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系統識別號 U0026-1108201623150200
論文名稱(中文) 論漢語及台灣閩南語的「來去」結構
論文名稱(英文) A Study of ‘Come-go’ Construction in Mandarin and Taiwan Southern Min
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 外國語文學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 許詠惠
研究生(英文) Yung-hui Hsu
學號 K26021104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 126頁
口試委員 指導教授-李惠琦
口試委員-王本瑛
口試委員-魏廷冀
中文關鍵字 來去結構  去來結構  指示位移動詞  中古漢語  台灣華語  閩南語  衛星框架語言 
英文關鍵字 ‘Come-go’ construction  ‘Go-come’ construction  deictic motion verb  Middle and Early Chinese  Taiwan Mandarin  Southern Min  satellite-framed language 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究以構式語法的角度,比較中古漢語的「去來」結構,以及台灣閩南語和台灣華語的「來去」結構之間的異同,並使用台灣閩南語的語料探討「來」和「去」在「來去」結構中的功能。依據連金發 (2003)的說明,「來去」詞組是由兩個有相反趨向義的動詞而形成的特列結構。又,中古漢語的「去來」,以及台灣閩南語「來去」均具有多重語意,其中最具特色的是只留下「去」的語意,這種用法通常用來表示未然的事件,此為本論文聚焦之重點。
根據語料,中古漢語的「去來」可與多種人稱搭配使用,例如:第一人稱單複數、第二人稱單數及第三人稱單複數,然而閩南語和台灣華語的「來去」則是加上第一人稱單複數的用法。在少數台灣閩南語的語料中,出現了搭配第二人稱單複數使用的用法,其有暗示說話者參與行動之意。另,後方可承接之動詞均為活動動詞,可表示「來去」的目的。其次,根據句法分析的結果,本文認為台灣華語中的「來去」結構應為與台灣閩南語語言接觸下的產物。
另一方面,在探究「來」和「去」在「來去」結構當中分別的功能時,多數學者都同意台灣閩南語的「來去」結構中,「去」保留了趨向語意,「來」則可視為一個輕動詞(light verb) (郭維茹 2011) 或光桿動詞(bare verb) (連金發 2003),意指一種邀約或表達說話者做某事的意圖。本文結合了輕動詞(light verb)的概念,並使用Talmy (1985) 的衛星框架語言(Satellite-framed language)理論,說明在台灣閩南語的「V來去」和「來去+VP」的構式中,「來」的功能為輕動詞,帶有意圖或邀約的涵義;「去」的功能轉移為趨向補語,說明說話者移動的路徑。另一方面,在「來去」獨立成句的結構,和「來去+Ground NP」的構式中,「去」為輕動詞「來」所引導出的目的,而後方的地點出現的地點則為移動最終的目的地。本研究同時也指出「來去」在台灣華語中,可以和語助詞「囉」搭配使用,用來當作加強語氣的邀約行為。綜上所述,本文將呈現「來去」結構在兩種語言系統中的現象,提供「來」和「去」在「來去」結構當中的解讀,期能有助完整對「來去」結構之分析與歸納。
英文摘要 In this study, Construction Grammar is used to compare the similarities and differences among qu4-lai2 去來 ‘go-come’ in Middle and Early Chinese, lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ in Taiwan Southern Min, and lai2-qu4 來去 ‘come-go’ in Taiwan Mandarin. In addition, lai5 來 ‘come’ and khi3 去 ‘go’ in the lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ construction is examined based upon the data in Taiwan Southern Min. According to Lien (2003), lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ is a sui generis form, made by combining opposite directional verbs. Qu4-lai2 去來 ‘go-come’ in Middle and Early Chinese and lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ in Taiwan Southern Min have different meanings, the most unusual of which is a construction which only refers to going. In such usage, it is mostly utilized to describe the irrealis events. This is the main focus of this study.
According to the data, qu4-lai2 去來 ‘go-come’ in Middle and Early Chinese can be used with various personal pronoun(s), for instance, first singular/plural, second singular, and third singular/plural. However, in data from Taiwan Southern Min and Taiwan Mandarin, the construction mostly appears with first singular/plural pronoun(s). There are only a few examples in Taiwan Southern Min that use the second singular/plural pronoun, a form which implies that the speaker is also involved in the action. In addition, the verb types that follow the ‘come-go’ construction are all classified as activity verbs as they indicate the purpose of movement in the subsequent action. Based on syntactic analysis, the use of lai2-qu4 來去 ‘come-go’ in Taiwan Mandarin appears to be the result of language contact between Southern Min and Mandarin in Taiwan.
As for the different functions of lai5 來 ‘come’ and khi3 去 ‘go’ in lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ construction, most linguists agree that khi3 去 ‘go’ retains its directional meaning in this construction while lai5 來 ‘come’ is converted into a light (Kuo 2011) or bare verb (Lien 2003) used to reveal the speaker’s invitation or intention. This present study implements the notion of light verbs and Talmy’s (1985) theory of satellite-framed language to explain how in the V lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-thither’ construction and lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-thither’ +VP, lai5 來 ‘come’ is a light verb in which the eventuality predicate can either be INTEND or INVITE, while khi3 去 ‘thither’ is converted into a satellite, indicating the path of the speaker’s latter action. As for the construction of lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ and lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + Ground NP, lai5 來 ‘come’ is a light verb, while khi3 去 ‘go’ is a real motion verb. The ground NP is the destination of the speaker’s movement. This study also points out that lai2-qu4 來去 ‘come-go’ in Taiwan Mandarin can co-occur with the final particle lo0 囉 ‘PRT’ in order to call addressees’ attention and invite them to do something the speakers have already done before.
