進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-1109201314481200
論文名稱(中文) 不同類型的運動訓練對於中老年人骨質密度暨等速肌力之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effects of different type of exercise training on bone mineral density and isokinetic strength in middle-aged and elderly adults
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 體育健康與休閒研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 陳孟鈺
研究生(英文) Meng-Yu Chen
學號 RB6001045
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 指導教授-林麗娟
口試委員-王順正
口試委員-林桑伊
中文關鍵字 最大力矩  肌肉質量  阻力運動  整合式運動  心肺適能 
英文關鍵字 peak torque  lean mass  resistance training  multicomponent exercise  cardiopulmonary fitness 
學科別分類
中文摘要 目的:探討不同運動訓練類型在等訓練量之條件下,對於中老年人在骨質密度與等速肌力之運動效益的影響。
方法:本研究經最大肌力隨機配對分組後,共53位51~70歲之自願參與者完成本研究,控制組13人、中阻力組14人、高阻力組13人及整合運動組13人,實驗組依其運動處方進行持續24週、每週2次的漸進式運動訓練。四組受試者於實驗進行前後 (0週 / 25週) 接受雙能X光分析儀和等速肌力儀之測試,藉以評估骨質密度、身體組成及等速肌力、心肺適能之變化情形。以單因子共變數分析檢定四組依變項之改變情況,藉以了解不同運動類型訓練對中老年人之影響。
結果:在24週實驗後,發現控制組的骨質密度呈現下降趨勢其中腰椎下降至1.7% (各部位平均流失0.85%),實驗組則依部位與組別之不同有相異的適應情形,其中高阻力組各部位平均增加0.8%,腿部 (+1.5%) 則顯著高於控制組與整合運動組 (p < .05)。肌肉量方面,運動組於手臂肌肉量較控制組 (-0.7~1.3%) 顯著增加1.7~2.8% (p < .05)。肌力部分:低速時,上肢在中、高阻力組之肱三頭肌較控制組顯著提升15.5~26.1% (p < .05),下肢則以腿後肌群進步43.4~56.9%最為明顯 (p < .05);高速時,中、高阻力組之肱三頭肌較控制組及整合運動組顯著進步24.3% (p < .05),而肱二頭肌之相對力矩相較於整合運動組顯著進步4~8.6% (p < .05),下肢則以中、高阻力組於股四頭肌之最大力矩及相對力矩較整合運動組顯著增加11.5% (p < .05),腿後腱肌之相對力矩進步幅度以高阻力組進步30.1%最為有效 (p < .05)。心肺適能部分,相較於控制組三組運動組皆有顯著進步11.5%~15.8% (p < .05)。
結論:對於促進中老年人骨質密度以高強度阻力運動最為有效提升,而單純的中強度阻力運動或負載身體整合式運動僅具延緩老化對骨質的影響;但對於肌肉質量、等速肌力與心肺適能的效益,則三種運動類型影響相近。
英文摘要 Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects in isokinetic strength and body composition after 24 weeks of training with the same volume but different intensities in resietance or multicomponent training in middle-aged and elder adults.
Methods: There were 53 healthy volunteers aged 51-70 assigned to 4 groups (control group, n=13; moderate-intensity resistance group, n=14; high- intensity resistance group, n=13; multicomponent exercise group, n=13). The training program consisted of gradual increase following the different exercise programs for 2 sessions per week. The measurement for bone mineral density and isokinetic strength was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Biodex System 4 PRO.
Results: The control group (-0.85%) showed decrease in bone mineral density. The high- intensity resistance group (+0.8%) showed significantly higher in bone mineral density than control and moderate-intensity resistance group (p < .05). Besides, the exercise group (+1.7~2.8%) improved in arm lean mass more than control group (-0.7~1.3%) (p < .05). The moderate and high intensity resistance groups demonstrated significant improvements in triceps peak torque (+15.5~26.1%). Although exercise groups all increased in peak torque of quadriceps (+7~15.6%) and hamstring (+43.4~56.9%), only hamstring was significantly greater in moderate-intensity resistance group than control groups (p < .05). The exercise groups (+11.5% ~ 15.8%) showed significantly higher in cardiopulmonary fitness than control group after 24 weeks of training (p <.05).
