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系統識別號 U0026-1108201601484000
論文名稱(中文) 大型多人線上角色扮演遊戲玩家轉換遊戲平台意圖
論文名稱(英文) The Return Intention of MMORPGs’ Gamers on Different Gaming Platforms
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 劉德偉
研究生(英文) Te-Wei Liu
學號 R46031450
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 144頁
口試委員 指導教授-張心馨
召集委員-黃瀞瑩
口試委員-陳素雯
口試委員-王馨葦
中文關鍵字 大型多人線上角色扮演遊戲  推拉繫理論  心流體驗  忠誠度  平台 轉換意圖  轉換成本  負面口碑 
英文關鍵字 Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games  Push-Pull-Mooring Model  Gameflow  Attitudinal Loyalty  Return Intention  Switching Costs  Negative e-WOM 
學科別分類
中文摘要 因手機硬體規格持續提升加上行動網路普及化,個人電腦已不再是玩家唯 一的遊戲平台,遊戲開發商已陸續推行各式類型手機遊戲搶佔手遊市場。然而 除了手機平台外,目前主要桌上遊戲類型為大型多人線上角色扮演遊戲 (Massively multiplayer online role playing games),其穩居各大遊戲 平台熱門遊戲寶座。在行動化的潮流下,本研究欲探討不同平台的遊戲體驗因 素對玩家選擇遊戲平台的影響,以推拉繫模型(Push-Pull-Mooring Model) 為研究理論,將各種影響遊戲體驗的因素歸類在PPM模型中,檢驗其推力效果 (感知操控、感知人數、低娛樂感、低態度性忠誠度)、拉力效果(感知社交、 感知團隊、感知逃脫現實、感知連結性、沈溺感、遊戲心流體驗)對平台轉換 的意圖,並以繫住效果(社會規範、負面手機遊戲口碑、轉換成本)為調節因 子。研究方法採結構方程模型與階層回歸分析,針對同時具有個人電腦及手機 上大型多人線上角色扮演遊戲體驗的玩家為研究對象,共回收678份有效問卷。 資料分析結果顯示,PPM模型能解釋玩家於不同遊戲平台的轉換意圖; 遊戲心 流體驗及低態度忠誠度對平台轉換意圖有直接且正向的關係; 社會規範、轉換 成本及負面手機遊戲口碑對平台轉換意圖有正向調節效果。最後,本研究建議 手機遊戲開發業者可以針對手機的裝置特性,設計新的遊戲內容,透過提升遊 戲操作難度增加玩家之間競爭性,以及加強遊戲平台上的玩家互動機制,藉此 提高玩家忠誠度並另創不同於個人電腦平台上的遊戲體驗以吸引消費者。
英文摘要 Due to the continual improvement of smart phone hardware and the popularity of mobile networks, personal computers are no longer the only gaming platform. Game developers have thus started to implement a variety of types of mobile games to gain a share of these new markets. However, despite the rise of mobile platforms, massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) are currently the most popular type of gaming on desktop computers, ranking high also on the other major gaming platforms. Therefore, this study tries to explore the game experience factors related to personal computers and smartphones that affect the choice of gaming platform among gamers. This research applies the Push-Pull-Mooring (PPM) model, classifying various factors that would affect gaming experience in different constructs of PPM. The push effects from smartphone (perceived control, perception of sufficient participants, low entertainment, and low attitudinal loyalty) and pull effects from personal computers (perceived socialization, perceived teamwork, perceived escapism, perceived fantasy, perceived connectedness, immersion, and gameflow) are then tested with regard to their impacts on gamers’ return intentions with regard to various gaming platforms. In addition, the mooring effects serve as a moderator in this study. Players with experience of playing role-playing games on personal computers and smartphones were the research subjects, and a total of 678 valid questionnaires were collected and analyzed by structural equation modelling and hierarchical regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that the PPM model was able to interpret gamers’ switching intention between different gaming platforms; gameflow and low attitudinal loyalty have direct and positive effects on return intention of gaming platforms; and social norms, switching costs and the negative electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) of mobile games positively moderate the return intention with regard to the gaming platform. Lastly, the results of this research suggest that mobile game developers should work to design new game contents by targeting the specific characteristics of smartphones. They could also work to enhance the levels of competition and interaction among gamers by increasing the difficulty of the games, thereby enhancing their loyalty. In sum, different gaming experiences from those available on desktop platforms should be provided for smartphone users in order to attract existing and potential MMORPGs gamers, thus making mobile MMORPGs more profitable.
