with excellent gas sensing performance," Nanotechnology 23, 415501 (2012).
 Y. Zeng, T. Zhang, H. Fan, W. Fu, G. Lu, Y. Sui, and H. Yang, "One-pot synthesis and gas-sensing properties of hierarchical ZnSnO3 nanocages," Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, 19000–19004 (2009).
 Y. Zeng, X. Wang, and W. Zheng, "Synthesis of novel hollow ZnSnO3 cubic nanocages and their HCHO sensing properties," Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 13, 1286–1290 (2013).
 W. Guo, T. Liu, W. Yu, L. Huang, Y. Chen, and Z. Wang, "Rapid selective detection of formaldehyde by hollow ZnSnO3 nanocages," Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 48, 46–52 (2013).
 C. Jin, H. Kim, S. An, and C. Lee, "Highly sensitive H2 s gas sensors based on cuo-coated ZnSnO3 nanorods synthesized by thermal evaporation," Ceramics International 38, 5973–5978 (2012).
 H. Men, P. Gao, B. Zhou, Y. Chen, C. Zhu, G. Xiao, L. Wang, and M. Zhang, "Fast synthesis of ultra-thin ZnSnO3 nanorods with high ethanol sensing properties," Chemical Communications 46, 7581 (2010).
 A. Datta, D. Mukherjee, C. Kons, S. Witanachchi, and P. Mukherjee, "Evidence of superior ferroelectricity in structurally welded ZnSnO3 nanowire arrays," Small 10, 4093–4099 (2014).
 X. Y. Xue, Y. J. Chen, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, "Synthesis and ethanol sensing properties of ZnSnO3 nanowires," Applied Physics Letters 86, 1–3 (2005).
 M. Lo, S. Lee, and K. Chang, "Study of ZnSnO3-nanowire piezophotocatalyst using two-step hydrothermal synthesis," The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, 5218–5224 (2015).
 M. Alam, S. K. Ghosh, A. Sultana, and D. Mandal, "Lead-free ZnSnO3/MWCNTs-based self- poled flexible hybrid nanogenerator for piezoelectric power generation," Nanotechnology 26, 165403-165408 (2015).
 A. V Borhade and Y. R. Baste, "Study of photocatalytic asset of the ZnSnO3 synthesized by green chemistry," Arabian Journal Of Chemistry 1–8 (2012).
 D. Kumar and P. Chaturvedi, "Piezoelectric energy harvesting from vibration induced deformation of floor tiles," Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha (MP), India-464001 1–6 (2016).
 E. Fukada and T. Furukawa, "Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in polyvinylidene fluoride," Ultrasonics 19, 31–39 (1981).
 A Odon, "Voltage response of pyroelectric pvdf detector to pulse source of optical radiation," Measurement Science Review 5, 55–58 (2005).
 A. P. Indolia and M. S. Gaur, "Optical properties of solution grown PVDF-ZnO nanocomposite thin films," Journal of Polymer Research 20, 43-50 (2013).
 H. Zhu, S. Yamamoto, J. Matsui, T. Miyashita, and M. Mitsuishi, "Ferroelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) homopolymer Langmuir–Blodgett nanofilms," Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2, 6727-6731 (2014).
 S. C. Tjong, Y. C. Li, and R. K. Y. Li, "Frequency and temperature dependences of dielectric dispersion and electrical properties of polyvinylidene fluoride/expanded graphite composites," Journal of Nanomaterials 2010, 261748-261757 (2010).
 T. R. Hay and J. L. Rose, "Flexible PVDF comb transducers for excitation of axisymmetric guided waves in pipe," Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical 100, 18–23 (2002).
 C. Tang, B. Li, L. Sun, B. Lively, and W. Zhong, "The effects of nanofillers, stretching and recrystallization on microstructure, phase transformation and dielectric properties in pvdf nanocomposites," European Polymer Journal 48, 1062–1072 (2012).
 V. Sencadas, M. V. Moreira, S. Lanceros-Méndez, A. S. Pouzada, and R. Gregório Filho, "α-to-β transformation on PVDF films obtained by uniaxial stretch," Materials Science Forum 514–516, 872–876 (2006).
 G. Zhu, Z. Zeng, L. Zhang, and X. Yan, "Piezoelectricity in β-phase PVDF crystals: a molecular simulation study," Computational Materials Science 44, 224–229 (2008).