Conclusion: This study has shown that high-intensity resistance training program has beneficial effects on bone mineral density. Furthermore, it had also shown the similar responses and effects of lean body mass, isokinetic strength and cardiopulmonary fitness between exercise groups.
論文目次 摘要...I
Abstract...II
誌謝...III
目錄...IV
表目錄...VI
圖目錄...VII
第壹章緒論...1
第一節 研究背景與動機...1
第二節 研究目的...3
第三節 操作型定義...4
第四節 研究重要性...5
第貳章 文獻探討...6
第一節 阻力運動訓練對於骨質密度與肌力之影響...6
第二節 整合式運動訓練介入對於骨質密度與肌力之影響...8
第三節 老化與等速肌力測試...9
第四節 運動劑量與效益...9
第參章 研究設計與方法...11
第一節 研究對象...11
第二節 研究設計...12
第三節 研究工具...12
第四節 實驗流程...15
第五節 運動訓練介入...16
第六節 資料處理與統計分析...19
第肆章 結果...20
第一節 受試者基本資料...20
第二節 骨質密度與身體組成之改變情形...24
第三節 上肢之等速肌力數值變化...29
第四節 下肢之等速肌力數值變化...36
第五節 心肺適能的適應...44
第六節 骨質密度、身體組成與等速肌力之相關性...44
第伍章 討論...45
第一節 骨質密度與身體組成...45
第二節 等速肌力...48
第三節 心肺適能...50
第四節 研究範圍與限制...50
第陸章 結論與建議...51
第一節 結論...51
第二節 建議...51
參考文獻...52
附錄一 招募海報宣傳單...59
附錄二 實驗說明...60
附錄三 受試者同意書...62
附錄四 基本資料表...63
附錄五 理學檢查...64
附錄六 運動訓練記錄表...66
附錄七 結果總覽...67
附錄八 相關性表格總覽...69
參考文獻 內政部統計處 (2012)。現住人口按年齡分。資料引自http://www.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=15408&CtNode=3623&mp=4
林泰祐、林麗娟 (2011)。阻力訓練對減緩老年人骨骼肌減少症的效益。中華體育季刊,25 (1),10-21。
楊榮森、劉堂桂、蔡克嵩、錢本文 (1997)。正常中國婦女的髖部骨密度研究。臺灣醫學,1(5),565-575。
謝閔繐 (2011)。不同強度阻力運動訓練對中老年人骨質密度與等速肌力之影響。國立成功大學體育健康與休閒研究所。未出版碩士論文。
謝閔繐、林麗娟 (2012)。身體活動與運動對於女性各不同生理階段維持骨質健康的意義。中華體育季刊,26 (1),21-31。
Adami, S., Gatti, D., Braga, V., Bianchini, D., & Rossini, M. (1999). Site‐Specific Effects of Strength Training on Bone Structure and Geometry of Ultradistal Radius in Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 14(1), 120-124.
Adams, G. M., & Beam, W. (2002). Exercise physiology: Laboratory manual: Boston.
Bemben, D. A., & Bemben, M. G. (2011). Dose-response effect of 40 weeks of resistance training on bone mineral density in older adults. Osteoporosis International, 22(1), 179-186.
Bird, M., Hill, K. D., Ball, M., Hetherington, S., & Williams, A. D. (2011). The long-term benefits of a multi-component exercise intervention to balance and mobility in healthy older adults. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 52(2), 211-216.
Bird, M. L., Hill, K., Ball, M. J., & Williams, A. D. (2009). Effects of resistance and flexibility exercise interventions on balance and related measures in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 17(4), 444-454.
Bocalini, D. S., Serra, A. J., & Dos Santos, L. (2010). Moderate resistive training maintains bone mineral density and improves functional fitness in postmenopausal women. Journal of Aging Research, 1-6.
Bocalini, D., Serra, A., dos Santos, L., Murad, N., & Levy, R. (2009). Strength training preserves the bone mineral density of postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. Journal of Aging and Health, 21(3), 519-527.