This thesis will demonstrate the ‘come-go’ construction in both language systems, provides a novel interpretation of lai5 來 ‘come’ and khi3 去 ‘go/thither’ in lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ construction in Taiwan Southern Min, and will complete the analysis and deduction of the ‘come-go’ construction.
論文目次 ABSTRACT (CHINESE) i
ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xi
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF FIGURES xiv
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction of ‘Come-go’ and ‘Go-come’ Construction in Old, Middle and Early Chinese 1
1.2 Introduction of ‘Come-go’ Construction in Taiwan Southern Min 9
1.3 Introduction of ‘Come-go’ Construction in Taiwan Mandarin 19
1.4 Comparison between ‘Come-go’ and ‘Go-come’ Construction in Old, Middle, Early Chinese, Taiwan Southern Min, and Taiwan Mandarin 21
1.5 The Scope of the Study 24
1.6 Organization of the Thesis 25
1.7 Research Method 26
Chapter 2 Literature Review 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Fillmore’s (1997) Deictic study 29
2.2.1 Person Deixis 29
2.2.2 Place Deixis 30
2.2.3 Time Deixis 30
2.2.4 Summary 31
2.3 Talmy’s (1985, 1991, 2000) Verb-framed and Satellite-framed Language Theory 31
2.3.1 Lamarre’s (2009) Mandarin Study 34
2.3.2 Lien’s (2006) Southern Min Study 38
2.3.3 Summary 39
2.4 Construction Grammar 39
2.5 Vendler’s (1967) Classification of Types of Verbs 41
2.6 Previous Studies Related to ‘Come-go’ Construction in Southern Min 44
2.6.1 Huang (1982) 44
2.6.2 Lien (2003, 2006) 45
2.6.3 Lin (2006) 48
2.7 Previous Studies Related to ‘Go-come’ Construction in Chinese 48
2.7.1 Wang (2004) 49
2.7.2 Kuo (2005, 2007) 50
2.8 Conclusion 53
Chapter 3 The Discussion of ‘Come-go’ and ‘Go-come’ Construction 55
3.1 Introduction 55
3.2 Qu4-lai2 去來 ‘Go-come’ in Middle and Early Chinese 55
3.2.1 (Figure) + V + (Ground NP) + qu4-lai2去來 ‘go-come’ 55
3.2.1.1 Figure + V + qu4-lai2去來 ‘go-come’ 56
3.2.1.2 Figure + V + qu4-lai2 去來 ‘go-come’ 57
3.2.1.3 Figure + V + Ground NP + qu4-lai2去來 ‘go-come’ 60
3.2.2 Qu4-lai2去來 ‘go-come’ + (VP/Figure) 61
3.2.2.1 Qu4-lai2去來 ‘go-come’ + VP 62
3.2.2.2 Qu4-lai2去來 ‘go-come’ + Figure 63
3.2.2.3 Qu4-lai2 去來 ‘go-come’ 64
3.2.3 Figure + qu4 去 ‘go’ VP lai2 來 ‘come’ 65
3.2.4 Summary 65
3.3 Lai5-khi3 來去 ‘Come-go’ in Southern Min in Li Jing Ji 66
3.3.1 (Figure) + (V) + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + (VP) 66
3.3.1.1 Lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ 67
3.3.1.2 Figure + lai5-khi3來去 ‘come-go’+ VP 67
3.3.1.3 V + lai5-khi3來去 ‘come-go’ 68
3.3.1.4 V + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + VP 68
3.3.1.5 Figure + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ 69
3.3.1.6 Figure + V + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ 69
3.3.1.7 Figure + V + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + VP 70
3.3.2 Figure + V + Ground NP+ VP + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ 71
3.3.3 Summary 72
3.4 Lai5-khi3 來去 ‘Come-go’ in Modern Southern Min 72
3.4.1 Figure + V + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ 72
3.4.2 Figure + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + (Ground NP) + (VP) 73
3.4.2.1 Figure + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + VP 73
3.4.2.2 Figure + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ 74
3.4.2.3 Figure + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + Ground NP + VP 75
3.4.2.4 Figure + lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + VP 75
3.4.3 Summary 76
3.5 Lai2-qu4來去 ‘Come-go’ in Modern Taiwan Mandarin 76
3.5.1 Lai2-qu4來去 ‘come-go’ + (Ground NP) + (VP) 76
3.5.1.1 Lai2-qu4來去 ‘come-go’ 77
3.5.1.2 Lai2-qu4來去 ‘come-go’ + VP 77
3.5.1.3 Lai2-qu4來去 ‘come-go’ + Ground NP + VP 78
3.5.2 Figure + lai2-qu4來去 ‘come-go’ + VP 79
3.5.3 Summary 80
3.6 Conclusion 80
Chapter 4 The Meaning of ‘Come’ and ‘Go’ in the ‘Come-go’ Construction 89
4.1 Introduction 89
4.2 The Grammaticalization of Lai5 來 ‘Come’ and Khi3 去 ‘Go’ 90
4.3 The Analysis of Different Construction of Lai5 來 ‘Come’ and Khi3 去 ‘Go’ 96
4.3.1 V lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-thither’ 96
4.3.2 Lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-thither’ (+ Ground NP) + VP 100
4.3.3 Lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ 107
4.3.4 Lai5-khi3 來去 ‘come-go’ + Ground NP 110
4.4 Additional Discussion of Lai2-qu4 來去 ‘Come-go’ in Taiwan Mandarin 113
4.5 Conclusion 114
Chapter 5 Conclusion 117
Reference 121
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