論文目次 摘要 ....................................................................................................................................................I Abstract..........................................................................................................................................III
Contents .......................................................................................................................................... V
List of Tables................................................................................................................................. X
List of Figures..............................................................................................................................XI
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCITON ...............................................................................................1
1.1 Research Motivations and Backgrounds....................................................................... 1
1.2 Research Questions and Research Gaps ....................................................................... 5
1.3 Research Objectives............................................................................................................ 7
1.4 Research Process ................................................................................................................. 8
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW & HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT ......... 10
2.1 Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and Migration .............................................................................................................................................................. 10
2.2 Push-Pull-Mooring (PPM) Theory ..................................................................................... 13
2.3 Pull Effects ................................................................................................................................ 17
2.3.1 Perceived socialization.............................................................................................. 19
2.3.2 Perceived teamwork................................................................................................... 21
2.3.3 Perceived connectedness .......................................................................................... 22
2.3.4 Perceived Escapism ................................................................................................... 23
2.3.5 Perceived Fantasy....................................................................................................... 24
2.3.6 Immersion ..................................................................................................................... 26 V

2.3.7 GameFlow .................................................................................................................... 27 2.4 Push Effects............................................................................................................................... 29
2.4.1 Perceived control ........................................................................................................ 31
2.4.2 Perception of sufficient participants ..................................................................... 33
2.4.3 Low Enjoyment........................................................................................................... 33 2.4.4 Low Attitudinal loyalty............................................................................................. 35
2.5 Return Intention of Gaming Platforms .............................................................................. 36
2.6 Mooring Effects ....................................................................................................................... 38
2.6.1 Social norms................................................................................................................. 40
2.6.2 Negative e-WOM of mobile games ...................................................................... 41
2.6.3 Switching costs............................................................................................................ 42 2.7 Conceptual Model ................................................................................................................... 43 2.8 Hypothesis Development ...................................................................................................... 46
2.8.1 Perceived Socialization and Perceived Connectedness ................................... 46
2.8.2 Perceived Teamwork and Perceived Connectedness ....................................... 47
2.8.3 Perceived Escapism and Immersion...................................................................... 48
2.8.4 Perceived Fantasy and Immersion ......................................................................... 49
2.8.5 Perceived Control and Low Enjoyment ............................................................... 50 2.8.6 Perception of Sufficient Participants and Low Enjoyment ............................ 51
2.8.7 Perceived Connectedness and GameFlow........................................................... 52
2.8.8 Immersion and GameFlow....................................................................................... 53
2.8.9 Low Enjoyment and Low Attitudinal Loyalty................................................... 54
2.8.10 GameFlow and Return Intention of Gaming Platforms ................................ 55
2.8.11 Low Attitudinal Loyalty and Return Intention of Gaming Platforms....... 55
2.8.12 Moderating Effect of Social Norms.................................................................... 56
2.8.13 Moderating Effect of Negative e-WOM of Mobile Games ......................... 57
2.8.14 Moderating Effect of Switching Costs............................................................... 58
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY............................................ 60 3.1 Construct Definition and Hypotheses ................................................................................ 60
3.2 Measurement Developments and Questionnaires Design............................................ 65
3.3 Pilot Test Analysis .................................................................................................................. 73 3.4 Data Analysis Procedure ....................................................................................................... 77
3.4.1 Demographic Analysis and Descriptive Statistic Analysis ............................ 78
3.4.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis ................................................................................ 78
3.4.3 Reliability and Validity Analysis........................................................................... 78
3.4.4 Structural Equation Model....................................................................................... 79
3.4.5 Hierarchical Regression Analysis.......................................................................... 79
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS & RESULTS..................................................................80
4.1 Data Collection and Demographic Analysis.................................................................... 80
4.2 Descriptive Analysis ............................................................................................................... 82
4.3 Measurement Model Analysis ............................................................................................. 85
4.3.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)................................................................... 85
4.3.2 Reliability Analysis and Convergent Validity ................................................... 92 4.3.3 Discriminant Validity Analysis .............................................................................. 93
4.4 Structural Equation Models - Hypothesis Testing ......................................................... 95
4.4.1 SEM Model Fit............................................................................................................ 95 4.4.2 SEM Path Analysis .................................................................................................... 96
4.5 Hierarchical Regression Analysis – Moderating Effect ............................................... 99
4.5.1 Moderating Effect on GameFlow and Return Intention of Gaming Platforms.................................................................................................................................. 99
4.5.2 Moderating Effect on Low Attitudinal Loyalty and Return Intention of Gaming Platforms ...............................................................................................................100
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS........................................ 105 5.1 Discussion................................................................................................................................105
5.1.1 Perceived socialization, Perceived Teamwork and Perceived Connectedness (H1, H2) ...................................................................................................106
5.1.2 Perceived Escapism, Perceived Fantasy and Immersion (H3, H4)............108 5.1.3 Perceived Control, Perception of Sufficient Participants, Low Enjoyment and Low Attitudinal Loyalty (H5, H6, H9) ................................................................. 110 5.1.4 Perceived Connectedness, Immersion and GameFlow (H7, H8) ...............111
5.1.5 GameFlow, Low Attitudinal Loyalty, Return Intention of Gaming Platforms (H10, H11).........................................................................................................112
5.1.6 Moderating Effect (H12a, H12b, H13, H14)....................................................113
5.2 Implication...............................................................................................................................116 5.2.1 Theoretical Implication...........................................................................................116
5.2.2 Managerial Implication...........................................................................................120
VIII
5.3 Limitation and Implications for Future Research.........................................................122 REFERENCES......................................................................................................................... 125
APPENDEX FORMAL QUESTIONNAIRE...................................................................... 137
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