Bolam, K. A., van Uffelen, J. G., & Taaffe, D. R. (2013). The effect of physical exercise on bone density in middle-aged and older men: A systematic review. Osteoporosis International, 1-14.
Bourrin, S., Palle, S., Pupier, R., Vico, L., & Alexandre, C. (1995). Effects of physical training on bone adaptation in three zones of the rat tibia. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 10(11), 1745-1752.
Buck, R. J., Hammerstrom, K. A., & Ryan, P. B. (1995). Estimating long-term exposures from short-term measurements. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 5(3), 359-373.
Buford, T. W., Roberts, M. D., & Church, T. S. (2013). Toward Exercise as Personalized Medicine. Sports Medicine, 43(3), 157-165.
Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Abeysekara, S., & Zello, G. A. (2011). Short-term heavy resistance training eliminates age-related deficits in muscle mass and strength in healthy older males. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(2), 326-333.
Carvalho, M. J., Marques, E., & Mota, J. (2009). Training and detraining effects on functional fitness after a multicomponent training in older women. Gerontology, 55(1), 41-48.
Chien, M. Y., Wu, Y. T., Hsu, A. T., Yang, R. S., & Lai, J. S. (2000). Efficacy of a 24-week aerobic exercise program for osteopenic postmenopausal women. Calcified Tissue International, 67(6), 443-448.
Chilibeck, P. D., Calder, A. W., Sale, D. G., & Webber, C. E. (1997). A comparison of strength and muscle mass increases during resistance training in young women. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 77(1-2), 170-175.
Cummings, S. R., & Melton, L. J. (2002). Epidemiology and outcomes of osteoporotic fractures. Lancet, 359(9319), 1761-1767.
De Kam, D., Smulders, E., Weerdesteyn, V., & Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M. (2009). Exercise interventions to reduce fall-related fractures and their risk factors in individuals with low bone density: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporosis International, 20(12), 2111-2125.
Drouin, J. M., Valovich-mcLeod, T. C., Shultz, S. J., Gansneder, B. M., & Perrin, D. H. (2004). Reliability and validity of the Biodex system 3 pro isokinetic dynamometer velocity, torque and position measurements. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91(1), 22-29.
Engelke K. Kemmler W. Lauber D. Beeskow C. Pintag R. Kalender WA. (2006). Exercise maintains bone density at spine and hip EFOPS: a 3-year longitudinal study in early postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis Internationa,. 17(1),133-142.
Fahlman, M. M., McNevin, N., Boardley, D., Morgan, A., & Topp, R. (2011). Effects of Resistance Training on Functional Ability in Elderly Individuals. American Journal of Health Promotion, 25(4), 237-243.
Feiring, D., Ellenbecker, T., & Derscheid, G. (1990). Test-retest reliability of the Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 11(7), 298-300.
Frontera, W. R., Hughes, V. A., Fielding, R. A., Fiatarone, M. A., Evans, W. J., & Roubenoff, R. (2000). Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(4), 1321-1326.
Frontera, W. R., Hughes, V. A., Lutz, K. J., & Evans, W. J. (1991). A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45-to 78-yr-old men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 71(2), 644-650.
Giangregorio, L., & Blimkie, C. J. (2002). Skeletal adaptations to alterations in weight-bearing activity. Sports Medicine, 32(7), 459-476.
Gitlin, L. N., Winter, L., Dennis, M. P., Corcoran, M., Schinfeld, S., & Hauck, W. W. (2006). A randomized trial of a multicomponent home intervention to reduce functional difficulties in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 54(5), 809-816.
Goodpaster, B., Park, S., Harris, T., Kritchevsky, S., Nevitt, M., Schwartz, A., et al. (2006). The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61(10), 1059-1064.
Haarbo, J., Gotfredsen, A., Hassager, C., & Christiansen, C. (1991). Validation of body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Clinical Physiology, 11(4), 331-341.
Hakkinen, K., Alen, M., & Komi, P. V. (1984). Neuromuscular, anaerobic, and aerobic performance characteristics of elite power athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 53(2), 97-105.
