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系統識別號 U0026-1108201719114600
論文名稱(中文) 特定聽覺刺激對注意力不足/過動症兒童之學業任務表現的助益
論文名稱(英文) Effects of Specific Auditory Stimuli on Academic Performance of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 職能治療學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Occupational Therapy
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 石旻諺
研究生(英文) Min-Yen Shih
學號 t76044037
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 150頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡佩倫
口試委員-林克忠
口試委員-馬慧英
口試委員-黃雅淑
口試委員-黃鈺婷
中文關鍵字 注意力不足過動症  學業表現  聽覺刺激  白噪音  音樂 
英文關鍵字 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder  academic performance  auditory stimuli  white noise  music 
學科別分類
中文摘要 注意力不足過動症 (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 簡稱ADHD)孩童因不注意、衝動和過動的症狀,常導致認知行為功能受損,進而影響其學業成就和學習生涯的表現。「適度大腦警醒模式」 (Moderate Brain Arousal model)主張ADHD孩童因持續性多巴胺 (tonic dopamine)總量及所佔比例過少,使神經系統無法正常運作,而造成警醒度低下與認知表現問題。因此,若能提供適度的外在雜訊(例如特定的聽覺刺激:白噪音及背景音樂)以滿足神經系統所需的雜訊量,可幫助ADHD孩童提升警醒度,促進認知表現。由於相關研究主要侷限於探討白噪音對ADHD孩童之基礎認知功能的影響,針對其學業表現之成效的研究迄今仍極為缺乏。此外,對於不同聽覺刺激的成效比較之研究亦相當有限。故本研究之目的為探討特定聽覺刺激對ADHD孩童注意力與學業任務表現之影響。本研究共招募ADHD國小學童與年齡性別配對之典型發展學童各30位。每位受試者在兩週內分別於三種聽覺情境(一般安靜、白噪音、自選之喜愛音樂)下進行密碼轉換測驗和d2注意力測驗兩項注意力測驗,以及聽寫測驗、遠端抄寫測驗、中文閱讀理解測驗和數學測驗等四項學業相關任務。結果主要發現ADHD孩童在所有情境中的注意力和學業任務表現均顯著較差。白噪音和喜愛音樂對ADHD孩童的視覺注意力及閱讀理解能力具有正向的效益,其中以喜愛音樂有較佳的促進效果,並似乎主要出現在ADHD-PI和ADHD-C亞型的孩童。此外,兩種聽覺刺激皆對ADHD孩童的聽覺注意力、聽寫、遠端抄寫與數學運算的表現沒有明顯影響。本研究結果部分支持「適度大腦警醒模式」之主張,白噪音和喜愛音樂僅對ADHD孩童的視覺注意力和閱讀理解能力有正向助益效果。本研究首度同時提供白噪音和喜愛音樂之臨床應用的實證基礎,為特定聽覺刺激對ADHD國小學童學業表現之助益的臨床運用和居家衛教提供重要的參考依據。未來研究除可擴大檢驗白噪音和喜愛音樂對於不同亞型與不同年齡層的ADHD學生的效益外,亦可針對這兩種聽覺刺激對於不同類型之學業任務的效益進行驗證,以增加此介入方式的生態效度。
英文摘要 Children with Attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by their cognitive behavioral dysfunctions and academic difficulties. The Moderate Brain Arousal model has proposed that providing ideal and moderate auditory stimuli (i.e. white noise and background music) may enhance these children’s cognitive function. However, previous research mainly focused on the effects of white noise on cognitive components such as memory and attention, and the influence of different auditory stimuli on academic performance in children with ADHD is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of white noise and pleasant music on the attention and academic performance of children with ADHD. A total of 30 elementary children with ADHD and 30 sex, age-matched typical development children were recruited. All participants completed two attention tests (the code transmission test and the d2 attention test) and four academic tasks (dictation test, copy test, reading comprehension test and mathematic test) under three conditions (i.e., silent, white noise and pleasant music) within two weeks. The results showed that children with ADHD performed poorly on all attention and academic tasks. Listening to white noise and pleasant music only improved visual attention and reading accuracy in children with ADHD, and the positive effects of pleasant music appeared to be greater than those of white noise. Besides, both auditory stimuli were more likely to be beneficial for children who were ADHD predominantly inattentive and combined type.
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract iii
致 謝 vii
圖目錄 xiii
表目錄 xiv
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 動機與重要性 1
第二節 研究目的與研究假設 4
第貳章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 注意力不足過動症孩童之介紹 5
(一) 定義與機制 5
(二) 基礎認知功能損傷 7
(三) 學業表現缺損 9
(四) 目前介入方式 13
第二節 聽覺刺激應用於注意力不足過動症孩童之相關理論 16
(一) 最適刺激模式 16
(二) 適度大腦警醒模式 16
第三節 聽覺刺激應用於注意力不足/過動症孩童之相關研究 21
(一) 早期以噪音為雜訊之相關研究 21
(二) 以白噪音為雜訊之相關研究 22
(三) 以背景音樂為雜訊之相關研究 27
第四節 文獻回顧總結 30
第參章 研究方法 32
第一節 研究對象 32
第二節 研究工具 33
(一) 篩檢工具 33
(二) 基本資料與相關檢核表 35
(三) 注意力測驗 37
(四) 學業表現相關測驗 38
(五) 視覺類比刻度量表 40
第三節 研究設備 42
第四節 研究程序 43
第五節 資料統計分析 45
第肆章 結果 47
第一節 受試者基本資料 47
第二節 兩組之感覺處理能力與認知行為功能分析 50
第三節 兩組在安靜情境中的注意力與學業任務表現 54
第四節 聽覺刺激對兩組之注意力的影響 57
第五節 聽覺刺激對兩組之學業任務表現的影響 61
第六節 相關性分析 65
第七節 聽覺刺激誘發之情緒和警醒度變化與注意力和學業任務表現之分析 73
第伍章 討論 78
第一節 ADHD孩童於安靜情境中之注意力及學業任務表現的缺失 78
第二節 特定聽覺刺激對ADHD孩童之注意力的影響 87
第三節 特定聽覺刺激對ADHD孩童之學業任務的影響 91
第四節 ADHD 孩童注意力和學業任務表現之相關影響因素 98
第五節 研究限制與未來研究方向 105
第陸章 結論 108
參考文獻 109
附錄1 基本資料調查表 146
附錄2 視覺類比刻度量表─情緒 147
附錄3 視覺類比刻度量表─警醒度 148
附錄4 視覺類比刻度量表─對聽覺刺激的喜歡程度 149
附錄5 視覺類比刻度量表─情緒 150
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