 M. Bohlén and K. Bolton, "Inducing the β-phase of poly (vinylidene fluoride)–a review," Annual Review of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 1, 1–14 (2015).
 Y. Choi, T. G. Yun, N. Qaiser, H. Paik, and H. S. Roh, "Vertically aligned p (VDF-TrFE ) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays," Nature Publishing Group 5, 1–8 (2015).
 D. Mao, B. Gnade, and M. Quevedo-Lopez, "Ferroelectric properties and polarization switching kinetic of poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer," Ferroelectrics Physical Effects 77–100 (2011).
 C. Chang, Y. Fuh, and L. Lin, "A direct-write piezoelectric PVDF nanogenerator," TRANSDUCERS 2009 - 2009 International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference 1485–1488 (2009).
 A. V Shirinov and W. K. Schomburg, "Pressure sensor from a PVDF film," Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical 142, 48–55 (2008).
 R. Pérez, M. Král, and H. Bleuler, "Sensors and actuators a: physical study of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based bimorph actuators for laser scanning actuation at kHz frequency range," Sensors Actuators: A. Physical 183, 84–94 (2012).
 F. S. Foster, K. A. Harasiewicz, and M. D. Sherar, "A history of medical and biological imaging with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) transducers.," IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control 47, 1363–1371 (2000).
 N. Fujitsuka, J. Sakata, Y. Miyachi, K. Mizuno, K. Ohtsuka, Y. Taga, and O. Tabata, "Monolithic pyroelectric infrared image sensor using PVDF thin film," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 66, 237–243 (1998).
 T. Sharma, S. Je, B. Gill, and J. X. J. Zhang, "Sensors and actuators a: physical patterning piezoelectric thin film PVDF–TrFE based pressure sensor for catheter application," Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical 177, 87–92 (2012).
 H. C. Chen, C. H. Tsai, and M. C. Yang, "Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of electrospun polylactide/poly(vinylidene fluoride) mats," Journal of Polymer Research 18, 319–327 (2011).
 U. Ali, K. J. B. A. Karim, and N. A. Buang, "A review of the properties and applications of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)," Polymer Reviews 55, 678–705 (2015).
 P. Wu, L. Huang, Y. Guo, and C. Lin, "Effects of the novel poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-encapsulated organic ultraviolet (UV) filters on the UV absorbance and in vitro sun protection factor (SPF)," Journal Of Photochemistry & Photobiology, B: Biology 131, 24–30 (2014).
 A. Boger, M. Bohner, P. Heini, S. Verrier, and E. Schneider, "Properties of an injectable low modulus PMMA bone cement for osteoporotic bone," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials 86, 474–482 (2008).
 M. Arora, E. K. Chan, S. Gupta, and A. D. Diwan, "Polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and additives: a review of the literature," World Journal of Orthopedics 4, 67-74 (2013).
 S. Klammt, A. Neyer, and H. F. O. Müller, "Redirection of sunlight by microstructured components simulation, fabrication and experimental results," Solar Energy 86, 1660–1666 (2012).
 P. Cools, N. De Geyter, E. Vanderleyden, F. Barberis, P. Dubruel, and R. Morent, "Adhesion improvement at the pmma bone cement-titanium implant interface using methyl methacrylate atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization," Surface and Coatings Technology 294, 201–209 (2016).
 M. Khandaker and Z. Meng, "The effect of nanoparticles and alternative monomer on the exothermic temperature of PMMA bone cement," Procedia Engineering 105, 946–952 (2015).
 E. N. Skountzos, A. Anastassiou, V. G. Mavrantzas, and D. N. Theodorou, "Determination of the mechanical properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite with functionalized graphene sheets through detailed atomistic simulations," Macromolecules 47, 8072–8088 (2014).
 Y. Zhang, S. Zhuang, X. Xu, and J. Hu, "Transparent and UV-shielding ZnO@PMMA nanocomposite films," Optical Materials 36, 169–172 (2013).
 S. M. El-bashir, "Photophysical properties of fluorescent PMMA/SiO2 nanohybrids for solar energy applications," Journal of Luminescence 132, 1786–1791 (2012).
 C. Tsai, C. Lu, M. Chen, T. Huang, C. Wu, and Y. Chung, "Efficient gel-state dye-sensitized solar cells adopting polymer gel electrolyte based on poly (methyl methacrylate)," Organic Electronics 14, 3131–3137 (2013).
