||Study on Soil Liquefaction Potential and Post-Liquefaction Settlement Analysis Method of Low-Plasticity Silty Sand
||Department of Civil Engineering
soil liquefaction potential
於大地工程領域中，拜資訊科技發達之賜，對於土壤基礎特性試驗投入大量時間成本之研究團隊已屬式微，成功大學海域大地工程研究室自2005年起，即針對低塑性粉土進行系列式研究，此研究團隊中Chen et al. (2014)及Lee et al. (2015)以低塑性粉土之土壤動力性質為主要研究內容發表於國際期刊，並成功博得相關領域學者之青睞，本研究立基於此，為近十年間首次針對低塑性粉土之原狀土樣試驗成果提出延續應用，以室內試驗結果為本，針對現行土壤液化評估方法(液化潛能評估、液化後沉陷量評估)給予修正建議。
In this study, HsinHwa area in Taiwan was selected as research site to investigate the soil liquefaction properties of low-plasticity silty sand. A series of soil dynamic tests of high quality undisturbed low-plasticity silty sand soil specimens were performed.High quality undisturbed soil specimens were obtained by undisturbed sampling technique for laboratory tests, including the influence of void ratio, fines content, and the disturbance effect to post-liquefaction volumetric strain of low-plasticity silty sand were investigated. The applicability of the current soil liquefaction evaluation methods (include soil liquefaction potential and post-liquefaction settlement) in Taiwan is discussed based on relevant research results first, and then the formulation of analysis process of the current evaluation methods is proposed. Finally, modified analysis procedures of soil liquefaction potential assessment method and post-liquefaction settlement evaluation method were proposed based on the laboratory test results, case verification in Wufeng and Yuanlin area was carried out at the same time.Research progress presented here is in hoped to be helpful in understanding soil liquefaction behavior of low-plasticity silty sand in future engineering applications.
Keywords: low-plasticity silty sand, post-liqeufaction volumetric strain, soil liquefaction potential assessment method, post-liquefaction settlement evaluation method.
Low-plasticity silty sand with high fines content (SM or ML with PI < 4) extensively covers areas in the central to southern parts of the western Taiwan. In 1999, severe soil liquefaction disasters of low-plasticity silty sand were occurred by Chi-Chi earthquake in Wufeng and Yuanlin area of Taiwan. A lot of relative researches of soil liquefaction potential assessment were proposed, but the analysis results and accuracy were undesirable. According to the unique soil properties of low-plasticity silty sand layer, the influence of non-plastic fine was a major factor to soil liquefaction evaluation methods, it caused visible analysis deviation. Although current evaluation methods for soil liquefaction potential and post-liquefaction volumetric strain have been developed, they have focused only on clean sand, and soil fine aggregates have only been considered with respect to the plastic fines content or soil plasticity index. However, non-plastic fines can affect the soil structure and cause incorrect evaluation results, and therefore, the current methods of evaluation are inappropriate for use in areas of silty sand with a non-plastic fines content of more than 10%. For the convenience of use, the formulation of analysis process of the current evaluation methods is proposed in the proposed study. Modifications were made to the method used to evaluate the post-liquefaction settlement of silty sand, according to the laboratory test results and current assessment method principles, and results are verified using case examples.
POST-LIQUEFACTION VOLUMETRIC STRAIN BEHAIOR OF LOW-PLASTICITY SILTY SAND
In this research, a series of remolded soil specimens, with fines content equalled to 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, was utilized to investigate the influence of void ratio to post-liquefaction volumetric strain behavior of low-plasticity silty sand. The post-liquefaction volumetric strain would increase while maximum shear strain increased. When fines content was similar, post-liquefaction volumetric strain increased with void ratio increasing. When void ratio and relative density of test specimens were similar, the post-liquefaction volumetric strain, εv, increased with fines content increasing, and then achieved a constant value. In the same test boundary condition, post-liquefaction volumetric strain increased with maximum shear strain increasing. When void ratio and fines content were similar, post-liquefaction volumetric strain of remolded specimens was higher than it of undisturbed specimens.
SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS ON SOIL LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT METHOD
The common soil liquefaction potential assessment methods in Taiwan are Seed 97, T&Y, and NJRA method. They considered that the existence of fine aggregate could increase soil strength, and more fines content get higher liquefaction resistance. NJRA method is the more common applications in Taiwan area, hence this study took NJRA method as main analysis method to investigate and verify the applicability of soil liquefaction potential assessment method, and then the suggested modifications of current soil liquefaction potential assessment method is proposed. The basis of modified assessment method is based on soil laboratory test data. In summary, the suggested modifications of soil liquefaction potential assessment method mainly divided into two parts as follows.
1. When plastic index of soil specimens is more than 4, it denotes that fine aggregate belong clayey particles, the cyclic resistance ratio should be calculated by original formulas.
2. If plastic index of soil specimens is less than or equal to 4, it denotes fine aggregate belong non-plastic fine particles, the cyclic resistance ratio should be multiplied by a reduction coefficient α, and calculated by suitable modified formulas according to the disturbance situation.
In order to further verify the applicability of modified NJRA method, the Chi-Chi earthquake victims of Wufeng, Yuanlin area are used as verified cases in this study. According to the verified results, the judgment of modified NJRA method was more accurate at liquefied area, but it was conservative at unliquefied area. For the purposes of soil liquefaction region judgment, the liquefied area was determined as an unliquefied area which was more serious than unliquefied area was determined as liquefied area. It denotes that the conservative soil liquefaction potential assessment method was better than the others, therefore, the modified NJRA method which proposed in this study had ideal applicability of soil liquefaction potential assessment in Taiwan.
PROPOSED POST-LIQUEFACTION SETTLEMENT EVALUATION METHOD
Two approaches have previously been used to estimate post-liquefaction settlement (volumetric strain). One approach was proposed by Ishihara & Yoshimine in 1992, and chart formulation of this post-liquefaction settlement evaluation method was presented in 2005. The other method was proposed by Tsukamoto, Ishihara, and Sawada in 2004. These two evaluation methods were based on the soil test results for clean sand or soil with low fines content, and have been constantly applied in related research over the past 10 years. However, earthquakes that have occurred around the world over the past few years have shown that the existence of non-plastic fine aggregate soil reduces soil liquefaction resistance and causes a greater amount of post-liquefaction settlement. In this study, we refer to the revised procedure proposed by Ishihara et al. (2016) to suggest modification of the post-liquefaction settlement method and its chart formulation.
To improve the applicability of the current post-liquefaction settlement evaluation methods used in Taiwan, test results of post-liquefaction volumetric strain from low-plasticity silty sand specimens were collected in this study, with an aim of proposing suggested modification of the post-liquefaction settlement evaluation method and its chart formulation. Extending the research results proposed by Ishihara et al. (2016), the relationships between post-liquefaction volumetric strain, the void ratio range, and relative density were further analyzed.
To simplify steps used in analysis and the tests conducted using the modified method in this study; test results obtained in the Hsinhwa area were compared with those proposed by Cubrinovski & Ishihara (2002). This confirmed that the analytical charts had the same trends, and therefore, the series of analysis charts and evaluation procedures were utilized for modified post-liquefaction settlement evaluation in Taiwan.
The effect of the Chi-Chi earthquake in the Wufeng area is used to verify the method presented in this study. A comparison of the analysis results of these evaluation methods indicates that the suggested modification method delivers a superior performance in the evaluation of post-liquefaction settlement. I&Y1992 generally underestimated post-liquefaction settlement, whereas T.I.&S.2004 overestimated it. The analysis results of the suggested modification proposed in this study are more consistent than those of the other method.
Soil engineering properties of low-plasticity silty sand was not conclusive in the past studies, and the influence of low-plasticity silty sand on soil strength was ignored generally. This concept affects the soil liquefaction assessment results of low-plasticity silty sand layer indirectly. Latest soil sampling technology was applied to obtain the high quality undisturbed soil specimens in this study, soil liquefaction properties of low-plasticity silty sand was realized though a series of laboratory dynamic tests, and the real engineering properties of low-plasticity silty sand was verified. This study is the first to extend and apply results of research conducted on undisturbed low-plasticity silty sand. The influence of the fine aggregates has often been overlooked in past soil liquefaction evaluation methods. In actual situations, the fines content and its plasticity are important factors influencing soil liquefaction properties. Additionally, the disturbance effect should be acknowledged and cannot be ignored. In this respect, when conducting soil liquefaction evaluations, the soil structure and engineering properties need to be firstly understood. In addition, the deposition history of the soil layer also needs to be clarified to select the appropriate assessment analysis mode. This study suggests that detailed soil tests should be conducted both indoors and outdoors to ensure that the true engineering properties of the soil layers are understood prior to building construction. To avoid unnecessary disasters related to any blind spots in this new evaluation method, it is advised that analysis results should not be solely relied on.