Heinonen, A., Sievanen, H., Kannus, P., Oja, P., & Vuori, I. (1996). Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral mass and estimated mechanical characteristics of the upper limb bones in young women. Bone & Mineral, 11(4), 490-501.
Hurley, B. F., & Roth, S. M. (2000). Strength training in the elderly: effects on risk factors for age-related diseases. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 30(4), 249-268.
Inouye, S. K., Bogardus, S. T., Jr., Charpentier, P. A., Leo-Summers, L., Acampora, D., Holford, T. R., & Cooney, L. M., Jr. (1999). A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(9), 669-676.
Kanis, J. (1994). Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: synopsis of a WHO report. Osteoporosis International, 4(6), 368-381.
Karinkanta, S., Heinonen, A., Sievanen, H., Uusi-Rasi, K., Pasanen, M., Ojala, K., . . . Kannus, P. (2007). A multi-component exercise regimen to prevent functional decline and bone fragility in home-dwelling elderly women: randomized, controlled trial. Osteoporosis International, 18(4), 453-462.
Kerr, D., Ackland, T., Maslen, B., Morton, A., & Prince, R. (2001). Resistance Training over 2 Years Increases Bone Mass in Calcium Replete Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Rresearch, 16(1), 175-181.
Keskin, D., Borman, P., Ersöz, M., Kurtaran, A., Bodur, H., & Akyüz, M. (2008). The risk factors related to falling in elderly females. Geriatric Nursing,29(1), 58-63.
Kohrt, W. M., Bloomfield, S. A., Little, K. D., Nelson, M. E., & Yingling, V. R. (2004). American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: physical activity and bone health. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 36(11), 1985-1996.
Kukuljan, S., Nowson, C. A., Sanders, K. M., Nicholson, G. C., Seibel, M. J., Salmon, J., & Daly, R. M. (2011). Independent and combined effects of calcium-vitamin D3 and exercise on bone structure and strength in older men: an 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(4), 955-963.
LeMura, L. M., von Duvillard, S. P., Andreacci, J., Klebez, J. M., Chelland, S. A., & Russo, J. (2000). Lipid and lipoprotein profiles, cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and diet during and after resistance, aerobic and combination training in young women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(5-6), 451-458.
Leveille, S. G., Bean, J., Bandeen Roche, K., Jones, R., Hochberg, M., & Guralnik, J. M. (2002). Musculoskeletal pain and risk for falls in older disabled women living in the community. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(4), 671-678.
Lo, M. S., Lin, L. L., Yao, W. J., & Ma, M. C. (2011). Training and detraining effects of the resistance vs. endurance program on body composition, body size, and physical performance in young men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2246-2254.
Mackey, D. C., Lui, L. Y., Cawthon, P. M., Bauer, D. C., Nevitt, M. C., Cauley, J. A., et al. (2007). High-trauma fractures and low bone mineral density in older women and men. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(20), 2381-2388.
Maltais, M., Desroches, J., & Dionne, I. (2009). Changes in muscle mass and strength after menopause. The Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions, 9(4), 186-197.
Marques, E. A., Mota, J., Machado, L., Sousa, F., Coelho, M., Moreira, P., & Carvalho, J. (2011). Multicomponent training program with weight-bearing exercises elicits favorable bone density, muscle strength, and balance adaptations in older women. Calcified tissue International, 88(2), 117-129.
Mostofsky, D. I., & Zaichkowsky, L. D. (2002). Medical and Psychological Aspects of Sport and Exercise. Morgantown, W. Va.: Fitness Information Technology.
Nelson, M. E., Fiatarone, M. A., Morganti, C. M., Trice, I., Greenberg, R. A., & Evans, W. J. (1994). Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 272(24), 1909-1914.
Newman, A. B., Haggerty, C. L., Goodpaster, B., Harris, T., Kritchevsky, S., Nevitt, M., . . . Visser, M. (2003). Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(3), 323-330.
Pescatello, L. S., Kelsey, B. K., Price, T. B., Seip, R. L., Angelopoulos, T. J., Clarkson, P. M., et al. (2007). The muscle strength and size response to upper arm, unilateral resistance training among adults who are overweight and obese. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(2), 307-313.