 M. Zuber, S. Tabasum, T. Jamil, M. Shahid, R. Hussain, K. S. Feras, and K. P. Bhatti, "Biocompatibility and microscopic evaluation of polyurethane-poly(methyl methacrylate)-titnanium dioxide based composites for dental applications," Journal of Applied Polymer Science 131, 1–9 (2014).
 T. T. Manh, J. Lim, and S. Yoon, "Growth of ZnSnO3 Thin Films on c-Al2O3 (0001) Substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition," J. Kieeme 27, 297–302 (2014).
 M. S. HEGDE, "Epitaxial oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition: retrospect and prospect," Journal of Chemical Sciences 113, 445–458 (2001).
 V. Boffa, T. Petrisor, L. Ciontea, U. Gambardella, and S. Barbanera, "High-quality surface YBCO thin films prepared by off-axis pulsed laser deposition technique," Physica C: Superconductivity 276, 218–224 (1997).
 Y. Choi, H. Kim, H. Koo, T.-W. Kim, and S. Lee, "Flexible ZnSnO3/Ag/ZnSnO3 multilayer electrodes grown by roll-to-roll sputtering on flexible polyethersulfone substrates," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 29, 061502-1–061502-7 (2011).
 Y. Choi, S. J. Kang, and H. Kim, "Rapid thermal annealing effect on the characteristics of ZnSnO3 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering," Current Applied Physics 12, 104–107 (2012).
 Y. Cao, D. Jia, J. Zhou, and Y. Sun, "Simple solid-state chemical synthesis of ZnSnO3 nanocubes and their application as gas sensors," European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 2009, 4105–4109 (2009).
 J. M. Zhu, G. B. Ma, F. Li, S. S. Huang, Q. Li, X. Q. Xin, and N. Ben Ming, "3-D self-assembled ZnSnO3 nanoparticles: one-step solid-state synthesis," Journal of Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials 23, 105–108 (2005).
 S. H. Lee, S. Kochawattana, G. L. Messing, J. Q. Dumm, G. Quarles, and V. Castillo, "Solid-state reactive sintering of transparent polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics," Journal of the American Ceramic Society 89, 1945–1950 (2016).
 K. Upadhyay, R. Kumar, and V. Dubey, "Superlattices and Microstructures High temperature solid state synthesis and photoluminescence behavior of Eu3+ doped GdAlO3 nanophosphor," Superlattices And Microstructures 78, 116–124 (2015).
 J. Ida, T. Honma, S. Hayashi, K. Nakajima, E. Wada, and A. Shimizu, "Pressure effect on low-temperature TiO2 synthesis," Journal of Physics: Conference Series 215, 012132-012137 (2010).
 S. Xu, Y. Qin, C. Xu, Y. Wei, R. Yang, and Z. L. Wang, "Self-powered nanowire devices," Nature Nanotechnology 5, 366–373 (2010).
 Z. Wang, X. Pan, Y. He, Y. Hu, H. Gu, and Y. Wang, "Piezoelectric nanowires in energy harvesting applications, "Advances inMaterials Science and Engineering 2015, 165631-165652 (2015).
 Y. T. Wang and K. S. Chang, "Piezopotential-Induced Schottky behavior of Zn1–xSnO3," Journal of the American Ceramic Society 99, 2593–2600 (2016).
 R. E. Brandt, M. Young, H. H. Park, A. Dameron, D. Chua, Y. S. Lee, G. Teeter, R. G. Gordon, and T. Buonassisi, "Band offsets of n-type electron-selective contacts on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) for photovoltaics," Applied Physics Letters 105, 16–21 (2014).
 J. Lee, S. C. Lee, C. S. Hwang, and J.-H. Choi, "Thermodynamic stability of various phases of zinc tin oxides from ab initio calculations," Journal of Materials Chemistry C 1, 6364 -6374(2013).
 V. F. Cardoso, G. Minas, and S. Lanceros-Mendez, "Multilayer spin-coating deposition of poly(vinylidene fluoride) films for controlling thickness and piezoelectric response," Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical 192, 76–80 (2013).
 R. Hinchet, S. Lee, G. Ardila, L. Montes, M. Mouis, and Z. L. Wang, "Performance optimization of vertical nanowire-based piezoelectric nanogenerators," Advanced Functional Materials 24, 971–977 (2014).