摘 要 I
EXTENDED ABSTRACT III
目 錄 IX
表 目 錄 XII
圖 目 錄 XIII
符 號 表 XXII
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究流程 2
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 土壤液化 5
2.1.1 土壤液化之定義 5
2.1.3 土壤液化影響因子 9
2.2 土壤細粒料 15
2.2.1 土壤結構 15
2.2.2 土壤動態性質 20
2.3 低塑性粉土之災害案例 33
2.3.1 土壤液化災害 33
2.3.2 地層沉陷災害 42
第三章 土壤液化潛能評估法之文獻回顧 47
3.1 土壤液化潛能評估方法 47
3.1.1 簡易準則分析法 47
3.1.2 簡易經驗分析法 48
3.1.3 總應力分析法 66
3.1.4 有效應力分析法 66
3.1.5 Iwasaki深度加權法 67
3.2 細粒料對於土壤液化潛能分析之影響 68
3.2.1 細粒料含量 68
3.2.2 塑性指數 71
3.2.3 小結 71
3.3 擾動效應對於土壤液化潛能分析之影響 75
3.4 國內土壤液化評估法應用成果 76
第四章 土壤液化後沉陷量分析法之文獻回顧 80
4.1 土壤液化後體積應變行為 80
4.1.1 低塑性粉土之體積應變行為 80
4.1.2 土壤液化後體積應變量分析方法 86
4.2 細粒料對於土壤液化後沉陷量分析之影響 94
4.2.1 細粒料含量 94
4.2.2 塑性指數 95
4.2.3 小結 95
4.3 擾動效應對於土壤液化後沉陷量分析之影響 98
4.4 國內液化後體積應變量評估法應用成果 98
第五章 土壤液化後體積應變試驗結果與分析 100
5.1 土壤試樣 102
5.2 低塑性粉土動態性質 119
5.3 孔隙比之影響 134
5.3.1 最大剪應變-反覆剪應力比關係 134
5.3.2 最大剪應變-抗液化安全係數關係 137
5.3.3 最大剪應變-液化後體積應變關係 140
5.3.4 液化後體積應變-抗液化安全係數關係 143
5.4 細粒料含量之影響 146
5.4.1 最大剪應變-反覆剪應力比關係 146
5.4.2 最大剪應變-抗液化安全係數關係 148
5.4.3 最大剪應變-液化後體積應變關係 150
5.4.4 液化後體積應變-抗液化安全係數關係 153
5.5 擾動效應之影響 155
5.5.1 最大剪應變-反覆剪應力比關係 155
5.5.2 最大剪應變-抗液化安全係數關係 158
5.5.3 最大剪應變-液化後體積應變關係 161
5.5.4 液化後體積應變-抗液化安全係數關係 164
5.6 小結 167
第六章 修正土壤液化潛能評估方法 169
6.1 現行評估方法 169
6.2 NJRA評估法之修正建議 170
6.2.1 反覆應力比之折減係數α 171
6.2.2 細粒料含量之修正公式 175
6.3 案例驗證 182
6.3.1 霧峰地區 182
6.3.2 員林地區 206
6.4 小結 218
第七章 土壤液化後沉陷量分析方法 226
7.1 現行分析法-I&Y1992 227
7.1.1 評估程序與公式 227
7.1.2 案例驗證 229
7.2 現行分析法- T.I.&S.2004 237
7.2.1 評估程序 237
7.2.2 公式化 239
7.2.3 案例驗證 246
7.3 建議分析法- PROPOSED METHOD 249
7.3.1 評估程序 249
7.3.2 公式化 256
7.3.3 案例驗證 260
7.4 小結 283
第八章 結論與建議 285
8.1 結論 285
8.2 建議 287
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