Rabelo, H. T., Bezerra, L. A., Terra, D. F., Lima, R. M., Silva, M. A., Leite, T. K., & de Oliveira, R. J. (2011). Effects of 24 weeks of progressive resistance training on knee extensors peak torque and fat-free mass in older women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2298-2303.
Riggs, B. L., & Melton, L. J., 3rd. (1986). Involutional osteoporosis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 314(26), 1676-1686.
Rikli, R. E., & Jones, C. J. (1999). Functional fitness normative scores for community-residing older adults, age 60-94. Anging and Physical Activity, 162-181.
Ryan, A. S., Pratley, R. E., Elahi, D., & Goldberg, A. P. (1995). Resistive training increases fat-free mass and maintains RMR despite weight loss in postmenopausal women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 79(3), 818-823.
Ryan, A. S., Treuth, M. S., Rubin, M. A., Miller, J. P., Nicklas, B. J., Landis, D. M., et al. (1994). Effects of strength training on bone mineral density: hormonal and bone turnover relationships. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77(4), 1678-1684.
Shephard, R. J.. (1987). Physical activity and aging. London: Helm.
Sherk, K. A., Bemben, D. A., Brickman, S. E., & Bemben, M. G. (2012). Effects of resistance training duration on muscular strength retention 6-month posttraining in older men and women. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy , 35(1), 20-27.
Stel, V. S., Pluijm, S. M. F., Deeg, D. J. H., Smit, J. H., Bouter, L. M., & Lips, P. (2003). A Classification Tree for Predicting Recurrent Falling in Community Dwelling Older Persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(10), 1356-1364.
Stengel SV. Kemmler W. Pintag R. Beeskow C. Weineck J. Lauber D. Kalender WA. Engelke K. (2005) Power training is more effective than strength training for maintaining bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(1), 181-188.
Swift, J. M., Nilsson, M. I., Hogan, H. A., Sumner, L. R., & Bloomfield, S. A. (2010). Simulated resistance training during hindlimb unloading abolishes disuse bone loss and maintains muscle strength. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 25(3), 564-574.
Thomas, D. R. (2007). Loss of skeletal muscle mass in aging: examining the relationship of starvation, sarcopenia and cachexia. Clinical Nutrition, 26(4), 389-399.
Toraman, N. F., Erman, A., & Agyar, E. (2004). Effects of multicomponent training on functional fitness in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 12(4), 538-553.
Vanni, A. C., Meyer, F., da Veiga, A. D., & Zanardo, V. P. (2010). Comparison of the effects of two resistance training regimens on muscular and bone responses in premenopausal women. Osteoporosis International, 21(9), 1537-1544.
Vicotor L. Katch, W. D. M., Frank I. Katch. (2010). Essentials Execise Phsiology (fourth ed.).
Villareal, D. T., Smith, G. I., Sinacore, D. R., Shah, K., & Mittendorfer, B. (2011). Regular multicomponent exercise increases physical fitness and muscle protein anabolism in frail, obese, older adults. Obesity (Silver Spring), 19(2), 312-318.
Vincent, K. R., & Braith, R. W. (2002). Resistance exercise and bone turnover in elderly men and women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(1), 17-23.
Vincent, K. R., Braith, R. W., Feldman, R. A., Magyari, P. M., Cutler, R. B., Persin, S. A., . . . Lowenthal, D. T. (2002a). Resistance exercise and physical performance in adults aged 60 to 83. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(6), 1100-1107.
Vincent, K. R., Braith, R. W., Feldman, R. A., Magyari, P. M., Cutler, R. B., Persin, S. A., . . . Lowenthal, D. T. (2002b). Resistance exercise and physical performance in adults aged 60 to 83. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(6), 1100-1107.
Von Stengel, S., Kemmler, W., Kalender, W. A., Engelke, K., & Lauber, D. (2007). Differential effects of strength versus power training on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a 2-year longitudinal study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(10), 649-655.
Zsolt Murlasits, J. R., Katie Wells. (2012). Effect of resistance training frequency on physiological adaptations in older adults. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 10(1), 28-32.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-09-13起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw